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    Posted: 28-Nov-2004 at 15:33
Come post about the different forms of wrestling from your country.  I'll start with wrestling from Korea called Ssirum: 

Taken from http://www.concentric.net/~sdseong/kmar.vid.ss.htm

Ssirum Wrestling
©1995 by Robert W. Young


Wrestling must have been mankind's original combative skill. It is a natural defensive reaction to any type of aggressive bodily contact, known to even the most primitive cultures of our planet. Evidence of wrestling from ages long past can be found in cave murals and sculpted figurines the world over. In the Orient, three countries in particular are renowned for their wrestling arts: Mongolia (wrestling), Japan (sumo) and Korea (ssirum).

Ancient Times
Ssirum, probably the least-known of the three styles outside its native land, is a Korean legacy. While scholars claim its origin dates back some 1,800 to 2,000 years, the earliest physical evidence of ssirum as an art distinct from its Mongolian roots was discovered early in the 20th century on the wall of a tomb in present-day China. When the scene was depicted in the late fifth to early sixth century, the location--the city of Jian on the Chinese side of the North Korean border--was under control of the Koguryo Dynasty (37 B.C. - A.D. 668) Koreans.




In the mural, two topknotted, bare-chested men are seen in a grappling position. They are locked in a typical ssirum pose, each gripping the cloth belt tied around his opponent's waist. A third man, possibly a referee, looks on with interest. The wrestling style shown is indisputably claimed to be that of the Koreans, as neither the Chinese nor the Mongolians ever wore such a belt during contests.

At the time of China's Tang dynasty (A.D. 618 - 907), the generic term for Northeast Asia's wrestling style was "shang pu." The Korean pronunciation of the same two written characters varied slightly to "sang bak," which the dictionary lists as a synonym for ssirum. Curiously enough, the Japanese currently enunciate those same characters as "sumo." Clearly illustrated is the descendent relationship of wrestling, which, like many other martial arts, passed from China to Korea to Japan.

Further Mongolian Influences
Mongolian invasions swept across the Korean peninsula in 1231 and continued for 30 years. The unstoppable horsemen occupied most of the nation until their downfall in the late 14th century. During those 150 or so years, a great deal of cultural interchange naturally took place. While the origin of ssirum definitely predates this relatively recent intermingling of Korean and Mongolian cultures, it did, in fact, mold ssirum a bit further in line with the Mongolian way of wrestling.

Modern Mongolian wrestling still exhibits remarkable similarities to Korean ssirum. In both styles, special clothing is worn to provide a durable gripping surface. Much attention is paid to strategically placing the feet to facilitate throwing. Ankle hooks and sweeps are commonly used to disrupt balance. The legs may not be grasped at any time, and no body part other than the feet may touch the ground without a disqualification.

From Combat to Competition
According to historical references, ssirum existed in two distinct styles during its heyday, the Yi Dynasty (1392 - 1910). The original style, in which neither participant wore any special clothing, was the more combat-oriented. Each man simply grasped whatever he could on his opponent, be it parts of the body, articles of clothing or equipment. He then utilized a variety of techniques to upset his opponent's balance and let gravity take its course. The effectiveness of a takedown was further enhanced by slamming one's entire weight down upon the falling enemy.




The combative art of ssirum gradually altered its evolutionary path toward sport. The introduction of modern weapons was making traditional forms of unarmed combat obsolete. The mounted cavalryman, dreaded in combat and against whom many of ssirum's oldest techniques were directed, was becoming outdated. But instead of allowing their style to die out as countless other martial arts have throughout history, ssirum experts opted to transform their art into sporting competition.

This led to the second and more recent style, the same as is currently practiced. A cloth sash known as a "satba" is wrapped around the contestant's waist and right leg. It is primarily used for grip during the pulling and lifting maneuvers, and the way in which the hands are entwined in it helps keep the players in close contact with each other.

Experts contend that this style grew out of the subset of specialized techniques used for grasping the enemy soldier's equipment belt while fighting. This style was later promoted as a sporting way of practicing the once-lethal ssirum skills, a way that could actually be enjoyed as a recreational contest of strength and skill.

According to all accounts, ssirum gradually became a popular folk event. The important annual festivals of Tano and Chuseok provided an exciting venue for wrestling, which was often held with tae kyon competition. As evidence, a famous painting titled Dae Kwae Do now hangs in the Seoul National University Museum. Hye-San Yu-Suk created the work in the latter half of the 19th century. Clearly depicted in the midst of a crowd of enthusiastic onlookers are two ssirum players grappling, along with a pair of tae kyon practitioners sparring.

The Japanese Connection
For centuries Korean historians have asserted that much of Japanese culture is directly descended from Korea's, and more than a few Japanese researchers are beginning to corroborate the claim. Specifically, a number of martial arts popularly believed to be of Japanese origin--arts such as sumo--are now thought, at least by the Koreans and the Chinese, to have started in China and made their way to Korea and finally Japan.

Although some Japanese experts might contend that their nation's art of sumo developed independently of the Korean art, the unbiased observer would think otherwise. The similarities far outweigh the differences. Matches in both ssirum and sumo are steeped in ancient ritual, including attempts to dispel evil spirits and secure blessings from the gods for victory. Competitors in both sports wear minimal coverings over their huge musculature. As soon as any body part other than the bottoms of the bare feet touches the ground, a winner is declared in both ssirum and sumo matches.

Competitive Ssirum
In the past, all competitors were grouped into one weight class. However, modern tournaments for professionals are divided into three, which are named after Korea's most famous mountains. Lightest is the Kumgang class, up to 85 kilograms, followed by Halla class, from 85 to 95 kilos. Competitors over 95 kilos fall into Baekdu class. Amateurs have their own weight classes, named after common animals such as the squirrel, rabbit and deer.

When the match begins, both competitors kneel in the sand-covered ring, interlacing the left hand with the portion of the cloth belt wrapped around the opponent's right thigh. The right hand reaches over the opponent's left hip and grips the belt in back. Once firmly attached, both men rise and, when signaled by the referee, begin the struggle. If a wrestler's grip is broken during the match, action is halted so each man can re-establish his hold.

In the past, the ssirum champion of each province would be awarded bags of rice, along with a live bull which had to be carried around the ring on the victor's back. These days, the professional member of the Korea Ssirum Association that is proclaimed "cheonha jangsa," or strongest man under heaven, can look forward to more conventional rewards: promotional contracts, guaranteed salaries and bonuses equivalent to tens of thousands of dollars.

Techniques and Applications
Although many of ssirum's techniques require some physical strength, each one epitomizes simplicity and effectiveness. One such move is "baejigi," in which the opponent is lifted off the ground and thrown to one side. Another is "ap nurum," in which pressure is exerted against the opponent's kneecap, causing his supporting leg to buckle. Alternatively, the "dot geori" may be employed; one man wraps his right leg around his opponent's left leg from the outside, then drives him backward to upset his balance. Other skills use assorted tripping, throwing, pushing and pulling maneuvers.

Contrary to the opinions of some stylists, the self-defense applications of modern ssirum are quite extensive. Ssirum exponents contend that they are more than able to meet any challenge that arises. Their massive physique, combined with an in-depth knowledge of the ways in which the body can move and still retain balance, tilt the odds in their favor.

Professional ssirum players claim they are able to absorb kicks and punches from nearly any martial artist, and in most cases the attacking limb can be trapped before it is retracted. If this happens, the confrontation is all but finished. The ssirum practitioner immediately assumes a balanced stance and proceeds to destroy the equilibrium of the aggressor. If the attacker is not incapacitated by the fall and the crashing weight of the ssirum student, on the ground he will be facing an powerful opponent ready to apply a choke or joint lock.

A common occurrence around traditional holidays is the ssirum special on Korean television. After a short explanation of the history and development of the art, basic techniques are demonstrated and taught. Several brawny men with no prior experience are then told to lock up with much smaller ssirum students (not professionals). With incredible ease, the young students dispose of their astonished opponents, effortlessly tossing them in any direction.

The Secret Ingredient
Starting with a surprising victory in the judo competition of the 1986 Asian Games and continuing through the 1988 Seoul Olympics, the Korean national judo team has enjoyed phenomenal success. It has been rumored that the reason for this was the few specialized ssirum techniques added to the repertoire of the Korean "judoka." Coaches now claim this creative blend has given the Koreans the edge needed to upset the once dominant Japanese in their own martial sport.

Ssirum Pictures




Probably from Josun

This would be the Koguryo picture mentioned in the article.



Edited by Gubukjanggoon
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Landsknecht_Doppelsoldner Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 28-Nov-2004 at 16:58

Pretty cool info there, G.

As Mr. Young mentioned in that article, wrestling is probably mankind's oldest method of combat--the "original martial art", if you will.  Heck, animals wrestle!

Europe has a long, rich tradition of wrestling.

  The Ancient Greeks had their standup style orthos, as well as the "all-in" fighting known as the pankration, which featured extensive groundwork and submission holds.

During the Middle Ages & Renaissance, there were many regional styles of wrestling.  Most involved standing throws, though some also had various locks and whatnot.  There was also the knightly art of equestrian wrestling, where horsemen attempted to pull each other out of the saddle.

The Germans especially had an extensive repertoire in their ringen (wrestling).  The German/Austrian school traces its lineage to the great Ott the Jew.  Late Medieval fight masters, like Hans Talhoffer, included a great deal of wrestling in their systems.

The Italians likewise had wrestling (lotta).  Various types of presas (siezures) were used for unarmed defense against daggers, as demonstrated in Achille Marozzo's Opera Nova of 1536.

I'll have to post more on all of this...

 

"Who despises me and my praiseworthy craft,

I'll hit on the head that it resounds in his heart."


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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Gubook Janggoon Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 28-Nov-2004 at 17:27
Here's a bit on Sumo from Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2004 DVD Plus:

I  INTRODUCTION

web center
Ä Find the best online information about Sumo Wrestling.
Encarta Editors' Picks
Nihon Sumo Kyokai
more...

Sumo Wrestling, highly specialized form of Japanese wrestling, one of the oldest of the Japanese martial arts. In sumo, heavy men try to knock each other out of a ring by pushing, pulling, slapping, throwing, and grappling. Sumo is one of the most popular spectator sports in Japan.

Sumo Wrestling The Image Bank
Expand
 

II  COMPETITION

Competitors in sumo are called sumotori, a term used to refer to one or several sumo wrestlers. The most notable feature of the sumotori is their weight, which ranges from 130 kg (287 lb) to more than 200 kg (441 lb). They achieve these proportions not only by eating great quantities of food (traditionally including a high-protein stew called chanko nabe), but also by practicing a form of abdominal development called haragei. Great weight gives a low center of gravity, which aids the sumotori in propelling opponents outside the dohyo (sumo ring).

 There are no weight categories, so a light sumotori may have an opponent twice his weight.

There are 28 sumobeya (stables or schools) in Japan. They are run by retired champions who direct and control all sumotori. Sumotori enter the sumobeya at the age of 15 and follow a rigorous and strict training. Each year there are numerous sumo tournaments, including six grand tournaments, or basho: three in Tokyo, the others in Ōsaka, Nagoya, and Fukuoka. Each basho lasts 15 days, during which each sumotori faces a different opponent in each match. There are no weight categories, so a light sumotori may have an opponent twice his weight. The sumotori then relies on flexibility, speed, and skill to make up for the difference in weight.

The sumotori compete barefoot and naked to the waist. They wear a fringed loin covering (mae-tate-mitsu) and a thick silk belt (mawashi). The traditional topknot hairstyle, or chom-mage, differs according to the category of the sumotori. A match takes place in the dohyo, a ring 3.66 m (12 ft) in diameter, which is covered with a roof shaped like that of a Shinto sanctuary. The floor is covered with smooth earth. A match is supervised by a referee called a gyoji who wears a silk kimono and a special court hat. He traditionally bears a fan as a symbol of authority, and a dagger, said to have been originally supplied so that a referee might disembowel himself if he gave a miscall. The Sumo Association of Japan, the national governing body of the sport, appoints a panel of five judges, who often include yokozuna (noncompeting, leading sumo wrestlers called grand champions).

III  RITUAL

Sumo is accompanied by much ritual. To begin an event, the yokozuna proceed into the dohyo for the ceremony named dohyo-iri. In front of each yokozuna walks his tsuyuharai (personal attendant or herald) and behind him comes his tachimochi (sword bearer). They perform a traditional routine in the ring. Following them, richly adorned in embroidered aprons, enter half the top wrestlers involved. They form a circle, clap their hands, hitch up their aprons, then withdraw. The rest of the sumotori then enter and carry out the same rite.

The matches begin after the opening ceremony. Two champions enter the dohyo and after flexing their muscles they scatter handfuls of salt. This purification ritual comes from Shinto. They then crouch, pound the floor with their fists and have a so-called eye battle, in which the sumotori try to break each other's confidence by means of a staring match. This ritual is known as shikiri-naoshi and lasts four minutes. Preliminary display also includes the ceremonial drinking of water and a menacing stomping. Preliminaries concluded, the opponents then charge each other.

IV  TECHNIQUES

The Sumo Association of Japan officially recognizes 70 movements, or kimarite, but traditionally there exist 48: 12 throws, 12 twists, 12 lifts, and 12 throws across the back. The objectives are either to move the opponent out of the dohyo or to knock him down. The fight ends when any part of one fighterĄ¯s body goes over the edge of the dohyo or when any part of a fighterĄ¯s body other than the bottom of his feet touches the floor. Matches can last from a few seconds to a few minutes.

A basic maneuver and method of attack is slapping, or tsuppari. A series of hard slaps delivered very rapidly can force the opponent out of the ring. Other techniques include shoving, snatching, and grabbing. Three basic techniques are: (1) hataki-komi, which involves stepping aside and pushing the opponent out of the arena; (2) ketaguri, where the opponent's legs are pulled from beneath him as he makes a rush; and (3) ashi-tori, where the opponent's leg is held until he loses his balance and falls over.

Using a grappling technique called yorikiri, the sumotori can also seize the opponent's belt. Holding onto the belt with both hands, the sumotori tries to march his opponent out of the ring. A variant, yori-taoshi, occurs when both sumotori go crashing out of the ring together with the winner on top. Sometimes a sumotori literally carries his opponent out of the ring. Another variant, utchari, happens when a sumotori, on the very point of being toppled outside the ring, hoists his rival over his stomach and throws him out of the dohyo.

A day's contests are concluded by a short ceremony (yumishiki) in which a low-ranking wrestler makes a series of stylized movements ending with a bow.

V  HISTORY

Early evidence of sumo is contained in the Nihon shoki (Chronicles of Japan), an 8th-century chronicle that refers to a contest in 23 bc. Originally, the object was to force an opponent to surrender unconditionally, or sometimes to kill him. Occasionally, battles were avoided and also decided by having two sumo experts fight to resolve the issue. At an early stage, religion was involved and matches were staged to appease the gods. Traditionally associated with harvest festival celebrations, sumo demonstration matches are still held at some shrines in autumn to give thanks for the harvest. Sumotori were never members of the nobility, but they enjoyed higher status than was normally permitted to their class. The modern form of sumo emerged in the late 1500s.

During the 20th century sumo became increasingly popular in Japan, and beginning in the early 1980s it developed a following in the United Kingdom, continental Europe, the United States, and elsewhere. Although traditionally exclusive to Japan and to Japanese sumotori, in recent years American sumotori have reached the rank of the yokozuna, and the 1993 Grand Sumo Tournament, a major competition, was held in Honolulu, Hawaii.

© 1993-2003 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.









What I'm really interested in though is Chinese wrestling...


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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Landsknecht_Doppelsoldner Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 28-Nov-2004 at 19:04

Originally posted by Gubukjanggoon Gubukjanggoon wrote:

What I'm really interested in though is Chinese wrestling...

That would be what is known today as shuai jiao.

Here's a site with more info:

http://www.combatshuaichiao.com/history.html

 

"Who despises me and my praiseworthy craft,

I'll hit on the head that it resounds in his heart."


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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote JanusRook Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 28-Nov-2004 at 19:50
L_D what was the name of the german style of wrestling that you brought up?
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Landsknecht_Doppelsoldner Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 28-Nov-2004 at 20:03

Originally posted by JanusRook JanusRook wrote:

L_D what was the name of the german style of wrestling that you brought up?

Ringen simply means "wrestling" in German, and that is the most common term for basically any kind of grappling, whether of a sporting or purely martial style.  One also sometimes sees the term ringkampf.

The most famous single character in Medieval and Renaissance German wrestling was Ott the Jew, who taught his art to the dukes of Austria.  Ott was a follower of Johann Liechtenauer, the great 14th century master of the German school of knightly combat, which centered around the use of the langen schwert (long sword). 



Edited by Landsknecht_Doppelsoldner
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I'll hit on the head that it resounds in his heart."


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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Landsknecht_Doppelsoldner Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 28-Nov-2004 at 20:26

Here's some ringen, from the 1531 fechtbuch ("fight book") of Johannes Leckuchner, which shows landsknechts wrestling:

http://www.thehaca.com/spotlight/New/Lebkommerwrstlng.jpg

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote JanusRook Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 29-Nov-2004 at 09:23

Thanks L_D, now my only question is does the term wrestling ring derive from the german ringen or does ringen derive from ring....Or is it just a coincidence?

This is a rhetorical question of course, unless you know the answer.

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Temujin Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 29-Nov-2004 at 11:44
AFAIK ringen does derive from ring, but I'm not 100% sure...
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Jalisco Lancer Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 29-Nov-2004 at 13:51
Martial arts, Bah

Do you wanna play a hazardous game ?
Try the mesoamerican ball game

If you lose, then you are your time gets sacrified by decapitation.

http://members.aol.com/cabrakan/ball.htm


Edited by Jalisco Lancer
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote JanusRook Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 29-Nov-2004 at 16:57

Quote

If you lose, then you are your time gets sacrified by decapitation.

I always thought the captain of the winning team got sacrificed.

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote JanusRook Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 29-Nov-2004 at 16:58

Quote

Martial arts, Bah

Actually I'm interested in reading about european/middle-east unarmed fighting styles, to contrast them to the popular asian unarmed fighting like karate and tae kwon do.

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote demon Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 29-Nov-2004 at 17:01

BTW, if you want to see modern non weapon combat, watch WWF wrestling matches.  Or Lucha Libre

Grrr..
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Jalisco Lancer Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 02-Dec-2004 at 23:03


Have you seen a movie of El Santo or Blue Demon ?
http://www.santoandfriends.com/SantoBiography.htm
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote blitz Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 04-Dec-2004 at 07:55
Mongolian wrestling







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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote JiNaRen Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 04-Dec-2004 at 19:47
Ancient chinese wrestling is called xiang pu
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Gubook Janggoon Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 04-Dec-2004 at 19:50
Nice pics of Mongolian Wrestling Blitz, perhaps you could post some info

Jinaren-could you post info and pictures of xiang pu?
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote JiNaRen Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 04-Dec-2004 at 19:50
wrestlers wrestled on raised platforms and attempt to put their opponent off the platform, this was in Shui Hu Zhuan(outlaws of the marsh)
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Gubook Janggoon Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 04-Dec-2004 at 20:01
Originally posted by JiNaRen JiNaRen wrote:

wrestlers wrestled on raised platforms and attempt to put their opponent off the platform, this was in Shui Hu Zhuan(outlaws of the marsh)


Perhaps a tad bit more info such as techniques, styles, if it's practiced today...and some pictures would be appreciated.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote JiNaRen Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 04-Dec-2004 at 20:15
i doubt that its still around but it must have directly influenced Sumo wrestling and Jiu -Jitsu

also Xiang pu is a old term
shuai jiao is a more modern word


Edited by JiNaRen
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