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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote coolstorm Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 04-Apr-2005 at 22:21

Large Map: The Silk Road

The silk road map's background is, however, han dynasty. but the silk road was pretty much the same during the tang dynasty as well.

"

 

Military Power

The Sui had instituted an army of professional soldiers known as Fubing, a basis for a standing army that was adopted by the Tang. Military service was rotated between defence of the national frontiers and duty in the capital. Using this army together with auxiliaries recruited from minorities the Tang rulers pushed back would be invaders and so extended their territorial control beyond China proper. At its peak of power, the Tang controlled large parts of central Asia all the way into Iran as well as Manchuria, most of the Korean peninsula and into the Ili Valley. The Tang became the greatest power in Asia.

Social Economy

Agriculture

Upon reunification of the country, agriculture made a gradual recovery. Large areas of wasteland were brought under cultivation and paddy fields laid out for the planting of rice. In the southern provinces, rice planting was organized so that a double harvest could be achieved. In the northern provinces a system for triple harvests was set up. Sorghum and buckwheat were grown in the Yellow River Valley.

Much attention was given to the matter of irrigation. During the first one hundred and thirty years of their rule, the Tang constructed some 170 water conservancy schemes. New mechanical systems such as waterwheels were introduced to raise water to higher levels thereby increasing efficiency and making it possible to bring yet more land into use.

The increased agricultural output facilitated population growth and during the reign of Emperor Xuanzong, the population reached a peak of over 50 millions.

Land Policy and Tax System

Land distribution formed an important part of Tang agricultural reform and economic development. In the early years of the dynasty, a triennial nation wide census was taken and all inhabitants registered. This was to ensure a sustainable level of tax revenue to the state. In 624, using the census as a basis, the Tang governors reintroduced the land equalization system of earlier times. In this way it was possible to ensure that all families had sufficient land to be self-sufficient and be able to pay taxes.

The tax system was then adjusted and two important reforms introduced.

Zuyongdiao System

Under this system, although tax was raised from landowners, it took the form of a poll tax and was levied on the number of people in a family rather than on the acreage owned. Each person was responsible for three kinds of tax: in grain (Zu), in textiles or other materials (Diao) and in corvee labour or military service (Yong).

After a period of time, this proved unworkable as vast areas of land were owned by merchants, officials, monasteries and others who were not of the peasant classes. The amount of land available for distribution decreased as more was acquired by legitimate means by the aristocracy and members of the imperial clan. These great estates and the tax free land holdings of the Buddhist monasteries failed to render tax, as did the land endowments held by the counties and prefectures. The majority of the peasantry became tenants rather than landowners with a consequent diminution of government revenues.

Double Tax System

In 780 Yangyan, the then Zaixiang (prime minister), advocated a new tax regime. This provided for tax collection twice a year, in summer and autumn, hence the title Double Tax System. This varied from the Zuyongdiao System inasmuch as it was based on the size of the land owned (land tax) and the amount of the harvest (income tax).

To a certain extent the Double Tax System rectified the inequality of the level of taxes imposed on the rich and poor while increasing the revenues of the central government.

Commerce and Manufacturing

Manufacturing

Manufacture was undertaken in both state owned and privately owned workshops. Mostly located in larger cities, the crafts included brocade weaving, papermaking, iron smelting, casting, pottery making and others.

The textile industry prospered. The silk products from Songzhou (now Shangqiu City in Henan Province) and Bozhou (now Bo County in Anhui Province) were most renowned for their high quality. In the south areas of the country, many silk products were listed as tributes. Advances were also made in the production of cotton goods. Cotton was widely grown in Turpan, Yunnan, Guangdong, Guangxi and Fujian provinces. In addition, there were very obvious improvements in painting and dyeing technology.

Marked improvements were introduced in the manufacture of pottery and porcelain. The porcelain from the Xingzhou kiln (in Hebei Province) was particularly noted for its quality and described as 'white as silver and snow'. The white and green porcelain produced in Jingdezhen in Jiangxi Province won itself the nickname 'emulous jade ware'. In southern China, the Yuezhou kiln (in Zhejiang Province) made its mark by producing celadon characterized by its elegance, lightness and strength. Tang Tricolor Porcelain, decorated with yellow, green, white, brown and blue, became famous for the beauty of its designs and the pieces were acknowledged as fine works of art.

Commerce

The rapid growth of both agriculture and manufacturing industry enabled commerce to flourish and created the need for an improved transport system.

So as to speed the transport of grain from the rich area around the Yangtze River to the north of the country, the Grand Canal was extended. Yilu (post roads) were opened running through the country and stimulating trade. The famous Silk Road enabled trade to flourish between China, central Asia and Arabia. After the Rebellion of An and Shi, the Silk Road by sea blossomed. Merchant ships from countries in Asia and Africa flooded in with cargos of spices, medicines and jewellery to be exchanged for Chinese silks and porcelain.

The capital, Chang'an, became the richest and most populous city in the world. It had one million inhabitants, including people from other minorities and countries. Fortified with a wall and moat, the city was divided into quarters including two markets full of shops and stores. These included more than two hundred types of businesses dealing in a wide variety of goods from home and abroad."

http://www.warriortours.com/intro/history/tang/page2.htm



Edited by coolstorm
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote azimuth Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 05-Apr-2005 at 03:42

 

i found these maps for the world in year 700 AD



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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Gubook Janggoon Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 05-Apr-2005 at 19:59
Originally posted by coolstorm coolstorm wrote:


Military Power

At its peak of power, the Tang controlled large parts of central Asia all the way into Iran as well as Manchuria, most of the Korean peninsula and into the Ili Valley. The Tang became the greatest power in Asia.



Bleh I hate that map.  Just clumping Goguryeo, Baekje, and Shilla together and labeling it "tributary" just boils my beans.

Good thing Shilla and Barhae pushed Tang out of our lands.


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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote coolstorm Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 05-Apr-2005 at 22:50

Quote Good thing Shilla and Barhae pushed Tang out of our lands.

not really. the tang didn't withdraw until the 8th century.

and it withdrew not because of the resistance in korea but because of an lushan rebellion in china proper. if there hadn't been an an lushan rebellion, the tang wouldn't have withdrawn from korea.

do u think korea could be independent from japan if the us hadn't joined ww2? it's the same thing.

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Omnipotence Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 05-Apr-2005 at 23:48
That stinking territory that connects turkestan with the rest had always bothered me...
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Gubook Janggoon Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 06-Apr-2005 at 01:05
Originally posted by coolstorm coolstorm wrote:

Quote Good thing Shilla and Barhae pushed Tang out of our lands.

not really. the tang didn't withdraw until the 8th century.

and it withdrew not because of the resistance in korea but because of an lushan rebellion in china proper. if there hadn't been an an lushan rebellion, the tang wouldn't have withdrawn from korea.

do u think korea could be independent from japan if the us hadn't joined ww2? it's the same thing.



Sure sure, but if we didn't fight Tang wouldn't have left right?  No matter what crap was happening elsewhere Barhae and Shilla fought while Tang left.  That's all that really matters to me...did I hear a "Man Sae"?

Shilla expelled Tang in the 7th century, although Barhae accomplished this only by the 8th...

And what does that last part have to do with it?


Originally posted by Omnipotence Omnipotence wrote:

That stinking territory that connects turkestan with the rest had always bothered me...


Me too..it seems so prone to attack...


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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Tobodai Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 06-Apr-2005 at 03:13
oh yeah that thing always bothered me to, like the thin strand of flesh that connects the two..nevermind.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote coolstorm Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 06-Apr-2005 at 11:56

Originally posted by Tobodai Tobodai wrote:

oh yeah that thing always bothered me to, like the thin strand of flesh that connects the two..nevermind.

that's due to geographical factors. it is called hei sai horridor, which literally means river west horridor. it's surrounded by mountains.

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote warhead Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 06-Apr-2005 at 16:19

These Tang dynasty maps are drawn from shallow sources, to be a bit more detailed, the maps below are drawn from professional Chinese historians under the national historical archive.

http://photos.bravenet.com/131/237/194/0/6D3855B886.jpg  669 A.D.

This include all the prefectures and protectorates but not the vassals of Tu Yu Hun of Kokonor and Mohe of Northeasthern Manchuria which is controlled by Tang. Some time error is also present but its by far the most accurate map of Tang at its greatest extent.

http://photos.bravenet.com/131/237/194/0/8B96EFF743.jpg  741 A.D.

Notice that BoHai is again made into a prefecture although remained an independent administration. While the Amur river under the Mohe is also made into a prefecture. Its also doubtful that the territory north of the Amur river is under any effective control.

 

 

Here is a list of major Tang protectorates of the west:

In Chinese history the territories of present Day Russian Turkestan is called 昭武九国 or Nine kingdoms of Zhao Wu.

These nine kingdoms are 康国(Samarqand )、安国(Boukhara)、
石国(Chach )、史国(Kesh)、曹国(Khebud)、何国(Koshana )、米国
(Maimargh)、燖(Khwaresm)、戍地(Betik )

 

1. Tashkent. Also known as Shi Guo 石国(rock kingdom) in Chinese was made into the Da Wan prefecture(du du fu) in 658 A.D.

2. Samarkand, called Kang Guo 康国 was made into Kang Gu Du Du Fu

3. Maimargh, known as Mi Guo 米国, or rice kingdom was made into Li Nan prefecture

4. Koshana, known as He Guo 何国 was made into Xiang Zhou in 641 A.D.

5. Bukhara also known as An Guo 安国 was made into An Xi Zhou

 

In addition, beyond the nine kingdoms of Zhao Wu there was

 

1. Zhi Ba Zhou prefecture至拔州都督府, in present day in Tajikistan.


2. Tien Ma Du Du Fu 天马都督府 also in Tajikistan.

3. Ban Zhou Du Du Fu 悦班州都督府 in Uzbekistan


4. Gao Fu Zhou Du du Fu高附州都督府 also known as Ferghana.


5. Wang Tin Zhou prefecture 王庭州都督府 southwest Tajikistan


6. Gu Mo Du prefecture 姑墨州都督府 in Uzbekistan

7. Yue Zhi prefecture 月氏都督府 in Northern Afghanistan


8. Da Han(great Khan) prefecture 大汗都督府

9. Qi Sha Zhou prefecture 奇沙州都督府:northwestern Afghanistan


10. 昆墟州都督府:在土库曼东南的木耳加河一带。

11. Xiu Xian prefecture 修鲜都督府 in present day Kabul, capital of Afghanistan.

12. Xie Feng prefecture 写凤都督府 in central Afghanistan

13. Tiao Zhi prefecture, 条支都督府 southern Afghanistan


14. Persian prefecture 波斯都督府, its not in Iran but in Turkmenistan, because the Sassanian kingdom is destroyed by the Arabs, the last prince, Peroz escaped to Tang and was enfeoffed this territory as king of the new Sassanid Persia. Although this kingdom was abandoned in the 674 from new arab agrression. Tang army escorted Peroz back in 679 a.d.

 

 

In the fourth year of Zheng Guan(630) after the Tang destroyed the Eastern Tu Jue empire, all tribes south of the Gobi up to the old Turkish capital of Otugen was subjugated. This territory was divided into two prefectures in the east and west and all the tribes is subdivided into 20 zhou. Those north of the Gobi belonged to the tiele confederation led by the Xue Yang Tuo tribes although they submitted to the Tang as early as as the 2nd year of Zheng Guan(627) they were independent. In the 20th year of Zheng Guan (646), the Xue Yang Tuo invaded Tang territory taking advantage of the Korean campaign with a recorded number of 200,000 troops. The north was lightly defended, but never the less, the Xue Yang Tuo was crushed by Li Si Qi's border army consisting of 60,000 Tang troop and 5000 TuJue auxiliar. The Xue Yang Tuo retreated north but faced a blizzard that took away 9/10 of their troop, following this disaster the Uighur rebelled, and asked for Tang aid. In the following year, the Tang army crossed the Gobi and joined the Uighurs and overthrew the Xue Yang Tuo. The north of the Gobi up to lake baikal now became part of the Tang territory as well. In that year Tai Zong set up the An Bei(pacified north) Du Hu Fu(protectorate) north of the Gobi and rezoned the Tie Le(including Uighurs) into 6 Du du fu and 7 prefectures. Later that year, he set up the Yen Lang Du Hu Fu(protectorate) up to the Angara river north east of Lake Baikal,(in 663 it will be moved back into Uighur territory) this marks the furthest northern extent of Tang. In 663, the Chang Yu Du Hu Fu is set up for the tribes south of Gobi. In 679, Chang Yu protectorate would rebel but crushed. Yet in 682, the Tu Jue rebels in north of the Gobi and Tang withdrew from An Bei, Chang Yu and the An Bei(Pacified North)protectorate became one and would remain until the end of Wu Zho's reign.
In the west, the Western Tujue during the reign of She Gui Kaghan, their territory streched from Jade gate in the east to the Aral sea in the west, while the south covered present day northern Afghanistan. In the 14th year of Zheng guan (640) Tang occupied the kingdom of Gao Cang(present day Turfan)and created the An Xi(pacified west) protectorate. Slowly, it occupied, the rest of the Tarim and tribes of the Western Tujue, in 658 the rest of the Tujue khanate was occupied. The whole of the western Tujue khanate was zoned into protectorates. From Tien Mountain to the Aral Sea, the territory is zoned into Kung ling and Meng Chi protectorate and subdivided into over a dozen Du du fu and zhou. All these protectorate are under the supervision of the protector general of the An Xi protectorate. In 661, Tang further zoned the territories south of the Oxus and the 16 kingdoms of the tarim basin reaching the border of Persia. This was the height of Tang's eastern expansion. One of the protectorate of the Pacified West was ruled by the last prince of Persia, Peroz who escaped in 651 for the Tang after the arabs destroyed the Sassanid empire. He will keep on fighting the Arabs until the 670s when he is again forced to leave by invading arabs and go back to China. While in 665, the western turkish tribes rebelled and in 670, Tubo(tibet) attacked the Tarim and Tang retreated back to Turfan, but the protectorate of Kung ling and Meng Chi was still loyal to Tang until forced by arabs and later Tujue to abandon their territory.
In the North East, in 627, Kitan of Manchuria submit to Tang, and in 648, Tang set created Song Mo protectorate over the kitans. While created the Yao Le protectorate over the Xi tribes. In 692, Tang also created the Wei Shi protectorate over the Wei Shi nomads in Northern Manchuria.
All of them was under the supervision of the An Dong(Pacified East). In 660 Tang destroys kingdom of Paikche and in 668 destroys Koguryo, set up Gao Li protectorate and BoHai prefecture. These would become independent in 698 and Kitans will rebel in 696 but resubmit to Tang in 714 and rezoned their teritory to Tang protectorate.
While the South isn't much of a change but in 679 Tang set up An Nan (Pacified South over NanZhao and Vietnam.) In Nan Zhao, Tang defeated the Zheng river tribes and the 6 Zhao was zoned into numerous prefectures. During its height Tang had over 800 small Zhou prefectures and 1500 Jun within the empire itself.

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote warhead Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 06-Apr-2005 at 16:21
well for some reason the maps don't show when clicked, but just type it into net search and the map would show.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Gubook Janggoon Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 06-Apr-2005 at 18:50
Bleh that prefecture crap..I don't like that school of thought either..but that's just me...
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote warhead Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 06-Apr-2005 at 20:06
?????
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Gubook Janggoon Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 06-Apr-2005 at 20:08
Originally posted by warhead warhead wrote:

?????


As in Bohai being Tang's prefecture.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote warhead Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 06-Apr-2005 at 20:21
oh that, its really just a feudal title. Something like how the Brits give some Rajput in India independence but recognize the crown's soverignty. But in this case its more like the enfeofement of a lord in feudal times.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Gubook Janggoon Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 06-Apr-2005 at 20:22
Originally posted by warhead warhead wrote:

oh that, its really just a feudal title. Something like how the Brits give some Rajput in India independence but recognize the crown's soverignty. But in this case its more like the enfeofement of a lord in feudal times.


Yea..that's what gets me..

Everyone had these..China gave them out to Shilla, Japan, anyone really..

And yet, it's only Bohai who's a part of the map...
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote warhead Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 06-Apr-2005 at 20:32
Well, Japan received titles as a king. (ironically thats where the name Japan came from when they were enfeoffed king of the RiBen in 670, the first use of that name surprisingly came from Korean source). But only BoHai was made into prefectures.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Gubook Janggoon Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 06-Apr-2005 at 20:55
Originally posted by warhead warhead wrote:

Well, Japan received titles as a king. (ironically thats where the name Japan came from when they were enfeoffed king of the RiBen in 670, the first use of that name surprisingly came from Korean source). But only BoHai was made into prefectures.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bohai

Hmm..according to Wiki, it was changed to "State King of Bohai" in 762 CE...I guess the map is referring to the period before this yea?..
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yes.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Gubook Janggoon Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 06-Apr-2005 at 21:02
About that little strip of land connecting China proper with Xinjiang..so it was protected by mountains?  Did Tang ever try to widen it?
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Do you mean the gansu corridor?
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