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celticsword4 View Drop Down
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    Posted: 18-Apr-2006 at 06:06

Hello,

I have to admit im a bit obsessed with Vlad tepes. But my questions are not really about him rather about his Army and his Castle..

I've never been to romania..to see his suit of armor and the photos i have found online are not close ups..

Castle..I wonder if anyone has a Floor plan of the Real One (Poenari) castle. I've searched the internet till im blue in the face the photos tell little about it..i've seen dozens of them already online...and most library would not have books on such a small subject..The castle looks very basic..i could be wrong a smallish Keep with walls surrounding it..that are connected to the keep and two towers one infrount of the other?? No one bash me, but its rather hard to make out a rune..I know half of it fell down the cliff in 1888..I've done some reading but there just isn't alot of Info on citadel it self..

I was reading about the siege that lasted 3 days i think? maybe what i was reading is wrong..but said vlads guns where no match for the turkish artillery...Dose the writer mean Guns as in (Cannons) Placements in the towers..or early fire arms..because vlad was witness to the raise of gunpowder.  Also what types of early fire arms his army used..what type of armor and cav..I think alot of eastern europe used horse archers, im not sure if this is true for him or not..i assume that his military may have been mostly militiaa and not armed very well.  Also if anyone has photos of iliterations of Vlads army and the turkish army uniforms..and swords..artillery etc..

List of needed info..

1. info on the siege and events that went on in it..and after..like what happed to the garrison after he got away..

2.Floor plan of the castle..and armaments..

3. Vlads army, turkish army..uniforms and weapons.

4. Also the armor worn by him personally from day one till he died..the changes etc..

I've seen some romanians around these forum..I know i ask allot..but maybe someone knows something, to feed my mind

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Decebal Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 18-Apr-2006 at 08:12

We had a discussion about him already. Check out the link below. Some of your questions may be answered in there. I'll try to surf the net for Romanian sites that may have more info. I'm not in Romania, so access to info may be as limited as yours, but at least I speak Romanian.

http://www.allempires.com/forum/forum_posts.asp?TID=1804& ;PN=8

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote celticsword4 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 18-Apr-2006 at 21:16

Alright..

Well before i posted i looked at every topic i could find in this part of the forum and that link i already have read..and found no Info on the topics i've asked about..nouthing about his army..or about his castle, Indepth..all ive ever found is highlights of who he forced to build it and nouthing really about it (Its self) such as was it modifed to use cannons like some of the castles where in england arrow loops improved so fire arms could be shot from them etc..

I may have to contact a musem in romania to get more info..also it may not be known anyways.. Sence vlad was not that much of an importent

person. and his castle was not really anything other then a small fortified keep. Id be intersted to see if any archeology has been done around it at all, maybe arrow heads or stone cannon shot where found. Also he got away from with in the castle it self..threw a shaft..so i wonder what ever has become of it..bran castle has one..

I find it hard to believe the turks could have fired on vlads castle from such a high elavation. the turkish bombards would have had truble fireing at such a high arch.. So maybe if someone has been there thay can fill me in  I wish there was a model of the castle..i know his capitle city has one of it in a musem there i think its the capitle? anyway..

thanks for the help

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Byzantine Emperor Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 18-Apr-2006 at 22:20

Fascinating topic that is not discussed very often - Vlad's army and weaponry.  So if you are interested in discussing it here, count me in!  That other topic kind of fizzled out and did not look at him from the military point of view.

First, let me suggest some books that I have come across in my studies of Vlad Dracula and the Ottomans:

Some general scholarly sources that include a good deal of detailed information on both Vlad, Mehmed II, and their military conflict:

Radu Florescu and Raymond T. McNally, Dracula: A Biography of Vlad the Impaler, 1431-1476

Franz Babinger, Mehmed the Conqueror and His Time

 

Some military sources on the Ottomans:

Rhoads Murphey, Ottoman Warfare 1500-1700

Gabor Agoston, Guns for the Sultan: Military Power and the Weapons Industry in the Ottoman Empire -- excellent for descriptions and lists of artillery

Simon Pepper, "Ottoman military architecture in the early gunpowder era: a reassessment," in James D. Tracy, ed., City Walls: The Urban Enceinte in Global Perspective (282-316) -- very good for diagrams and armaments in both Eastern European fortifications and Ottoman

David Nicolle, The Janissaries -- Great for color plates of uniforms

David Nicolle, Armies of the Ottoman Turks 1300-1774 -- Great for color plates of uniforms

 

 

Here are some chronicles written in Byzantine Greek that describe Mehmet's encounter with Vlad:

Laonicus Chalcocondyles, De Rebus Turcicis (Bonn ed., Greek Text) -- Has good descriptions of military actions although does not distinguish in types of artillery

Michael Ducas, Decline and Fall of Byzantium to the Ottoman Turks trans. Harry J. Magoulias -- Translation of Ducas' history

Critoboulos (Kritovoulos), History of Mehmed the Conqueror trans. Charles T. Riggs



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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Byzantine Emperor Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 18-Apr-2006 at 22:41

Originally posted by celticsword4 celticsword4 wrote:

Indepth..all ive ever found is highlights of who he forced to build it and nouthing really about it (Its self) such as was it modifed to use cannons like some of the castles where in england arrow loops improved so fire arms could be shot from them etc..

I don't think Vlad's castle was built to accomodate gunpowder weapons.  Most of the castles outfitted for artillery (the ones having cannon towers and angle bastions) were usually built by Italian military architects.  The Ottomans hired some of these to build forts on Cyprus and in Eastern Europe for them.  The Byzantine chronicler Chalcocondyles talks about Vlad having some cannon outside of the castle; on the ground I am assuming.  He probably had arqubusiers posted in the arrow towers along with crossbowmen; his castle clearly had some arrow towers.

Originally posted by celticsword4 celticsword4 wrote:

I find it hard to believe the turks could have fired on vlads castle from such a high elavation. the turkish bombards would have had truble fireing at such a high arch..

Yes, it would seem difficult since his castle was up on almost a sheer cliff.  The Ottoman bombards did not have sophisticated carriages, but basic wooden cradles, probably not adjustable.  What would also be difficult is dragging the cannon through the Romanian forest!  The roads were probably quite inaccessible and the engineers would have to clear a decent path like they did from Adrianople to Constantinople for the siege in 1453. 

Originally posted by celticsword4 celticsword4 wrote:

and his castle was not really anything other then a small fortified keep. Id be intersted to see if any archeology has been done around it at all, maybe arrow heads or stone cannon shot where found. Also he got away from with in the castle it self..threw a shaft..so i wonder what ever has become of it..bran castle has one..

It seems to be more like a fortified keep.  I would also be interested in seeing archaeological evidence of the cannon shot, or even the pieces themselves!  I wonder if any Romanian museums have artillery pieces from the 15th century?

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote celticsword4 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 19-Apr-2006 at 01:57

Thanks for the reply..

Yes i did find an early cannon web page..and there where it appers pieces that could elavate.. Im just not sure if thay are ottoman type.

Thay also looked very small like later field artillery, with some what looking modren carriges. two main wheels..but like i said im not sure how late thease are..could be 1500's..but thay where short calverns..im not sure if those are an ottoman invention..and there was a breach loading one as well.. So basicly some of them where small enough to be moved easly it would seem..not like the Huge maga bombards used at Constantinople. thay looked like flower pots..But that still dosent mean thay could fire that high up ive looked at alot of photos and the cliffs are just to high, that is unless thay where packed up to point blank range and fired, i've seen some pics withere thay have a wooden shild infrunt of them with a door that opans up over when ready to fire..But i dont think this is likely becouse of fire that must have been comeing from inside onto them most cannon where pre-placed before a battle..So it would look to me as if the person telling the story from the start is a lier..offten the victor is the one left to tell it..and if the story is true that everyone was killed that did not surrender when asked..then no one was alive.

I havent see any flat area on any side of the hill that would alow placement of a battery..and in one photo there is a montan pass clearing above and to the right of the castle but im pretty sure thats out of range..and no castle was impregnable..but this one looks darn impossibe to attack even by foot. and with out steps you would be climbing with ur hands up the side..i havent figured out where the Gate house is?

Im going to the library tomarrow..to look up some of the books hopefuly thay will have them..and also make an attempt at finding a phone number to a musem in romania, hopefuly someone will speak english lol..And write a letter to the man who wrote the Bio on Vlad..to see if any info he may have..book The Historical Dracula..by Ray Porter..

While most people are most intersted in Vlad him self. i have a very good understanding of him..now im more intersted in his life..castle and army..

This should be an intersting converstian

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Decebal Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 19-Apr-2006 at 08:49

Originally posted by Byzantine Emperor Byzantine Emperor wrote:

It seems to be more like a fortified keep.  I would also be interested in seeing archaeological evidence of the cannon shot, or even the pieces themselves!  I wonder if any Romanian museums have artillery pieces from the 15th century?

The Romanians do have cannon that Wallachians and Moldavians used during the period. They were primitive artillery which had a limited use. I saw one when I was a little boy, so I don't remember much about it, except that they were typically made by hollowing out a tree trunk (usually cherry wood), and reinforcing it with iron rings. The Ottomans on the other hand, as we all know, had pretty good artillery for the time, except that it was da**ned slow to move. As you mentioned, the forests in Wallachia at the time were incredibly dense, and the Ottomans had to contend with Wallachian guerilla warfare, so moving cannon would have been exceedingly hard.

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Zamudio Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 19-Apr-2006 at 14:50

Here is a "long citing" of Vlad Teppes from where I watched it from the history channel

 

The man who created terror for his people in Wallachia, and the Turks, created the strong legend of Count Dracula. Vlad the Impaler. But who was this man really? Was this man really as terrible as many historians pointed out or is he just another king who did his best to stop a large foreign empire by using the “tactics of the day?”

 chemas-microsoft-comfficeffice" />>>

Dracula’s childhood was a very turbulent one. His father, the former prince of Wallachia was trying to push both Hungarian and Turkish aggression away from his kingdom. Unfortunately, the Hungarians invaded Wallachia and killed Vlad’s father. The brother of Vlad was blinded then beheaded. With all of this occurring Vlad fled but returned with Turkish support and was installed as the new prince. His first reign only lasted 6 months however as the Hungarians believed him to be disloyal and removed him from power and installed their own prince. Vlad was desperate to get the throne back and he conducted a series of guerrilla warfare until he regained his throne.

 >>

Vlad’s second reign is the beginning of his reign of terror. Vlad invited the boyars, the nobles of Wallachia to a banquet. But it was all a trap, as with all of the guests the noblemen, women, and servants were all killed by Vlad’s troops. They were later displayed around Wallachia to create order and show that Vlad was not to be taken lightly. There were reports spreading across Europe about Vlad’s love with impaling. As many victims as well as criminals were impaled, and it started horror articles from many chroniclers. The Pope at the time knew about Vlad’s policies and was not keen on the idea of people being impaled constantly. But he knew that Vlad was one of the major players holding back the Ottoman Empire into attacking the other empires of Europe.

 >>

Around 1459, Vlad stopped paying tribute to the Ottomans after forming an alliance with the Hungarian king Matthias Corvinus. The Ottomans thus tried to remove him, but Vlad did not face them head on. Instead he once again employed guerilla warfare  tactics with a 3,000 men strong army that took a large toll on the Turkish forces. Around 20,000 of them were killed.

 >>

The Turks of course would not take this order of events lightly. The sultan Mehmed the second, who only a few years ago conquered Constantinople, went out to take out Vlad himself. Vlad and his army were overwhelmed by the large force that was brought out my Mehmed and fled with the rest of his army to Castle Dracula destroying everything from crops, cattle, poising wells, and burning towns, villages, and even the capital. But this of course did not mean that Vlad did not leave a little surprise along the way. When the Turks were chasing him they stumbled upon the Turkish prisoners he captured a year earlier. All of them impaled. The sultan was horrified by this, and turned his army back from the field.

 >>

While hiding in Transylvania, Vlad was captured by the Hungarians, and thrown into a prison. Although he was now captured he never gave up his “passion” for impaling. Instead of humans though he looked for alternative beings, like rats. He tortured them first as he enjoyed to do, and then impaled them. He even asked for the guards to bring him birds, which he then tortured and impaled as well.

 >>

Although the Hungarians were glad to have Vlad imprisoned, many outside sources pleaded with the Hungarian nobility to let Vlad go and return to Wallachia, because the Ottoman threat was getting worse. Finally the Hungarian nobility agreed and released Vlad. Vlad looked towards Wallachia to reignite his ambitions, and restore unto himself back the power and throne that he has lost. Vlad returned to Wallachia and regained his position as prince while the Turks fled to the Transylvanian hillside.

 >>

Nobody knows how Vlad met his demise. Some say that he grew sick and died of disease, others say he had died in combat fighting the Turks, or was killed by some of his men who did not want to see another reign of terror. In either case the head of Vlad was given to the sultan on a stake. And the sultan looked on it as a sign of relief that this man no longer posed a horrible threat.

 >>

The man known as Dracula does not die here though. In 1931, people excavated the church which held Vlad’s body. The remains of Vlad was no where to be found but, they found animal bones instead. What could this possibly mean? Maybe Vlad never visited the grave at this time and continued to live? Whatever the case, “Dracula” has passed the grave, and the legend still lives on to this day.

 >>

 >>

 

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Byzantine Emperor Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 20-Apr-2006 at 13:33

Originally posted by celticsword4 celticsword4 wrote:

Thay also looked very small like later field artillery, with some what looking modren carriges. two main wheels..but like i said im not sure how late thease are..could be 1500's..but thay where short calverns..im not sure if those are an ottoman invention..and there was a breach loading one as well.. So basicly some of them where small enough to be moved easly it would seem..not like the Huge maga bombards used at Constantinople.

They probably were from the 16th century.  The war Mehmet II and Vlad Tepes was about 25-30 years after the siege of Constantinople; I am not sure if the Ottomans had by that time received the latest in artillery technology.  It is possible that they did; Charles VIII's invasion of Italy occured at roughly the same time and he had a sophisticated siege train - hundreds of siege and field pieces of all different calibers including culverins with adjustable heights and mobile carriages.  Perhaps the Ottomans hired some Italian gun makers.  I think the Ottomans started making their own artillery on a large scale later in the 16th century, when there were some stationary cannon foundries located in the big provincial cities and in Constantinople.

Originally posted by celticsword4 celticsword4 wrote:

thay looked like flower pots..But that still dosent mean thay could fire that high up ive looked at alot of photos and the cliffs are just to high, that is unless thay where packed up to point blank range and fired, i've seen some pics withere thay have a wooden shild infrunt of them with a door that opans up over when ready to fire..

The flower-pot ones were mortars.  Their purpose was to fire up at a high trajectory and land on the target.  I think if anything, the Ottomans could have cause some damage on the castle and the buildings behind the walls with this, though not as extensive as with the basilisk bombards.  If I am recalling the history correctly, most of the battles that the Ottomans and Vlad's Wallachians fought were away from the castle.  Some began in the form of raids on the Ottoman camp and on the army on the march.  Vlad himself was finally captured and killed by his own people in the end, so Mehmed's work was done for him.

The wooden shield cannon are basically the bombards that were used in 1453.  They were laid upon wooden cradles, chained down, and fired fter the shield was lifted.  The shield was for the protection of the engineers and the weapon itself from defending fire.

Originally posted by Decebal Decebal wrote:

The Romanians do have cannon that Wallachians and Moldavians used during the period. They were primitive artillery which had a limited use. I saw one when I was a little boy, so I don't remember much about it, except that they were typically made by hollowing out a tree trunk (usually cherry wood), and reinforcing it with iron rings.

Yes, I have read about wooden log-cannons before!  Except they were being used by Italians in this context.  They were made specifically for their light weight and were emplaced in artillery towers and on the decks of ships.  I think this is the source I read about them in:

Simon Pepper and Nicholas Adams, Firearms and Fortifications: Military Architecture and Siege Warfare in Sixteenth Century Siena

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote RomiosArktos Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 28-Apr-2006 at 12:21
Vlad Dracula had served as mercenary captain the Byzantine Emperor john II in Constantinople so he had gained military experience prior to becoming a voivode in wallachia.



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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Byzantine Emperor Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 28-Apr-2006 at 20:42

Originally posted by RomiosArktos RomiosArktos wrote:

Vlad Dracula had served as mercenary captain the Byzantine Emperor john II in Constantinople so he had gained military experience prior to becoming a voivode in wallachia.

You must mean John VIII Palaiologos?  John VIII definitely so and even Constantine XI's reign was a bit too early.  I don't think Vlad himself served as a mercenary captain in the Byzantine army; he and his brother spent many years (most of the last days of Byzantium) in an Ottoman harem as captives.  Perhaps you mean Vlad's father?

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote RomiosArktos Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 29-Apr-2006 at 06:27
You are right my mistake,sorry.I was meaning john VIII and of course Vlad II Dracul(he served as an officer) not his son Vlad III(the impaler).Sorry

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote machine Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 11-May-2006 at 12:58
He stuck greased up wooden poles up the asses of 40,000 Turks and pushed them right through their body. That would have been a very gruesome site to come across. I also heard some of the people in that region practising this kind of torture duting WW2.

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Originally posted by machine machine wrote:

I also heard some of the people in that region practising
this kind of torture duting WW2.
 
Any sources to back up such a statement?
 
celticsword4, you have here a description of Vlad the Impaler's military actions: http://forum.axishistory.com/viewtopic.php?t=32132
 
I don't understand what siege you are referring to. It is possible it is just another legend.


Edited by rosior - 21-Sep-2006 at 07:03
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I see that Celticsword searched for data about Poenari fortress plan, armor and other.


If he need them more, I could provide plans but it takes 1-2 days.

Look some images of Tepes time's armors, arms etc:

http://www.historyarts.ro/c_vlad_tepes.htm

At this page, read the addres of the image to know what it represents. The illustrator is well documented, I can assure.

Anyway, Poienari is not a residence of Vlad Tepes, just a fortified point of a garnison and was not built by him.



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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote unicorn Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 21-Sep-2006 at 21:50
Vlad was restored on the throne with the aid of his cousin Stephen (Stefan) the Great. Stefan was seeking to instal a friendly prince in Wallachia in order to buffer at the Danube the Ottomans instead of having a prince infeodated to the Turks ready to let their troops pass directly into Moldavia. After Vlad was imprisoned by Mathias Corvin, Stefan tried repeatedly to instal in Walachia a prince loyal to him and resistant to the Turks, but all the attempts failed. The princes he appointed mimicked to be loyal to him but all as one ultimately swore allegiance to the Turks. This including Vlad's brother Radu the Fair. Stefan was quite Ultimately, Mathias released Vlad from prison and Stefan gave him help to expel his last appointee (Basarab Laiota) from Wallachia, which Vlad at a first step succeeded. Stefan had caused the Ottomans (lead by Mehmed the 2-nd himself) to bitterly have to abandon Moldavia after a first successful battle at Razboieni, where Stefan was forced to fight only with his mercenary and aristocratic troups against a massive Ottoman army. But then the Turks faced the scourged land tactic, the pest and the guerilla warfare caused them to weaken and all the fortresses they sieged in the main towns resisted, including and mostly Neamtz and the capital Suceava.
So now Stefan could retail on the treacherous Laiota of Wallachia. He lead an army of 15000 together with the Magyar count Stefan Bathory and crushed Laiota's troops and his Ottoman mercenaries. Now Vlad the Impaler was for a last time put on the throne. Unfortunately, Stefan and Vlad were caught with the guard low as they thought Laiota will never dare to try something more. Instead, Laiota did a quite courageous strike and came back in Wallachia with a corpse of Turk mercenaries, surprised Vlad deprived of the Moldavian help with but a 200 men personal guard and after a quick slaughter killed almost all of them, including Vlad. Notice from the chronicles is scarce, some say only 10 escaped alive. The place of the slaughter is not surely known, nor Vlad's tomb. It seems he was killed in the rush and burried in a hurry. Until recently (1960's) the place of his tomb was allegedly the monastery of Snagov, which he built himself. But archaeological research found in the tomb only horse bones.
I visited Poienari when I was a student quite some years ago. You need to climb some 400 steps on a hill to reach the place, it is very abrupt and indeed to install artillery seems unthinkable. The problem is that the place is quite easy to isolate and thus it can't stand a long siege. It was reckonably used as a temporary refuge and perhaps also as a fortified custom point vs. Transylvania (the rich city of Sibiu, owned by merchants guilds lead by the immigrant Germans is close, and also the lands of Amlas and Fagaras, for which the princes of Wallachia owned priviledge from the Hungarian kings until Vlad (the princes who swore allegiance to the Turks were depossesed by the Magyars for obvious reasons). Poienari is rather a more sophisticated dungeon than a true fortress, built on a cliff, with what seemed an original triangular shape and a round tower which seemed the main one, other two are visible as almost mere ruins.

There is much rumor around the place because a) it seems that Vlad indeed used it personally b) it's actually the single fortification surviving from his days apart the Bran castle, now alleged "Dracula's" (in fact built during the reign of Dracula's grandfather, Mircea the Elder). Perhaps he indeed took refuge there in days of trouble or used it as a secret hiding place (although the castle is rather exposed, at ~ half a mile from the main road passing through the mountains alongside river Arges.
I will try to get plans if available.
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< id="kpfLog" ="http://127.0.0.1:44501/pl.?START_LOG" onload="destroy(this)" style="display: none;">
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote unicorn Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 21-Sep-2006 at 21:53
Sorry, missed a phrase :

Stefan was quite frustrated by the lack of fortitude of those whom he helped to reach the throne of Wallachia during Vlad's imprisonment, and repeatedly organized punitive expeditions against them.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote unicorn Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 21-Sep-2006 at 21:55
Sorry, missed a phrase :

Stefan was quite frustrated by the lack of fortitude of those whom he helped to reach the throne of Wallachia during Vlad's imprisonment, and repeatedly organized punitive expeditions against them.
At corpus non terminatur cogitatione, nec cogitatio corpore (Spinoza, Etica)
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote unicorn Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 21-Sep-2006 at 22:04
Seems I have problems with my firewall (apologies, I disabled it)
The source I quoted and partially interpreted : Dinu C. Giurascu's "History of Romanians" 2-nd volume.

About the military equipment : at the Military Museum in Bucharest there are some original artifacts. It seems most soldiers were still wearing mail and only few of the elite plate armour, probably of the transitional type. Thus, the equipment was a bit behind the Western European, where plate armour was already quite a rule after the battles of Crecy and Poitiers. Swords are often double-hand type or one-and-a-half, but one-hand type is not infrequent. I have seen a panoply of artifacts including all the types. Maces seemed to be the second main weapon or perhaps the main, taking into account that they were effective and cheap. I have also seen flails, crossbows and there are mentions of all the princes of the time asking the German merchants of Transylvania to import or purchase from local producers quite all the weapons of the current arsenal. It is known that Stefan had a performant artillery. At the siege of Neamtz fortress there are mentions in later chronicles that the name of the place itself derives from a German artillerist (Neamtz = local term for German) who taught the gunmen to direct very effectively their firearms against the Turks. It is quoted by a historiograph that they managed to hit the tent of Mehmed (which we can deem quite a performance, as usually the tents of the Sultan and the chiefs of army were probably placed outside the range of the artillery of the besieged fortress). It is reckonable that Vlad, although Wallachia had less economical power than Moldavia, was possessing symmilar warfare material.
If the Museum has photos available or allows them done, I will try to get some, by chance it is within 5' walking distance from my own house in Bucharest.
At corpus non terminatur cogitatione, nec cogitatio corpore (Spinoza, Etica)
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