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Forum LockedThe Impact of Mongol conquest in Middle East

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Post Options Post Options   Quote Roberts Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Topic: The Impact of Mongol conquest in Middle East
    Posted: 04-Oct-2006 at 05:54
After the Mongol conquest variuos states appeared and disappeared in Middle East -> Ilkhanids, Jalayirids, White and Black Sheep Turks, Timurids etc.

Did they left any positive impact in Islamic civilisation, culture and technology or in the other way - only negative?

The "capital" of Muslim world Baghdad was sacked twice - first by Hulegu and then by Tamerlane. Enermous materials of science were destroyed. Thousands Middle Easterners perished in non-stop wars between Mongol and other warlords from 13th to 16th century.
A type of cultural destruction which Western Europe never experienced, because Mongols stayed only in Russia.

So was there anything "positive" in all this?


Edited by axeman - 04-Oct-2006 at 05:54
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Post Options Post Options   Quote Hushyar Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 04-Oct-2006 at 23:55

well this discussion is very generalization, but about mongols and their impact on Islamic civilization, I'd recommend you just looking History of Central Asia before and after mongol conquest.

before mongols it was one of the most flourishing parts of world, and actually one of centers of civilization, after the mongols it became  a realy poor region and still is one of the poorest regions of the world.

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Post Options Post Options   Quote shurite7 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 06-Oct-2006 at 19:55
Some will argue there was some positive impact, primarily the opening of the Silk road and the trade between the far east and far west.
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Post Options Post Options   Quote çok geç Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 06-Oct-2006 at 23:16
Originally posted by Hushyar

before mongols it was one of the most flourishing parts of world, and actually one of centers of civilization, after the mongols it became  a realy poor region and still is one of the poorest regions of the world.
 
I actually read long time ago of the most devastated country of Central Asia by the Mongol invasion, Afghanistan. It is said that Afghanistan used to have one of the best irrigation systems. Only to be reduced to ashes and sand.
 
Despite the tremendous negative impact of the Mongols on Central Asia, Iran and up to Baghdad, someone can argue that the end of the Caliphate in Baghdad opened the door of non-Arab element in representing Muslims. That of course was followed by the raise of the Tamerlank empire and the Ottoman Empire.
 
Originally posted by shurite7

Some will argue there was some positive impact, primarily the opening of the Silk road and the trade between the far east and far west.
I'm not quiet sure it Silk road trade improved. Remember that the destructions and the contineous wars has disrupted trade. Even those who propose that the Mongols unified regions of the Silk road from the Sea of Japan to the frontiers of Byzentine and the Black sea, forget that it was for only 30-40 years only before it fragmented to smaller conflicting states. Maybe you can elaborate your point if you dont mind.


Edited by çok geç - 06-Oct-2006 at 23:20
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Post Options Post Options   Quote Ahmed The Fighter Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 07-Oct-2006 at 10:16
 Nothing positive indeed,destruction of Bukhara,Samrkand and Baghdad,Massacres in every state they ocuppied,destruction of the grand library in Baghdad and many horrible things.
but only one science flourished in the Mongol era "Astronomy" by Nasir Al-Deen Al-Tusi.
The Mongol ruler, Hulagu Khan, built an observatory in Maragheh for Tusi. Tusi is considered the first of the Maragheh School of astronomers,who made significant contributions to the development of astronomy.
 
And what is the advantage of uniting the silk road without secure it,after their invasion the trade routes were clear.
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Post Options Post Options   Quote shurite7 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 10-Oct-2006 at 19:55
In some literature that I have read the authors claim that trade became more prevalent from Europe to Cathay/China and vice versa because the Mongols made the trade routes, including the Silk road, safer to travel.  However, they tend not to mention how much trade was happening between the middle east and the far east.
 
Granted the Silk road was in existance long before the Mongol invasions began, but the Mongols are the ones being accredited for contact between Europe and China.  Some consider this a positive impact in world history.
 
In retrospect I would have to say there was much more of a negative impact from the Mongol invasions that positive.  The great library of Baghdad for example along with the great irrigation structures mentioned above were destroyed.  We can speculate and debate this to the end of time, but there will never be a definitive answer because one of the original questions is opinionated.
 
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Post Options Post Options   Quote Spartakus Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 05-Nov-2006 at 17:10
Pax Mongolica.
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Post Options Post Options   Quote Afghanan Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 26-Dec-2006 at 20:10
Well the Mongol invasion changed Central Asia and Asia in General. The Mongols (and allied Turks) were the reason the Russians united, Turan defeated Iran, from the ashes many irrigated lands became dry steppe land, and some valleys experienced mass genocide in a scale never seen until the Holocaust (ie. Bamian). Oases have been lost forever (Balkh, Helmand, Farah). The Islamic world was sent to the dark ages. But later we find that the Mongols converted to Islam, many adopted the customs of their victims, some lost their nomadic culture completely and became urbanized and sedentarized. From that point on, the Turks ruled Central Asia and from them stemmed Perso-Turk conquerors like Babur Shah and Timur Lang.
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Post Options Post Options   Quote Kapikulu Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 26-Dec-2006 at 22:39

One of the most effective results of Mongol conquests was the mass migration of people to West. Especially Turkic people living in Turkistan under Khwarazm Empire's rule had mostly emigrated to Anatolia(if they were able to survive), which they saw as a safe haven far away from Mongol rule, and this process had huge consequences regarding Turkish inhabitance in Anatolia.

The similar waves of migration didn't come from the folks living in Persia, it had been in a much smaller scales. Pax Mongolica was more or less coming over at the time after Genghis' death, which ended an era of excessive destruction of enemy cities. Though the horrific invasion of Baghdad was like a puke of Mongolian rage coming after a bit short-living peaceful time comparing to Genghis' era.
 
At least, after Genghis and his sons, nobody from his grandsons except Hulagu had gone on with that much of destructive and harsh methods against their enemies. 


Edited by Kapikulu - 27-Dec-2006 at 23:44
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Post Options Post Options   Quote Bulldog Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 27-Dec-2006 at 21:02
Mongol conquests resulted in the end of the flourishing "Karakhanid" civillisation of Central Asia.

The end of the flourishing civillisation of the Great Seljuks, in the Near-East Middle East and modern-day Turkey.

The end of the flourishing KwarizThem State in Western Central Asia/Near East.

The destruction of probobly one of the greatest cities in existance during that period the spectacular city of Baghdad. Plus countless other fantastic cities.

In contrast, it ended the "Hashashin's" a real nuisance at the time.

The Ilkhanid's built Observatories and led to advancements in technology, sceince, astrology and so on.

The suggestion that Central Asia never recovered and stayed ever poor is totally inacurrate.

During the Timurid period it was one of the wealthiest regions on Earth. The great observatories of Samerkent, the spectacular architecture, the flourishing of trade, the arts and culture. Irrigation systems were re-built, infastructure was re-built.

The reason Central Asia declined was due to the sudden collapse of the "Silk Route" which occured much later on, fractious Beyliks and Emirates too rich to care about anything else were poor rulers near the 19th century.

China got lucky when it comes to the Mongols, they actually benefited alot from the Mongol conquests.
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Post Options Post Options   Quote çok geç Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 27-Dec-2006 at 21:40
Originally posted by Kapikulu

One of the most effective results of Mongol conquests was the mass migration of people to East.
You mean to the West?
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Post Options Post Options   Quote Kapikulu Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 27-Dec-2006 at 23:33
Originally posted by çok geç

You mean to the West?
 
Oh yes, WestSmile..My compass have lost its direction..


Edited by Kapikulu - 27-Dec-2006 at 23:43
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Post Options Post Options   Quote Kapikulu Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 27-Dec-2006 at 23:37
Originally posted by Bulldog

Mongol conquests resulted in the end of the flourishing "Karakhanid" civillisation of Central Asia.
 
Karakhanid civilization was already living its dusk at the time of Mongol conquests,being divided before,have been ended at 1212 by the Kara Khitai before the Mongols, while the other line have been brought to an end by Khwarazm Empire...Those were all before Mongols showed up in the region...
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Post Options Post Options   Quote Nestorian Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 03-Jan-2007 at 10:14
Islam penetrated its furthest into China due to the Mongols, large settlements of Muslims were implanted in China (Zheng He's ancestors came from Central Asia). So if the Mongols have contributed anything to Islam it is the migration of Muslims deeper into China to give China the Hui Muslim minority it has today. A demographic map shows that Muslim population distribution has a fair amount of representation in the Eastern hinterlands (not the coastal areas).
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Post Options Post Options   Quote pekau Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 08-Jan-2007 at 11:29

So the Mongolian influence over Middle East, in general, was bad?

     
   
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Post Options Post Options   Quote çok geç Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 08-Jan-2007 at 22:08
Before the establishment of Yuan dynasty by the Mongols in 1271, records of Muslims in China dates back as old as 713. Guangzhou Muslim settlement is recroded by mid 700's AD.
However, I'm not sure if Uyghurs converting to Islam after Mongol arrival to China is necessary a correlation with Mongol conquest. What I'm sure about is that the Mongols have changed the Middle East and the world by brining mass Turkic immigration to West of Asia, establishing the new era of non-Arab caliphate, and reviving the spirit of expansion and conquest especially by the Timurid empire, the Mughals, and the Ottomans who all would have not existed without the Mongol invasion.
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Post Options Post Options   Quote çok geç Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 08-Jan-2007 at 22:09
Originally posted by pekau

So the Mongolian influence over Middle East, in general, was bad?

 
I guess the shorterm or the after math of the Mongol invasion was destructive. Long term impact on the Middle East of the Mongol invasion is much more complex and depatable.
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Post Options Post Options   Quote Nestorian Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 13-Jan-2007 at 05:05
Before the establishment of Yuan dynasty by the Mongols in 1271, records of Muslims in China dates back as old as 713. Guangzhou Muslim settlement is recroded by mid 700's AD.
 
True, mainly as merchants as such but yielded little influence until the Mongol period when larger migratory movements occured. If I recall, there was even a mosque in Xian, the capital of the Tang Dynasty. 
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Post Options Post Options   Quote lorddhika Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 10-Mar-2007 at 17:34
I think it has a positive effect too. If the mongol never conquered, then it wouldn't ever any ottoman, which mean it wouldn't ever Istanbul, and still be constantinople.
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Post Options Post Options   Quote Kapikulu Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 11-Mar-2007 at 00:05
Originally posted by axeman

  Jalayirids, White and Black Sheep Turks

 
Those three was more than a century after the Mongol influence began to lose its effect in Middle East..
 
Their lifespan had been very short to leave something positive and negative as well.
 
Jalayirids had been a major actor in the Ottoman-Timurid War, but only lasted for several decades.
 
Black Sheep(Kara Koyunlu) was ended by White Sheep(Ak Koyunlu) dynasty.It lasted for several decades as well.
 
White Sheep had been a bit more active, but lost to Ottomans in Battle of Otlukbeli, 1473, and their expansion ceased. After their influential leader Uzun Hasan died, this weakened dynasty was ended by Shah Ismail's Safavids.
 
All of the three hadn't made much impact and their lives had been short.
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