History Community ~ All Empires Homepage


This is the Archive on WORLD Historia, the old original forum.

 You cannot post here - you can only read.

 

Here is the link to the new forum:

  FAQ FAQ  Forum Search   Events   Register Register  Login Login

Forum LockedThe History of Bulgaria

 Post Reply Post Reply Page  <1 23456 29>
Author
Balkh-Aryan View Drop Down
Earl
Earl
Avatar

Joined: 12-Mar-2008
Location: Bulgaria
Status: Offline
Points: 256
Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Balkh-Aryan Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 23-Mar-2008 at 20:28

Kaaba%20a%20Hindu%20Temple?
BackHomeNext

 

      Pages

Home

Hinduism & Quantum Physics
Alphabetical Listing
Amazing Science
Vedic Mathematics
Oldest Civilization
Aryan Language Family
Hindu Festivals 2031
Hindu Fesivals 2043
Moon Calendar 2007
Moon Calendar 2009
Moon Calendar 2011
Eclipse
Hinduism - Brief Sketch
Founder of Hinduism
Vrat - Resolution
Mind Power
Mantras - Sacred Fire
Shanti Mantras
Cows are Sacred
From Scriptures
Sayings of Sri Ramakrishna
God can be seen
Guru
Silent Teachings & Satsang
Touched by God
Caste System
Untouchables
Duties
Yuga Dharma
Doing Good
Virtue
Virtue, Wealth & Pleasure
Tirukkural
Ashramas
Sannyasa - Renunciation
Kamagita
Wheel of Life
Maya-Shakti-Prakriti
Durga Saptashati
Creation
Dissolution
Wisdom versus knowledge
Divine Wealth
Motherhood
Women
Marriage
Alluring Adornment
God
Nature of Reality
That Thou Art
Sanatan Ved Dharma
Destiny & Exertion
Soul & its Destiny
The Real and the Apparent Man
Death & Life
Bhishma
Immortality
Egoism
Resurrection
Reincarnation
Heaven & Hell
Emancipation
Gayatri
Meditation
Meditation Q & A
Direct Path
Miscellaneous Q & A
Jesus versus Churchianity
Empty Chamber
Adhyatma-Self-Spiritual Science
Self-Realisation
Self - Atma
Jnani - Self-realised
Who am I?
Sanat-sujata
Vidura-Niti
Chanakya - Niti
Kautilya Arthasastra
Worship
Self-enquiry
Highest Object of Knowledge
The Highest Refuge of All things
Sankhya versus Yoga
Yoga
Jnana Yoga
Raja Yoga
Bhakti - Surrender
Bhakti Yoga
Karma Yoga
Japa
Music
Consciousness -The Three States
Freedom & Bondage
Morality
Overcoming Difficulties
Forgiveness versus Might - Anger
Penance
Renunciation & Abandonment
Truth
Truth versus Falsehood
Happiness
Self-restraint
Senses - self-discipline
Ignorance
Anahata Nada
What Religion Is
Karma & Destiny
Sin
Sinner
Drunkard
Conscience
Prayer
Mind
Miracles & Visions
Riddles
Celibacy
Thought, Speech & Deed
Upanishads
Gita for Children
Gita
Preyas & Sreyas
Pravritti - Nivritti
Acts versus Knowledge
Conduct
Kali Yuga
Tantra
Kundalini
Direct Perception versus Scriptures
Faith
Atheist
Righteousness
Highest Good
Mother, Father & Teacher
Eldest Brother
Friendship
Self-interest
kingcraft
Chastisements
Thanks Giving
Ethics
Good and Evil
Vices
Malevolent & Wicked
Nature of Man
Culture and Civilization
Kosas Sheaths
Good and Pure
Sattwa, Rajas & Tamas
East-West-North-South
Stories - Episodes
Procrastination
Gifts
Fasting (Religious)
Tirtha
Sacred Waters - Ganga
Tilak
Ideal behind the idol
Rituals
Hinduism & Sri Ramakrishna
Funerals
Tarpana
Aarati
Flowers - Incense - Lamps
Prasad
Sacraments - Samskaras
Sacred Thread
Food
Your Constitution
Trees have Life
Prana-Vyana-Samana
Krishna
Ganapati - Gopalnanda
Brahma - Sutras
Temples
Sun - Surya
Makar Sankranti
Vasant Panchami
Siva
Nataraj
Holi - Festival
Ramayana
Hanuman
Raksha Bandhan
Krishna Janmashtami
Deepavali
Adhik Maas
Kaaba a Hindu Temple?
Islam Stagnant
Buddhism
Buddhism in China--Japan-Korea
Religions in brief
Inter-religious Attitude
Books
Hindu Scriptures
Philosophy
Schools of Vedanta
Hindu Sects
Q & A
Dasnami Sampradaya
Dharma
Speech - Science
Abusive Speech
Appreciations
Food Charts
Drama - Shakuntala
Vishnu Sahasranama
Moon Calendar 2013
Moon Calendar 2015
Moon Calendar 2017
Moon Calendar 2019
Moon Calendar 2021
Vedic Maths India
CSS2


Top
       =======  Understanding Hinduism  =======

Kaaba a Hindu Temple?

[Note: A recent archeological find in Kuwait unearthed a gold-plated
statue of the Hindu deity Ganesh. A Muslim resident of Kuwait requested
historical research material that can help explain the connection between Hindu civilisation and Arabia.]

Was the Kaaba Originally a Hindu Temple?

By P.N. Oak (Historian)

Glancing through some research material recently, I was pleasantly surprised to come across a reference to a king Vikramaditya inscription found in the Kaaba in Mecca proving beyond doubt that the Arabian Peninsula formed a part of his Indian Empire.

The text of the crucial Vikramaditya inscription, found inscribed on a gold dish hung inside the Kaaba shrine in Mecca, is found recorded on page 315 of a volume known as ‘Sayar-ul-Okul’ treasured in the Makhtab-e-Sultania library in Istanbul, Turkey. Rendered in free English the inscription says:

"Fortunate are those who were born (and lived) during king Vikram’s reign. He was a noble, generous dutiful ruler, devoted to the welfare of his subjects. But at that time we Arabs, oblivious of God, were lost in sensual pleasures. Plotting and torture were rampant. The darkness of ignorance had enveloped our country. Like the lamb struggling for her life in the cruel paws of a wolf we Arabs were caught up in ignorance. The entire country was enveloped in a darkness so intense as on a new moon night. But the present dawn and pleasant sunshine of education is the result of the favour of the noble king Vikramaditya whose benevolent supervision did not lose sight of us- foreigners as we were. He spread his sacred religion amongst us and sent scholars whose brilliance shone like that of the sun from his country to ours. These scholars and preceptors through whose benevolence we were once again made cognisant of the presence of God, introduced to His sacred existence and put on the road of Truth, had come to our country to preach their religion and impart education at king Vikramaditya’s behest."

For those who would like to read the Arabic wording I reproduce it hereunder in Roman script:

"Itrashaphai Santu Ibikramatul Phahalameen Karimun Yartapheeha Wayosassaru Bihillahaya Samaini Ela Motakabberen Sihillaha Yuhee Quid min howa Yapakhara phajjal asari nahone osirom bayjayhalem. Yundan blabin Kajan blnaya khtoryaha sadunya kanateph netephi bejehalin Atadari bilamasa- rateen phakef tasabuhu kaunnieja majekaralhada walador. As hmiman burukankad toluho watastaru hihila Yakajibaymana balay kulk amarena phaneya jaunabilamary Bikramatum".

(Page 315 Sayar-ul-okul).

[Note: The title ‘Saya-ul-okul’ signifies memorable words.]

A careful analysis of the above inscription enables us to draw the following conclusions:

  1. That the ancient Indian empires may have extended up to the eastern boundaries of Arabia until Vikramaditya and that it was he who for the first time conquered Arabia. Because the inscription says that king Vikram who dispelled the darkness of ignorance from Arabia.
  2. That, whatever their earlier faith, King Vikrama’s preachers had succeeded in spreading the Vedic (based on the Vedas, the Hindu sacred scriptures)) way of life in Arabia.
  3. That the knowledge of Indian arts and sciences was imparted by Indians to the Arabs directly by founding schools, academies and cultural centres. The belief, therefore, that visiting Arabs conveyed that knowledge to their own lands through their own indefatigable efforts and scholarship is unfounded.

An ancillary conclusion could be that the so-called Kutub Minar (in Delhi, India) could well be king Vikramadiya’s tower commemorating his conquest of Arabia. This conclusion is strengthened by two pointers. Firstly, the inscription on the iron pillar near the so-called Kutub Minar refers to the marriage of the victorious king Vikramaditya to the princess of Balhika. This Balhika is none other than the Balkh region in West Asia. It could be that Arabia was wrestled by king Vikramaditya from the ruler of Balkh who concluded a treaty by giving his daughter in marriage to the victor. Secondly, the township adjoining the so called Kutub Minar is named Mehrauli after Mihira who was the renowned astronomer-mathematician of king Vikram’s court. Mehrauli is the corrupt form of Sanskrit ‘Mihira-Awali’ signifying a row of houses raised for Mihira and his helpers and assistants working on astronomical observations made from the tower.

Having seen the far reaching and history shaking implications of the Arabic inscription concerning king Vikrama, we shall now piece together the story of its find. How it came to be recorded and hung in the Kaaba in Mecca. What are the other proofs reinforcing the belief that Arabs were once followers of the Indian Vedic way of life and that tranquillity and education were ushered into Arabia by king Vikramaditya’s scholars, educationists from an uneasy period of "ignorance and turmoil" mentioned in the inscription.

In Istanbul, Turkey, there is a famous library called Makhatab-e-Sultania, which is reputed to have the largest collection of ancient West Asian literature. In the Arabic section of that library is an anthology of ancient Arabic poetry. That anthology was compiled from an earlier work in A.D. 1742 under the orders of the Turkish ruler Sultan Salim.

The pages of that volume are of Hareer – a kind of silk used for writing on. Each page has a decorative gilded border. That anthology is known as Sayar-ul-Okul. It is divided into three parts. The first part contains biographic details and the poetic compositions of pre-Islamic Arabian poets. The second part embodies accounts and verses of poets of the period beginning just after prophet Mohammad’s times, up to the end of the Banee-Um-Mayya dynasty. The third part deals with later poets up to the end of Khalif Harun-al-Rashid’s times.

Abu Amir Asamai, an Arabian bard who was the poet Laureate of Harun-al-Rashid’s court, has compiled and edited the anthology.

The first modern edition of ‘Sayar-ul-Okul’ was printed and published in Berlin in 1864. A subsequent edition is the one published in Beirut in 1932.

The collection is regarded as the most important and authoritative anthology of ancient Arabic poetry. It throws considerable light on the social life, customs, manners and entertainment modes of ancient Arabia. The book also contains an elaborate description of the ancient shrine of Mecca, the town and the annual fair known as OKAJ which used to be held every year around the Kaaba temple in Mecca. This should convince readers that the annual haj of the Muslims to the Kaaba is of earlier pre-Islamic congregation.

But the OKAJ fair was far from a carnival. It provided a forum for the elite and the learned to discuss the social, religious, political, literary and other aspects of the Vedic culture then pervading Arabia. ‘Sayar-ul-Okul’ asserts that the conclusion reached at those discussions were widely respected throughout Arabia. Mecca, therefore, followed the Varanasi tradition (of India) of providing a venue for important discussions among the learned while the masses congregated there for spiritual bliss. The principal shrines at both Varanasi in India and at Mecca in Arvasthan (Arabia) were Siva temples. Even to this day ancient Mahadev (Siva) emblems can be seen. It is the Shankara (Siva) stone that Muslim pilgrims reverently touch and kiss in the Kaaba.

Arabic tradition has lost trace of the founding of the Kaaba temple. The discovery of the Vikramaditya inscription affords a clue. King Vikramaditya is known for his great devotion to Lord Mahadev (Siva). At Ujjain (India), the capital of Vikramaditya, exists the famous shrine of Mahankal, i.e., of Lord Shankara (Siva) associated with Vikramaditya. Since according to the Vikramaditya inscription he spread the Vedic religion, who else but he could have founded the Kaaba temple in Mecca?

A few miles away from Mecca is a big signboard which bars the entry of any non-Muslim into the area. This is a reminder of the days when the Kaaba was stormed and captured solely for the newly established faith of Islam. The object in barring entry of non-Muslims was obviously to prevent its recapture.

As the pilgrim proceeds towards Mecca he is asked to shave his head and beard and to don special sacred attire that consists of two seamless sheets of white cloth. One is to be worn round the waist and the other over the shoulders. Both these rites are remnants of the old Vedic practice of entering Hindu temples clean- and with holy seamless white sheets.

The main shrine in Mecca, which houses the Siva emblem, is known as the Kaaba. It is clothed in a black shroud. That custom also originates from the days when it was thought necessary to discourage its recapture by camouflaging it.

According to the Encyclopaedia Britannica, the Kaaba has 360 images. Traditional accounts mention that one of the deities among the 360 destroyed when the place was stormed, was that of Saturn; another was of the Moon and yet another was one called Allah. That shows that in the Kaaba the Arabs worshipped the nine planets in pre-Islamic days. In India the practice of ‘Navagraha’ puja, that is worship of the nine planets, is still in vogue. Two of these nine are Saturn and Moon.

In India the crescent moon is always painted across the forehead of the Siva symbol. Since that symbol was associated with the Siva emblem in Kaaba it came to be grafted on the flag of Islam.

Another Hindu tradition associated with the Kaaba is that of the sacred stream Ganga (sacred waters of the Ganges river). According to the Hindu tradition Ganga is also inseparable from the Shiva emblem as the crescent moon. Wherever there is a Siva emblem, Ganga must co-exist. True to that association a sacred fount exists near the Kaaba. Its water is held sacred because it has been traditionally regarded as Ganga since pre-Islamic times (Zam-Zam water).

[Note: Even today, Muslim pilgrims who go to the Kaaba for Haj regard this Zam-Zam water with reverence and take some bottled water with them as sacred water.]

Muslim pilgrims visiting the Kaaba temple go around it seven times. In no other mosque does the circumambulation prevail. Hindus invariably circumambulate around their deities. This is yet another proof that the Kaaba shrine is a pre-Islamic Indian Shiva temple where the Hindu practice of circumambulation is still meticulously observed.

The practice of taking seven steps- known as Saptapadi in Sanskrit- is associated with Hindu marriage ceremony and fire worship. The culminating rite in a Hindu marriage enjoins upon the bride and groom to go round the sacred fire four times (but misunderstood by many as seven times). Since "Makha" means fire, the seven circumambulations also prove that Mecca was the seat of Indian fire-worship in the West Asia.

It might come as a stunning revelation to many that the word ‘ALLAH’ itself is Sanskrit. In Sanskrit language Allah, Akka and Amba are synonyms. They signify a goddess or mother. The term ‘ALLAH’ forms part of Sanskrit chants invoking goddess Durga, also known as Bhavani, Chandi and Mahishasurmardini. The Islamic word for God is., therefore, not an innovation but the ancient Sanskrit appellation retained and continued by Islam. Allah means mother or goddess and mother goddess.

One Koranic verse is an exact translation of a stanza in the Yajurveda. This was pointed out by the great research scholar Pandit Satavlekar of Pardi in one of his articles.

[Note: Another scholar points out that the following teaching from the Koran is exactly similar to the teaching of the Kena Upanishad (1.7).

The Koran:

"Sight perceives Him not. But He perceives men's sights; for He is the knower of secrets, the Aware."

Kena Upanishad:

"That which cannot be seen by the eye but through which the eye itself sees, know That to be Brahman (God) and not what people worship here (in the manifested world)."

A simplified meaning of both the above verses reads:

God is one and that He is beyond man's sensory experience.]

The identity of Unani and Ayurvedic systems shows that Unani is just the Arabic term for the Ayurvedic system of healing taught to them and administered in Arabia when Arabia formed part of the Indian empire.

It will now be easy to comprehend the various Hindu customs still prevailing in West Asian countries even after the existence of Islam during the last 1300 years. Let us review some Hindu traditions which exist as the core of Islamic practice.

The Hindus have a pantheon of 33 gods. People in Asia Minor too worshipped 33 gods before the spread of Islam. The lunar calendar was introduced in West Asia during the Indian rule. The Muslim month ‘Safar’ signifying the ‘extra’ month (Adhik Maas) in the Hindu calendar. The Muslim month Rabi is the corrupt form of Ravi meaning the sun because Sanskrit ‘V’ changes into Prakrit ‘B’ (Prakrit being the popular version of Sanskrit language). The Muslim sanctity for Gyrahwi Sharif is nothing but the Hindu Ekadashi (Gyrah = elevan or Gyaarah). Both are identical in meaning.

The Islamic practice of Bakari Eed derives from the Go-Medh and Ashva-Medh Yagnas or sacrifices of Vedic times. Eed in Sanskrit means worship. The Islamic word Eed for festive days, signifying days of worship, is therefore a pure Sanskrit word. The word MESH in the Hindu zodiac signifies a lamb. Since in ancient times the year used to begin with the entry of the sun in Aries, the occasion was celebrated with mutton feasting. That is the origin of the Bakari Eed festival.

[Note: The word Bakari is an Indian language word for a goat.]

Since Eed means worship and Griha means ‘house’, the Islamic word Idgah signifies a ‘House of worship’ which is the exact Sanskrit connotation of the term. Similarly the word ‘Namaz’ derives from two Sanskrit roots ‘Nama’ and ‘Yajna’ (NAMa yAJna) meaning bowing and worshipping.

Vedic descriptions about the moon, the different stellar constellations and the creation of the universe have been incorporated from the Vedas in Koran part 1 chapter 2, stanza 113, 114, 115, and 158, 189, chapter 9, stanza 37 and chapter 10, stanzas 4 to 7.

Recital of the Namaz five times a day owes its origin to the Vedic injunction of Panchmahayagna (five daily worship- Panch-Maha-Yagna) which is part of the daily Vedic ritual prescribed for all individuals.

Muslims are enjoined cleanliness of five parts of the body before commencing prayers. This derives from the Vedic injuction ‘Shareer Shydhyartham Panchanga Nyasah’.

Four months of the year are regarded as very sacred in Islamic custom. The devout are enjoined to abstain from plunder and other evil deeds during that period. This originates in the Chaturmasa i.e., the four-month period of special vows and austerities in Hindu tradition. Shabibarat is the corrupt form of Shiva Vrat and Shiva Ratra. Since the Kaaba has been an important centre of Shiva (Siva) worship from times immemorial, the Shivaratri festival used to be celebrated there with great gusto. It is that festival which is signified by the Islamic word Shabibarat.

Encyclopaedias tell us that there are inscriptions on the side of the Kaaba walls. What they are, no body has been allowed to study, according to the correspondence I had with an American scholar of Arabic. But according to hearsay at least some of those inscriptions are in Sanskrit, and some of them are stanzas from the Bhagavad Gita.

According to extant Islamic records, Indian merchants had settled in Arabia, particularly in Yemen, and their life and manners deeply influenced those who came in touch with them. At Ubla there was a large number of Indian settlements. This shows that Indians were in Arabia and Yemen in sufficient strength and commanding position to be able to influence the local people. This could not be possible unless they belonged to the ruling class.

It is mentioned in the Abadis i.e., the authentic traditions of Prophet Mohammad compiled by Imam Bukhari that the Indian tribe of Jats had settled in Arabia before Prophet Mohammad’s times. Once when Hazrat Ayesha, wife of the Prophet, was taken ill, her nephew sent for a Jat physician for her treatment. This proves that Indians enjoyed a high and esteemed status in Arabia. Such a status could not be theirs unless they were the rulers. Bukhari also tells us that an Indian Raja (king) sent a jar of ginger pickles to the Prophet. This shows that the Indian Jat Raja ruled an adjacent area so as to be in a position to send such an insignificant present as ginger pickles. The Prophet is said to have so highly relished it as to have told his colleagues also to partake of it. These references show that even during Prophet Mohammad’s times Indians retained their influential role in Arabia, which was a dwindling legacy from Vikramaditya’s times.

The Islamic term ‘Eed-ul-Fitr’ derives from the ‘Eed of Piters’ that is worship of forefathers in Sanskrit tradition. In India, Hindus commemorate their ancestors during the Pitr-Paksha that is the fortnight reserved for their remembrance. The very same is the significance of ‘Eed-ul-Fitr’ (worship of forefathers).

The Islamic practice of observing the moon rise before deciding on celebrating the occasion derives from the Hindu custom of breaking fast on Sankranti and Vinayaki Chaturthi only after sighting the moon.

Barah Vafat, the Muslim festival for commemorating those dead in battle or by weapons, derives from a similar Sanskrit tradition because in Sanskrit ‘Phiphaut’ is ‘death’. Hindus observe Chayal Chaturdashi in memory of those who have died in battle.

The word Arabia is itself the abbreviation of a Sanskrit word. The original word is ‘Arabasthan’. Since Prakrit ‘B’ is Sanskrit ‘V’ the original Sanskrit name of the land is ‘Arvasthan’. ‘Arva’ in Sanskrit means a horse. Arvasthan signifies a land of horses., and as well all know, Arabia is famous for its horses.

This discovery changes the entire complexion of the history of ancient India. Firstly we may have to revise our concepts about the king who had the largest empire in history. It could be that the expanse of king Vikramaditya’s empire was greater than that of all others. Secondly, the idea that the Indian empire spread only to the east and not in the west beyond say, Afghanisthan may have to be abandoned. Thirdly the effeminate and pathetic belief that India, unlike any other country in the world could by some age spread her benign and beatific cultural influence, language, customs, manners and education over distant lands without militarily conquering them is baseless. India did conquer all those countries physically wherever traces of its culture and language are still extant and the region extended from Bali island in the south Pacific to the Baltic in Northern Europe and from Korea to Kaaba. The only difference was that while Indian rulers identified themselves with the local population and established welfare states, Moghuls and others who ruled conquered lands perpetuated untold atrocities over the vanquished.

‘Sayar-ul-Okul’ tells us that a pan-Arabic poetic symposium used to be held in Mecca at the annual Okaj fair in pre-Islamic times. All leading poets used to participate in it.

Poems considered best were awarded prizes. The best-engraved on gold plate were hung inside the temple. Others etched on camel or goatskin were hung outside. Thus for thousands of years the Kaaba was the treasure house of the best Arabian poetic thought inspired by the Indian Vedic tradition.

That tradition being of immemorial antiquity many poetic compositions were engraved and hung inside and outside on the walls of the Kaaba. But most of the poems got lost and destroyed during the storming of the Kaaba by Prophet Mohammad’s troops. The Prophet’s court poet, Hassan-bin-Sawik, who was among the invaders, captured some of the treasured poems and dumped the gold plate on which they were inscribed in his own home. Sawik’s grandson, hoping to earn a reward carried those gold plates to Khalif’s court where he met the well-known Arab scholar Abu Amir Asamai. The latter received from the bearer five gold plates and 16 leather sheets with the prize-winning poems engraved on them. The bearer was sent away happy bestowed with a good reward.

On the five gold plates were inscribed verses by ancient Arab poets like Labi Baynay, Akhatab-bin-Turfa and Jarrham Bintoi. That discovery made Harun-al-Rashid order Abu Amir to compile a collection of all earlier compositions. One of the compositions in the collection is a tribute in verse paid by Jarrham Bintoi, a renowned Arab poet, to king Vikramaditya. Bintoi who lived 165 years before Prophet Mohammad had received the highest award for the best poetic compositions for three years in succession in the pan-Arabic symposiums held in Mecca every year. All those three poems of Bintoi adjudged best were hung inside the Kaaba temple, inscribed on gold plates. One of these constituted an unreserved tribute to King Vikramaditya for his paternal and filial rule over Arabia. That has already been quoted above.

Pre-Islamic Arabian poet Bintoi’s tribute to king Vikramaditya is a decisive evidence that it was king Vikramaditya who first conquered the Arabian Peninsula and made it a part of the Indian Empire. This explains why starting from India towards the west we have all Sanskrit names like Afghanisthan (now Afghanistan), Baluchisthan, Kurdisthan, Tajikiathan, Uzbekisthan,  Iran, Sivisthan, Iraq, Arvasthan, Turkesthan (Turkmenisthan) etc.

Historians have blundered in not giving due weight to the evidence provided by Sanskrit names pervading over the entire west Asian region. Let us take a contemporary instance. Why did a part of India get named Nagaland even after the end of British rule over India? After all historical traces are wiped out of human memory, will a future age historian be wrong if he concludes from the name Nagaland that the British or some English speaking power must have ruled over India? Why is Portuguese spoken in Goa (part of India), and French in Pondichery (part of India), and both French and English in Canada? Is it not because those people ruled over the territories where their languages are spoken? Can we not then justly conclude that wherever traces of Sanskrit names and traditions exist Indians once held sway? It is unfortunate that this important piece of decisive evidence has been ignored all these centuries.

Another question which should have presented itself to historians for consideration is how could it be that Indian empires could extend in the east as far as Korea and Japan, while not being able to make headway beyond Afghanisthan? In fact land campaigns are much easier to conduct than by sea. It was the Indians who ruled the entire West Asian region from Karachi to Hedjaz and who gave Sanskrit names to those lands and the towns therein, introduce their pantheon of the fire-worship, imparted education and established law and order.

It may be that Arabia itself was not part of the Indian empire until king Vikrama , since Bintoi says that it was king Vikrama who for the first time brought about a radical change in the social, cultural and political life of Arabia. It may be that the whole of West Asia except Arabia was under Indian rule before Vikrama. The latter added Arabia too to the Indian Empire. Or as a remote possibility it could be that king Vikramaditya himself conducted a series of brilliant campaigns annexing to his empire the vast region between Afghanisthan and Hedjaz.

Incidentally this also explains why king Vikramaditya is so famous in history. Apart from the nobility and truthfulness of heart and his impartial filial affection for all his subjects, whether Indian or Arab, as testified by Bintoi, king Vikramaditya has been permanently enshrined in the pages of history because he was the world’s greatest ruler having the largest empire. It should be remembered that only a monarch with a vast empire gets famous in world history. Vikram Samvat (calendar still widely in use in India today) which he initiated over 2000 years ago may well mark his victory over Arabia, and the so called Kutub Minar (Kutub Tower in Delhi), a pillar commemorating that victory and the consequential marriage with the Vaihika (Balkh) princess as testified by the nearby iron pillar inscription.

A great many puzzles of ancient world history get automatically solved by a proper understanding of these great conquests of king Vikramaditya. As recorded by the Arab poet Bintoi, Indian scholars, preachers and social workers spread the fire-worship ceremony, preached the Vedic way of life, manned schools, set up Ayurvedic (healing) centres, trained the local people in irrigation and agriculture and established in those regions a democratic, orderly, peaceful, enlightened and religious way of life. That was of course, a Vedic Hindu way of life.

It is from such ancient times that Indian Kshtriya royal families, like the Pahalvis and Barmaks, have held sway over Iran and Iraq. It is those conquests, which made the Parsees Agnihotris i.e., fire-worshippers. It is therefore that we find the Kurds of Kurdisthan speaking a Sanskritised dialect, fire temples existing thousands of miles away from India, and scores of sites of ancient Indian cultural centres like Navbahar in West Asia and the numerous viharas in Soviet Russia spread throughout the world. Ever since so many viharas are often dug up in Soviet Russia, ancient Indian sculptures are also found in excavations in Central Asia. The same goes for West Asia.

[Note: Ancient Indian sculptures include metal statues of the Hindu deity Ganesh (the elephant headed god); the most recent find being in Kuwait].

Unfortunately these chapters of world history have been almost obliterated from public memory. They need to be carefully deciphered and rewritten. When these chapters are rewritten they might change the entire concept and orientation of ancient history.

In view of the overwhelming evidence led above, historians, scholars, students of history and lay men alike should take note that they had better revise their text books of ancient world history. The existence of Hindu customs, shrines, Sanskrit names of whole regions, countries and towns and the Vikramaditya inscriptions reproduced at the beginning are a thumping proof that Indian Kshatriyas once ruled over the vast region from Bali to Baltic and Korea to Kaaba in Mecca, Arabia at the very least.

Links to similar topics

go to www.google.com/
in the search box type
Sword of truth Aditi Chaturvedi

The following explanation is reproduced from the Sword of Truth archives.

All Arabic copies of the Koran have the mysterious figure 786 imprinted on them . No Arabic scholar has been able to determine the choice of this particular number as divine. It is an established fact that Muhammad was illiterate therefore it is obvious that he would not be able to differentiate numbers from letters. This "magical" number is none other than the Vedic holy letter "OM" written in Sanskrit (Refer to figure 2). Anyone who knows Sanskrit can try reading the symbol for "OM" backwards in the Arabic way and magically the numbers 786 will appear! Muslims in their ignorance simply do not realise that this special number is nothing more than the holiest of Vedic symbols misread.



Figure 2.
Read from right to left this figure
of OM represents the numbers 786
Look at this symbol of Om in a mirror and
you can make out the Devnagari (Sanskrit-Hindi)
numerals 7-8-6

_______________________________________________________

We received the following email from one of our readers
Sun, 07 Nov 2004 02:24:39+0300
Kabaa-Kabaali-Lord Shiva*
Dear Sir,
First of all I heartly thank for hosting such a beautiful website. I read the message " Is the Kabaa a Hindu temple ???". It was a very Intresting, thought provoking and informative message. I would like to bring to your notice regarding this, that the word Kabaa might have come from the TAMIL language - Kabaalishwaran temple (TAMIL is considered as one of the oldest languages of the world). Dravidian's worshiped Lord Shiva as their Primal Deity - Indus valley civilization. Shiva Temple's in South India are called as Kabaalishwaran temple's. Kabaali - refers to Lord Shiva.

-Dr.Davis S.Senthilkumar
====================================
Related Topics

Islam Stagnant
Adhik Maas
Hindu Festivals 2031

Top < To top of this page
Index Alphabetical [Index to Pages]

BackHomeNext

UPDATE YOUR KNOWLEDGE
Back to Top
Balkh-Aryan View Drop Down
Earl
Earl
Avatar

Joined: 12-Mar-2008
Location: Bulgaria
Status: Offline
Points: 256
Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Balkh-Aryan Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 23-Mar-2008 at 20:54
// < ="text/" ="http://forum.hayastan.com/s/ips_ips.js"> < ="text/" ="http://forum.hayastan.com/s/ipb_global.js"> < ="text/" ="http://forum.hayastan.com/s/ips_menu.js"> < ="text/" ="http://forum.hayastan.com_s/1/folder_js_skin/ips_menu_.js"> < ="text/" ="http://forum.hayastan.com/cache/lang_cache/en/lang_.js"> //
< ="text/" ="http://forum.hayastan.com/s/ips_httprequest.js"> < ="text/" ="http://forum.hayastan.com/s/ipb_global_enhanced.js"> < ="text/" ="http://forum.hayastan.com/s/dom-drag.js">
X   Site Message
(Message will auto close in 2 seconds)

Welcome Guest ( Log In | Register )

< ="text/" ="http://pagead2.googlesyndication.com/pagead/show_ads.js"> < name="google_ads_" ="http://pagead2.googlesyndication.com/pagead/ads?client=ca-pub-1558700113749672&dt=1206305611205&lmt=1206305607&alternate_ad_=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.hayastan.com%2Fs%2Falternative.&at=728x90_as&output=&correlator=1206305611195&=http%3A%2F%2Fforum.hayastan.com%2Findex.php%3Fshowtopic%3D18329&color_bg=FFFFFF&color_text=000000&color_=4369B5&color_=000080&color_border=FFFFFF&ad_=text&ref=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.google.bg%2Fsearch%3Fq%3DArmenian%2BGeography%26hl%3Dbg%26client%3Dfirefox-a%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla%3Aen-US%3Aofficial%26start%3D20%26sa%3DN&frm=0&cc=100&ga_vid=1175750731.1206305611&ga_sid=1206305611&ga_hid=244811638&flash=9.0.115&u_h=768&u_w=1024&u_ah=738&u_aw=1024&u_cd=32&u_tz=120&u_his=10&u_java=true&u_nplug=13&u_nmime=48" marginwidth="0" marginheight="0" ="0" ="0" allowtransparency="true" border="0" height="90" scrolling="no" width="728">

< ="text/" ="http://forum.hayastan.com/s/ipb_topic.js"> < ="text/" ="http://forum.hayastan.com/s/ips_text_editor_lite.js"> //
 
Reply%20to%20this%20topicStart%20new%20topic
Track this topic", img_item + " Email this topic", img_item + " Print this topic", img_item + " Download this topic", img_item + " Subscribe to this forum", "~~NODIV~~
Display Modes
", img_item + " Switch to: Outline", img_item + " Switch to: Standard", img_item + " Linear+" ) ); topic_rate.settings['allow_rating'] = parseInt("0"); topic_rate.settings['default_rating'] = parseInt("0"); topic_rate.settings['img_base_url'] = ipb_var_image_url + '/folder_topic_view'; topic_rate.settings['div_rating_wrapper'] = 'topic-rating-wrapper'; topic_rate.settings['text_rating_image'] = 'topic-rating-img-'; topic_rate.languages['img_alt_rate'] = "Rate this topic, click on desired star to send rating"; topic_rate.languages['rate_me'] = "Rate Topic:"; topic_rate.init_rating_images(); -->
Phrygian
ipsmenu.register( "post-member-414174", '', 'popmenubutton-new', 'popmenubutton-new-out' );
post Sep 14 2005, 23:30
Post #1


Nationalist
***

Group: Forumjan
Posts: 935
Joined: 28-02-04
Member No.: 8,756
Sex: Yes please
Age range:26-35



Disclaimer: For a long time various scholars and historians erroniously considered the Bulgars that migrated from the East, settled in the Balkans and assimilated with Slavic invaders from the North to be of turkic origin. Recent research suggests that Bulgars were of Iranic stock, speaking an Indo-European tongue from Pamir, who through the course of their long trek to the West, as a direct result of barbarian attacks merely picked up some turkic elements.

Old Armenian sources confirm this.

http://tangra.bitex.com/eng/kalendar/2001/5.htm

The first information about the Bulgarian presence in these lands was given by Mar Abas Katina. It is in the composition of Moses Horen “A History of Armenia” (book II, 6, 9). In the days of the Armenian king Arshak, the time between the reign of Artaksi II Arshak (33-20 BC) and Arshak (35-41 AD), troubles were breeding in the gorges of the great mountain of Caucasus, in the “Country of the Bulgarians”. Many of them separated and settled in the foothills of Koh (Kol), in the fertile lands of Upper (No Trees) Basian. The colonists were of the people Vlndur Bulgar Vund.

The region began to be called after their leader Vanand and the settlements were named after his brothers and successors, Bulhar, Doks, Toh (Tuh), Altsek. This Bulgarian toponymy can be found in the compositions of the later Armenian historians, A. Kretatsi, J. Drashanakertatsi, M. Kalankatuatsi. At the beginning of the 4th century Vanand’s descendants fell within the evangelisation reach of the young Armenian Church. Tsar Tiran (338-350) ordered a royal suite to accompany the candidate for Catholicos, Iusik, to his accession in Cesaria. Orot, the prince of Vanand, was in the suite. When the sons of Catholicos Iusik turned unworthy of receiving the pastor’s sceptre from his own hand, the tsar sent four princes to invite the pupil of Gregory Educator, Bishop Danail. Artavan, the prince of Vanand was among them.

Favstos Buzand wrote as a witness that in the process of the division of Armenia in zones of influence between Rome and Persia (387), people of “the clan of the Vanands” did not join any of the sides but retreated in the mountainous forests of Taik. Those brave people, who were ready to defend their freedom risking their life, knew only one way of communicating with other tribes and peoples – peaceful settlement and equal coexistence. At that time, the bishop of Vanand was Zorguaz who lived and served as an exemplary Christian pastor. At the end of the 4th and the beginning of the 5th century, some of the Bulgarians from Armenia migrated back to North Caucasus. The rest of the Vanand people stayed and shared the dramatic history of the Armenians. After the decree of the Persian Tsar Jezdigert II (449) to abolish Christian faith in the country, the bishops of Armenia, Georgia and Albania refused to obey. Gad, the bishop of Vanand, was one of the participants in the meeting who made that decision. Egishe, a participant in the decisive Battle of Avarai (26 May 451), tells that one of the three Christian armies was led by the Bulgarian Tatul of Vanand. The Armenian Church notifies that 1036 Christian warriors entered their names in the “book of life” on that same day. In the vacuum of power after the death of Jezdigert II (457), N. Chichraketsi united the greater part of the Armenian people and chased away the Persian troops from the country. M. Horenski notes the Bulgarian participation, “Here all people of Vanand distinguished themselves with their courage” (book III, 56).

The copy of the Throne Certificate (Gahnamak) of the middle of the 5th century, which has been preserved, is a testimonial of the unification of the Bulgarians in the Armenian society. In it, among the 70 clans, the clan of the Vanands occupies the 14th place. It should be noted that 10 of the clans were considered senior and had “attributed” posts and unchangeable functions in the social and political life of Armenia. One Armenian Catholicos even has the preface “Altsek” in his name – Komitas I Altseki (651-628).

~~~

The Ancient Bulgarians from Imeon and their Neighbours 03.2001
Senior Research Associate Dr. Peter Dobrev, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences

Near Mount Imeon (present day Pamyr and Hindukush), the most ancient Bulgarian land, one of the earliest agricultural civilisations of the East developed 4000-5000 years ago. It is evident from the preserved sources that the Bulgarians and their neighbouring peoples were related to this civilisation. Historical science did not possess any concrete facts about that for a long time. A valuable hand-written copy of the ancient Armenian geography “Ashharatsuits” has been found recently. In it, the Bulgarians are mentioned among the 15 old trade and craftsmanship peoples, which inhabited the area between Persia and Turkestan in the foothills of Mount Imeon. In the text, the name of the Bulgarians is mentioned second among the peoples listed which means that they were among the most outstanding and respected ethnic groups in the region. Besides them, some of the ancient Huns, whom the Armenian historians describe as a backward, undeveloped tribe, lived near Mount Imeon.

That is why it is not correct to equate the Huns and the Bulgarians, as the proponents of the Huno-Bulgarian theory do. The Armenians did not possess the notion of Huno-Bulgarians. The same is true about the ancient Indian historians who describe the Bulgarians as a developed and proud people and the Huns as one of the most backward nomadic tribes.

During the ages before Christ, close neighbours of the Bulgarians were the Massagets, an ancient and very powerful people which was famous for the fact that its queen Tomiris defeated the Persian king Kir. The fact that one of the most erudite Byzantine historians, Prokopius Kesar, uses the name “Massagets” as a synonym of the Kutrigurs, one of the well-known Bulgarian tribes, is indicative of the close relationship between the Bulgarians and the Massagets.

Other authors like Amian Martselin consider the Massagets to be the forefathers of the Alans who were then the closest allies of the Bulgarians in Asia. It shows that the union between the Bulgarians and the Alans started as early as the time when the ancient Bulgarians lived near Mount Imeon and continued on the territory of Europe.

During the ages before Christ, close neighbours of the Bulgarians were the Massagets, an ancient and very powerful people which was famous for the fact that its queen Tomiris defeated the Persian king Kir. The fact that one of the most erudite Byzantine historians, Prokopius Kesar, uses the name “Massagets” as a synonym of the Kutrigurs, one of the well-known Bulgarian tribes, is indicative of the close relationship between the Bulgarians and the Massagets.

Other authors like Amian Martselin consider the Massagets to be the forefathers of the Alans who were then the closest allies of the Bulgarians in Asia. It shows that the union between the Bulgarians and the Alans started as early as the time when the ancient Bulgarians lived near Mount Imeon and continued on the territory of Europe.

The Saks, who were called Shaka, were another neighbouring people of the Bulgarians of the earliest period. This great and mighty tribe once lived to the east and north of Imeon. According to the legends, Budha, also known as Shakyamuni, sprang. Little is known of the relations between the Bulgarians and the Saks. It is known though that the Saks spoke a language of the Eastern-Iranian type, which was close to the Sogdian language. They resembled the ancient Bulgarians in their outer appearance; there is information about that in the Indian sources. In the Arabic chronicles, the Bulgarians were called by two parallel names, Bulgarians and Sakalibs. When their king sent a letter to the Arab khalif, Al-Moktadir, he called himself King of the Sakalibs in order, perhaps, to highlight his connection to the famous ancient Saks. It is also known that a characteristic feature of the clothing of the Saks and the Volga Bulgarians was the tall pointed fur cap. That is shown in the Persian images and the picture of Volga Bulgaria where the tall pointed cap is called “kalansuva va al-Bulgaria” (Bulgarian cap) by the Arab writer.

The Saks, who were called Shaka, were another neighbouring people of the Bulgarians of the earliest period. This great and mighty tribe once lived to the east and north of Imeon. According to the legends, Budha, also known as Shakyamuni, sprang. Little is known of the relations between the Bulgarians and the Saks. It is known though that the Saks spoke a language of the Eastern-Iranian type, which was close to the Sogdian language. They resembled the ancient Bulgarians in their outer appearance; there is information about that in the Indian sources. In the Arabic chronicles, the Bulgarians were called by two parallel names, Bulgarians and Sakalibs. When their king sent a letter to the Arab khalif, Al-Moktadir, he called himself King of the Sakalibs in order, perhaps, to highlight his connection to the famous ancient Saks. It is also known that a characteristic feature of the clothing of the Saks and the Volga Bulgarians was the tall pointed fur cap. That is shown in the Persian images and the picture of Volga Bulgaria where the tall pointed cap is called “kalansuva va al-Bulgaria” (Bulgarian cap) by the Arab writer.

The information of the ancient calendar of the Sacs, which was brought to India and kept many centuries, shows that it was similar to the ancient Bulgarian calendar. In it, every year had a special name, “sal bagai”, which means commander of the year in the language of the Saks. The specific word “bagai” (commander) almost entirely matches the word “bagain” which was a war title of the ancient Bulgarians.

The famous peoples of Utis, Paktis and Sogdians were also neighbours of the Bulgarians in the region of Mount Imeon. It is known that they lived there as early as 7th-6th century BC. The name Utis is mentioned by the Greek historian Herodotus among the peoples that lived the eastern most parts of the Persian Empire at the foothills of Mount Imeon. A thousand years later, the Byzantine historian Agatius Mirinei indicates another people at the same place naming it Utigurs, one of the well-known Bulgarian tribes. According to Agatius, the Utigurs, Kutrigurs and Vurugunds (probably Unogundurs) inhabited the lands on this side of Mount Imeon in Asia. Probably, this information is not misleading because even today a large tribe called Uts lives in the valleys of Hindukush in Afghanistan. The same name, Uts, is borne today by one of the tribes of the Kurds and by a small Caucasus people in Dagestan (called Uts in Caucassus and Udins in Russian).

The Paktis, neighbours of the ancient Utis and Utigurs, inhabit the northern slopes of Mount Imeon today. They are called Pakto or Pashto (this is the name that the present-day Afghans call themselves). Other neighbours of the ancient Bulgarians are also known. They were the Sogdis, a large and powerful people with its own kingdom and script that inhabited the eastern parts of Mount Imeon. Their trade colonies reached as far as China. The Byzantine Emperor, Ustinian I, learned the secret of breeding the silkworm from the Sogdians. A distant descendant of this great people is the small Pamyr tribe, Jagnobs, which still lives in the valley of the river Jagnob-Darja.

The Horesmians, another great people mentioned in the ancient Armenian chronicles as a neighbour of the Bulgarians, lived to the north of the Sogdians. They were tradesmen famous for their script and high culture. Their wealth was related to the fact that through the lands the route of the trade in gems and precious stones, which were extracted in Mount Imeon and transported north, passed.

In ancient times, the Bulgarians were also in close contact with the Indians who lived to the south of the Old Bulgarian fatherland. According to the “Machabharate”, the ancient Indian epic, the Bulgarians participated in the great Indian war as allies of the Indian royal clan, the Kauravs, and famed themselves as brave warriors on horseback.

What are the common features, peculiarities and achievements of the large peoples that were neighbours of the ancient Bulgarians? Firstly, they all spoke languages, which belonged to the East-Iranian (Indoeuropean) type. This is true about the Masagets, the Alans who sprang from them and whose descendants were the Osetins in Caucasus, the Saks, Sogdis, Utis, Paktis and Horemsians. Their written monuments are the object of a special branch of Iranian Studies – Middle-Iranian Linguistics. Another general feature of all neighbours of the ancient Bulgarians is the fact that most of them had strong states and were occupied with trade.

The Armenian geography “Ashharatsuits” says the following: “In Skitia [Central Asia] there are five countries, of which the Sogdiana and Sakastan are known. These two regions are inhabited by up to 15 peoples which are rich craftsmanship and trade peoples living in the space between Turkestan and Iran in the foothills of Mount Imai (Imeon), amongst whom there exist 43 nomadic tribes. Of the 15 peoples, one is called Massagets, after it comes the the Bulh people [Bulgarians], and after it to the north-west come the Horesmians where in the Tur region the Horesmian Stone is extracted as well as the best Serdolik. Of the 43 tribes, one is called Heptal [the Huns-Eftalits], another is Alhon, the third is Valhon, and the rest of them bear such barbaric names that it is not worth mentioning them”.

From this source, it is evident that the ancient Bulgarians were positioned near Mount Imeon in a varied and complex surrounding of peoples. The fact that they used to live in that particular region of the world is obvious even from their name. The Pamyr word “bulhor” means Bulgarian, a citizen of Bulgaria, in all the languages of the region. The use of the Pamyr form of the name of the Bulgarians in the “Ashharatsuits” shows that the Armenian writers got their information from a reliable and authentic source. That is why the picture presented by them is a valuable asset for throwing some light on the ancient history of the Bulgarians.

As is seen from the Armenian chronicles, the Bulgarians played a remarkable role among the peoples near the Pamyr and Hindukush and participated actively in the creation of the ancient Pamyr ciilisation.

IPB%20Image

In brief : The first contacts between the Bulgarian and the Armenian peoples had been made in those distant times that make difficult to distinguish between legends and reality. However, reliable sources present grounds to affirm that they date back not later II c. AD and their territory of contacts had been not only the land of historical Armenia and Bulgaria, but also the steppes of Northern Caucasus and Volga region, Asia Minor and the Balkan peninsula.

This post has been edited by Phrygian: Sep 14 2005, 23:32


--------------------
To conclude, we would like to emphasize that the Armenian people – both in Armenia and in the European Diaspora – regards itself as a European people. This people was separated from the main European stream by unfortunate historical circumstances and is now resolutely committing to an in-depth reunification with the European family.

European Armenian Convention Declaration
19 October 2004, Brussels


When in Rome, do as the Romans do

Discrimino, Ergo Sum!


Go%20to%20the%20top%20of%20the%20page
 
+Quote%20Post

< ="http://forum.hayastan.com/index.php?s=36f3735f8cbf42a8215cf2ee0e439f24&" method="post" name="search"> < name="forums" value="3" =""> < name="topic" value="18329" =""> < name="act" value="Search" =""> < name="CODE" value="searchtopic" =""> < size="25" name="keywords" ="search" value="Enter Keywords" =".value = '';" ="text">  < value="Search Topic" ="" ="submit">


Reply%20to%20this%20topicStart%20new%20topic
1 User(s) are reading this topic (1 Guests and 0 Anonymous Users)
0 Members:

< ="if.jumpmenu.f.value == -1return false;" ="http://forum.hayastan.com/index.php?s=36f3735f8cbf42a8215cf2ee0e439f24&act=SF" method="get" name="jumpmenu"> < name="act" value="SF" =""> < name="s" value="36f3735f8cbf42a8215cf2ee0e439f24" =""> < name="f" ="if.s.edIndex.value != -1 .jumpmenu.submit " ="dropdown"> < value="sj_home">Forum Home < value="sj_search">Search < value="sj_help">Help < value="40">General discussions < value="66">  |-- Hi! I'm new here! < value="2">  |---- Help < value="62">  |---- Meetings < value="74">  |---- Interviews < value="75">  |---- Birthdays < value="77">  |---- Competitions < value="90">  |------ Форумчанин года - 2006 < value="101">  |------ Форумчанин года - 2007 < value="79">  |---- Blogs < value="80">  |---- For Guests < value="1">  |-- General < value="3" ed="ed">  |-- History < value="61">  |---- Heros of Armenia < value="53">  |-- Genocide < value="55">  |---- Information Group < value="20">  |-- Diaspora < value="5">  |-- Politics < value="35">  |---- Artsakh < value="54">  |---- Information Group < value="68">  |---- Javakhk < value="14">  |-- Economy and State < value="48">  |-- Language < value="100">  |---- Learn Armenian! < value="25">  |-- Literature < value="95">  |---- In Foreign Languages < value="6">  |-- Religion < value="98">  |---- Armenian Church < value="96">  |---- Sunday sermons < value="97">  |---- Debates < value="86">  |---- Other creeds < value="71">  |-- Psychology and Philosophy < value="9">  |-- Science and Technology < value="69">  |---- Auto Forum < value="31">  |---- Software & Hardware < value="82">  |---- Mobile < value="92">  |---- Download < value="23">  |-- Offtopic < value="45">Art and Culture < value="26">  |-- Photo Gallery < value="81">  |---- Gallery < value="27">  |---- Members with photos < value="57">  |---- Personal Photo Albums < value="59">  |---- Hayastan.com Events < value="67">  |-- Architecture < value="58">  |-- Armenian Cuisine < value="50">  |-- Art < value="49">  |-- Cinema and Theater < value="93">  |---- Download < value="47">  |-- Music < value="94">  |---- Download < value="4">  |-- Cultural Life < value="72">  |-- Society and Family < value="42">Entertainment & Lifestyle < value="8">  |-- Love and Romance < value="39">  |-- Game zone < value="24">  |-- Health and Beauty < value="22">  |-- Humor < value="70">  |---- Карнавалы < value="89">  |------ Carneval - 2006 < value="12">  |-- Sport < value="37">  |---- Турниры прогнозов < value="29">  |-- Travelers’ Club < value="64">  |---- Traveling in Armenia < value="41">Hayastan.com presents < value="11">  |-- Portal and Forum News  < value="Go" ="" ="submit">

//

< ="text/" ="http://pagead2.googlesyndication.com/pagead/show_ads.js"> < name="google_ads_" ="http://pagead2.googlesyndication.com/pagead/ads?client=ca-pub-1558700113749672&dt=1206305612546&lmt=1206305607&alternate_ad_=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.hayastan.com%2Fs%2Falternative.&prev_fmts=728x90_as&at=728x90_as&output=&correlator=1206305611195&=http%3A%2F%2Fforum.hayastan.com%2Findex.php%3Fshowtopic%3D18329&color_bg=FFFFFF&color_text=000000&color_=4369B5&color_=000080&color_border=FFFFFF&ad_=text&ref=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.google.bg%2Fsearch%3Fq%3DArmenian%2BGeography%26hl%3Dbg%26client%3Dfirefox-a%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla%3Aen-US%3Aofficial%26start%3D20%26sa%3DN&frm=0&cc=100&ga_vid=1175750731.1206305611&ga_sid=1206305611&ga_hid=244811638&flash=9.0.115&u_h=768&u_w=1024&u_ah=738&u_aw=1024&u_cd=32&u_tz=120&u_his=10&u_java=true&u_nplug=13&u_nmime=48" marginwidth="0" marginheight="0" ="0" ="0" allowtransparency="true" border="0" height="90" scrolling="no" width="728">


Lo-Fi Version Time is now: 24th March 2008 - 00:54
//
Powered By IP.Board © 2008  IPS, Inc.
Licensed to: Hayastan.com

hotlog_js="1.0"; hotlog_r=""+Math.random()+"&s=26956&im=104&r="+escape(document.referrer)+"&pg="+ escape(window.location.href); document.cookie="hotlog=1; path=/"; hotlog_r+="&c="+(document.cookie?"Y":"N"); < ="1.1"> hotlog_js="1.1";hotlog_r+="&j="+(navigator.javaEnabled()?"Y":"N") < ="1.2"> hotlog_js="1.2"; hotlog_r+="&wh="+screen.width+'x'+screen.height+"&px="+ (((navigator.appName.substring(0,3)=="Mic"))? screen.colorDepth:screen.pixelDepth) < ="1.3">hotlog_js="1.3" hotlog_r+="&js="+hotlog_js; document.write("HotLog")HotLog HotLog string = "bid=28&sid=1767&seek="+Math.random()+"&ref="; string += escape(document.referrer)+"&page="+escape(window.location.href); js_version = "1.0"; document.cookie="CircleCookieTest=1; path=/"; string += "&cookie="+(document.cookie?"y":"n"); < ="1.1"> string += "&java="+(navigator.javaEnabled()?"y":"n") < ="1.2"> string += "&res="+screen.width+'x'+screen.height; string += "&colors="+(((navigator.appName.substring(0,5)=="Micro"))? screen.colorDepth:screen.pixelDepth) < ="1.1">js_version = "1.1"; < ="1.2">js_version = "1.2"; < ="1.3">js_version = "1.3"; < ="1.4">js_version = "1.4"; < ="1.5">js_version = "1.5"; < ="1.6">js_version = "1.6"; < ="1.7">js_version = "1.7"; < ="1.8">js_version = "1.8"; < ="1.9">js_version = "1.9"; document.write(""); Circle.Am Circle.Am  
Armenian Board

Sponsored Links
Loans | OgЕ‚oszenia,praca | Credit Cards | Homeowner Loans | Mortgage
< ="http://www.google-analytics.com/urchin.js" ="text/"> _uacct = "UA-1388247-16"; urchinTracker();
UPDATE YOUR KNOWLEDGE
Back to Top
Balkh-Aryan View Drop Down
Earl
Earl
Avatar

Joined: 12-Mar-2008
Location: Bulgaria
Status: Offline
Points: 256
Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Balkh-Aryan Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 23-Mar-2008 at 20:58
Is that enough?

UPDATE YOUR KNOWLEDGE
Back to Top
Balkh-Aryan View Drop Down
Earl
Earl
Avatar

Joined: 12-Mar-2008
Location: Bulgaria
Status: Offline
Points: 256
Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Balkh-Aryan Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 23-Mar-2008 at 21:02
The Ancient Bulgarians from Imeon and their Neighbours 03.2001
Senior Research Associate Dr. Peter Dobrev, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences

Near Mount Imeon (present day Pamyr and Hindukush), the most ancient Bulgarian land, one of the earliest agricultural civilisations of the East developed 4000-5000 years ago. It is evident from the preserved sources that the Bulgarians and their neighbouring peoples were related to this civilisation. Historical science did not possess any concrete facts about that for a long time. A valuable hand-written copy of the ancient Armenian geography “Ashharatsuits” has been found recently. In it, the Bulgarians are mentioned among the 15 old trade and craftsmanship peoples, which inhabited the area between Persia and Turkestan in the foothills of Mount Imeon. In the text, the name of the Bulgarians is mentioned second among the peoples listed which means that they were among the most outstanding and respected ethnic groups in the region. Besides them, some of the ancient Huns, whom the Armenian historians describe as a backward, undeveloped tribe, lived near Mount Imeon.
UPDATE YOUR KNOWLEDGE
Back to Top
Balkh-Aryan View Drop Down
Earl
Earl
Avatar

Joined: 12-Mar-2008
Location: Bulgaria
Status: Offline
Points: 256
Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Balkh-Aryan Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 23-Mar-2008 at 22:21
And this is official from Wikipedia, if You thing I try to rewrite the history.

< ="text/" ="">

Kingdom of Balhara

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search
This article or section is missing citations or needs footnotes.
Using inline citations helps guard against copyright violations and factual inaccuracies. (January 2008)
Balhara%20according%20to%20Acad.%20Suren%20T.%20Eremian’s%20reconstruction%20of%20the%20original%20map%20of%20Central%20Asia%20from%20the%20Armenian%20geographical%20atlas%20‘Ashharatsuyts’.
Balhara according to Acad. Suren T. Eremian’s reconstruction of the original map of Central Asia from the Armenian geographical atlas ‘Ashharatsuyts’.

Kingdom of Balhara was a state[citation needed] situated in the upper course of Oxus River (present Amu Darya), and the foothills and valleys of Hindu Kush and Pamir Mountains (ancient Mount Imeon). Established ca. seventh century BC.[citation needed]

The inhabitants of Balhara were called Bulh in the fifth-seventh century AD Armenian geographical atlas ‘Ashharatsuyts’. The atlas describes them as an old settled, artisan and trading nation rather than nomadic tribe, inhabiting the area centered around the ancient major city of Balh (Balkh) that comprised roughly present northern Afghanistan and most of Tajikistan. According to Bulgarian historian Georgi Bakalov, Bulhi was probably the Armenian name of the ancient Bulgars. Historiographers in late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages such as Agathias of Myrina, Theophylact Simocatta, and Michael the Syrian also identify Mount Imeon as an early homeland of the ancient Bulgars.[citation needed]

The Bulhi contributed to the ethnogenesis of the present Tajiks in both Afghanistan and Tajikistan[citation needed], and possibly the homonymous ethnic group of Balhara in India. Some of them migrated to Europe already BC.[citation needed]

Merge%20arrow
It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Bulgars. (Discuss)

Bakalov cites Byzantine historian Zacharias Rhetor as saying that the Burgars (presumably also identical to the Bulgars), had towns in the valleys of Northern Caucasus. They had also the territory along the north coast of Black Sea east of Axiacus River (Southern Bug) (Latin: Bulensii)[citation needed]. He concludes that they migrated to that region from Balhara. In Bakalov's view, the Bulgars established their first state there in 165 AD, a date he arrives at by summing the years of life or reign of all rulers listed in the Nominalia of the Bulgarian khans. The Nominalia claims that the first two rulers lived for 300 and 150 years respectively, which has led earlier historians to ignore these figures. Bakalov, however, is of the opinion that their legendary names should be interpreted as referring to entire dynasties, but the dates themselves are accurate. The Kingdom of Old Great Bulgaria is known to have been established in that area in 632 AD. Among the successors of the latter are the medieval Bulgarian Empire and Volga Bulgaria, and present Bulgaria, Tatarstan, and Chuvashia.

[edit] See also

[edit] References

Personal tools
if (window.isMSIE55) fixalpha();
Languages
if (window.runOnloadHook) runOnloadHook();



UPDATE YOUR KNOWLEDGE
Back to Top
Balkh-Aryan View Drop Down
Earl
Earl
Avatar

Joined: 12-Mar-2008
Location: Bulgaria
Status: Offline
Points: 256
Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Balkh-Aryan Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 23-Mar-2008 at 22:27
http://www.kroraina.com/armen_ca/map_casia_b.jpg
UPDATE YOUR KNOWLEDGE
Back to Top
Bulldog View Drop Down
Caliph
Caliph
Avatar

Joined: 17-May-2006
Location: United Kingdom
Status: Offline
Points: 2775
Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Bulldog Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 23-Mar-2008 at 23:49
Quote Balkh-Aryan
I jut became angry, because the same pan-turkists, that was disscussing with You, are trying to explane me that actually, I am not bulgarian.
 
Bulgars being Turkic is accepted by most historians, its not just a pan-Turkist theory, infact the only people with a problem regarding Bulgars being Turkic is some people from Bulgaria.
 
Quote Balkh-Aryan
"You - the bulgarian was lost your identity, culture and language (You can check previous messages), I became angry, because there was not any arguments.
 
Why are you offended?
 
Bulgarians don't speak Bulgar, they speak Slavic. 
 
Could you explain the links between the historic Bulgars and modern day Bulgarians, many Bulgarians on this forum have often stated there isn't much of a connection.
 
 
      “What we do for ourselves dies with us. What we do for others and the world remains and is immortal.”
Albert Pine

Back to Top
Balkh-Aryan View Drop Down
Earl
Earl
Avatar

Joined: 12-Mar-2008
Location: Bulgaria
Status: Offline
Points: 256
Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Balkh-Aryan Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 24-Mar-2008 at 12:35
Yes some people of Bulgaria, because we (not all of us) knows exactly who do we are. This historians You quoted are outdated. The modern day historians who are specialist of "the Bulgarian problem" in historiography don't claim that. I explained yet many times why the bulgarians don't speek slavic, and even Sarmat 12 understood my explanations and agreed my arguments. This with the combination of fact that we don't speek turkic language make your old fashioned theory too unverifiable. Today's bulgarian language (especially the dialects) is not too different of the medieval bulgarian and it is not turkish. If it is not turkish, and sure not slavish, so what kind is this language? If this language shows a lot of relations with the thracian and tocharian the answer is come alone. On the other hand, this mythical "slavish sea", which was "set a task" to assimilate the proto-bulgarians, obviously didn't exist really, because it is presented in the genetic fond of the bulgarian nation only with 14,7 %. The turanic percentage is about 5 %. ,. There is about 10 % dinaric (ilirian) presence, and 5 % nordic (scandinavian ?)one - as the turanian, which is strange. But the eastern-mediteranean type is presented bu more than 60 %, and that explains everything.
This my fellow-countrymen, which you was talked with, are not guilty that they don't know their own origin. More than one century we was learned the altaic theory of our origin as a truth. I will explain to You (again) with a great pleasure the relations between not only proto-bulgarian and today's bulgarian languages, but also with the thracian language as You wish. I hope after that your questions will be only technical, because I am too tired yet to explain again and again one and the same things and became nervous.
Thracian text:
"Rolistene, az Nerenea te ltea, a razea(n?) do men ti lezi(sh?). P'tami ye razilta."
analize: Rolisten (a thracian personal name) + e (vocative, non tippical for the most languages, except the bulgarian and some caucasian and pamirian languages)
az (a tipical bulgarian personal pronoun of a first gender in the singular - "I/me". again non tippical for the most of languages)
Nerenea (a thracian personal name, is this case - the widow of the buried in who's grave is find the inscribed ring )
te (a tippical bulgarian personal pronoun of a second gender in the singular - "You". also similar to slavic form "tebe/tebyq", but vissible different.)
ltea (bulgarian word "tleya" in metatheses form - "smoulder/wither away/languish/pine away". All the same, this is after more than 1500 years. )
po (bulgarian "po" - "on, over, for , because of")
teb (bulgarian "teb" - "you/your")
a (bulgarian "a" - "and/but")
razea (-n) (bulgarian "s-razen/ po-razen" - "crushed/ strucken")
do (bulgarian "do" - "by/beside/near/next to")
men (bulgarian "men" - "me/mine")
ti (bulgarian "ti" - "you")
lezi (sh?) (bulgarian "lezjish" - "(are) lying")
p'tami (bulgarian "patya mi/ patya ni" - "(the) way/ road of us")
ye (bulgarian "e", dialect "ye" - "is")
razilt-a (bulgarian "razdelen" - "separated/devided")

The word order is exactly as in the bulgarian language.

This thracian ring is find near to the village of Ezerovo, near to Parvomay. It is dated about Vi -V century B.C.
UPDATE YOUR KNOWLEDGE
Back to Top
Chilbudios View Drop Down
Arch Duke
Arch Duke
Avatar

Joined: 11-May-2006
Status: Offline
Points: 1899
Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Chilbudios Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 24-Mar-2008 at 12:56
Balkh-Aryan, I've seen many attempts to translate that text, probably up to two dozens or so.
On your attempt I remark the following:
- the text of the inscription is misread (in continuous text it is: ρολιστενεασνερενεατιλτεανησκοαραζεαδομεαντιλεζυπταμιηεραζηλτα).
- some linguistic considerations are flawed: (e.g. vocative in -e can be found in Latin or Greek)


Edited by Chilbudios - 24-Mar-2008 at 12:56
Back to Top
Balkh-Aryan View Drop Down
Earl
Earl
Avatar

Joined: 12-Mar-2008
Location: Bulgaria
Status: Offline
Points: 256
Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Balkh-Aryan Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 24-Mar-2008 at 12:58
Proto-bulgarian writings:
"Zenti aso e'
analize: Zent + i (a bulgarian tippical old name "Dzjendo" + "i" (vocative))
aso (proto-bulgarian "as" + "-o" - "ash" + "the", typical for bulgarian language back-ordered definite article)
e (bulgarian "e" - "is")

"Ohsi chit magile"
analize: Ohs + i (a proto-bulgarian personal name Ohs/Osh, of tipical east iranian origin, + "i" (vocative)
chit (bulgarian "po-chit-ai/za-chit-ai" - "honour/respect/keep" in the imperative mood
magile (bulgarian "mogila" (sepulchral/funeral) - "mound/ tumulus")

"...tesi dugetoygi..."
analize: tesi + i (bulgarian "tas/ tes" - "(a) bowl" + "i" (vocative)

Is that enough? because there is a lot more proto-bulgarian writings, all of the same type. Do You think this words and its grammar are turkish or slavish? Do You want more proves?
UPDATE YOUR KNOWLEDGE
Back to Top
Balkh-Aryan View Drop Down
Earl
Earl
Avatar

Joined: 12-Mar-2008
Location: Bulgaria
Status: Offline
Points: 256
Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Balkh-Aryan Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 24-Mar-2008 at 13:01
Of course, there is a similarities with the greek and latin languages. Exactly this I am trying to tell You. It is an Indo-aryan language.
UPDATE YOUR KNOWLEDGE
Back to Top
Balkh-Aryan View Drop Down
Earl
Earl
Avatar

Joined: 12-Mar-2008
Location: Bulgaria
Status: Offline
Points: 256
Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Balkh-Aryan Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 24-Mar-2008 at 13:03
ops... I forgot:
dugetoigi (bulgarian dialect form "dugetoi(h)" + "gi" - " (I was)give" + "this")
UPDATE YOUR KNOWLEDGE
Back to Top
Balkh-Aryan View Drop Down
Earl
Earl
Avatar

Joined: 12-Mar-2008
Location: Bulgaria
Status: Offline
Points: 256
Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Balkh-Aryan Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 24-Mar-2008 at 13:04
Sorry, my daughter force me to use the computer...Smile

UPDATE YOUR KNOWLEDGE
Back to Top
Chilbudios View Drop Down
Arch Duke
Arch Duke
Avatar

Joined: 11-May-2006
Status: Offline
Points: 1899
Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Chilbudios Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 24-Mar-2008 at 13:09
Quote Of course, there is a similarities with the greek and latin languages. Exactly this I am trying to tell You. It is an Indo-aryan language.
It is well-known Thracian was an IE language, having thus possible links with Greek or Latin, but also with Baltic, Slavic, Germanic or other IE languages or language families. But Thracian language and modern Bulgarian are not the same language. Thus it is wrong to read a Thracian inscription like a text in Bulgarian.
Back to Top
Balkh-Aryan View Drop Down
Earl
Earl
Avatar

Joined: 12-Mar-2008
Location: Bulgaria
Status: Offline
Points: 256
Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Balkh-Aryan Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 24-Mar-2008 at 13:48
O.K., I am here again. I apologize, because i quoted the thracian text by my memory. Actually, the full text is: "Rolistene, az Nerenea te lteya nisko, a razea(n) do men ti lezi(s). P'tami ye razilta.", where "nisko" is the same bulgarian "nisko", which means "down there" (word for word - "low"). That's all guys. Any other questions? 
UPDATE YOUR KNOWLEDGE
Back to Top
Balkh-Aryan View Drop Down
Earl
Earl
Avatar

Joined: 12-Mar-2008
Location: Bulgaria
Status: Offline
Points: 256
Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Balkh-Aryan Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 24-Mar-2008 at 13:51
Sorry, but relations with the bulgarian language are much more. I quoted this text just because of the grammar. There is too many relations in the lexical fond, more than the greek, latin, slavic, baltic and others.
UPDATE YOUR KNOWLEDGE
Back to Top
Chilbudios View Drop Down
Arch Duke
Arch Duke
Avatar

Joined: 11-May-2006
Status: Offline
Points: 1899
Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Chilbudios Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 24-Mar-2008 at 14:11

As I already pointed out, the text is misread. In Latin script the text would be something like "rolisteneasnereneatilteaneskoarazeadomeantilezuptamieerazelta". This reading should be obvious for anyone, perhaps less for "eta" and "upsilon" for which I prefered a transliteration closer to their value in early Greek than in modern Greek. On the other hand, it's very probable Greek and Thracian did not have the same sounds and thus some of the Greek letters or even group of letters may only represent a conventional graphic representation for a Thracian sound. But if there are such cases they must be first justified and then replaced in the transliteration of the text.

Back to Top
Balkh-Aryan View Drop Down
Earl
Earl
Avatar

Joined: 12-Mar-2008
Location: Bulgaria
Status: Offline
Points: 256
Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Balkh-Aryan Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 24-Mar-2008 at 14:56
thracian language & bulgarian language:
(A lot of these words are common to the slavs and bulgarians, which once more shows, that proto-bulgarians was more related to the slavs (non being slavs), than to the turks.


ak - oko ( an eye)
an - na (on)
arz - "ars/arsh/argh",proto-bulg. (white)
asdule - ezdach/ yazdil (a horseman)
atla (stream) - tla-ka (where the stream is stopped)
auza (daybreak) - ozaryava illuminate)/ zora (a daybreak)
bas (shining) - pesh(t) (an oven/ furnace)
bebru - bobar (a beaver)
bela - bel/ bela/ belo/ beli/ byal/ byala/ byalo/ beli (white)
bend (dam) - za-bent-vam (make a dam)
berg - breg/ bryag (a coast/ sea-shore...)
bersa - breza (a birch)
bis - vis, mediev. bulg. (a village)
bistra-s - biist'r, med. bulg. (fast/ quick...)
bithu-s (a creator) - bit (a way of life)/ potomak (descendent)
bos/ bus (a light/ a glory/ a power) - Bog (a God)/ boji (god's)
breda-s - bred (a place of graze)
bria - riye (a town, tocharian)
bruz - br'z, mediev. bulg.
bul (a tribe/ a clan) - balkh-aryan (the tribe of aryan)
bur a man) - bare ("on attack" as a symbol of manliness)/  pra-moch (the supreme man)
burta (a bog/ slough...) - brod (a ford)
buth (an offshoot/ a descendent/ a child) - see above "pot-om-ak"/ "bit"
buza (a he-goat) - bozaya (to suck a milk from the mother's breast)
de - ze-mya (an earth)
dama - dom ( a home)
daru (rampant/ ungovernable) - dar-zak (a dare one)
deba - deva, mediev. bulg. (a virgin/ a maiden)
dein - deen ( active one)
derz - see above darzak (a dare one)
Di - Devu, mediev. bulg. and east. iranian (a God)
diz (a castle) - zid-am (to bulid/ to construct), also in sumerian "zidu"
drap (a flow) - drap-am (to scratch)
drin (thrice/ three times over) - troen (a third one)
drume - druma, mediev. bulg. (a bushes/ scrub)
dune - diuna (dune)

This examples are only from "A" to "D". After a while I will post the next.




UPDATE YOUR KNOWLEDGE
Back to Top
Chilbudios View Drop Down
Arch Duke
Arch Duke
Avatar

Joined: 11-May-2006
Status: Offline
Points: 1899
Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Chilbudios Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 24-Mar-2008 at 15:47

Thracian -dava/-deva points very likely to some kind of settlement/fortification, no semantic relation with "virgin, maiden". Several words you mention there are unattested, I assume they are the creation of some Bulgarian protochronists.

Back to Top
Balkh-Aryan View Drop Down
Earl
Earl
Avatar

Joined: 12-Mar-2008
Location: Bulgaria
Status: Offline
Points: 256
Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Balkh-Aryan Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 24-Mar-2008 at 18:19
e-bis - vech-en/ vech-na/ vech-no (an eternal/ forever)
ebru ( wide/ broad...) - edar (large/ big)
esb/ ezb - asp-a, iranian (a horse); see above "ezda/ ezdach/ yazdya"
gaidr (joyful/ delight) - gaita (I sing)/ gaidar (a musician on . instr. "gaida"); see sanscr. gaiya (life)
geil - zjila (a tendon/ sinew/ vein...), probably old variant is "gheila"
germ (hot/ warm) - gram (a thunder/ a flash)



UPDATE YOUR KNOWLEDGE
Back to Top
 Post Reply Post Reply Page  <1 23456 29>
  Share Topic   

Forum Jump Forum Permissions View Drop Down

Forum Software by Web Wiz Forums® version 11.10
Copyright ©2001-2017 Web Wiz Ltd.

This page was generated in 0.078 seconds.