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Forum LockedThe ethnic origins of the Kharchin Mongols

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    Posted: 14-Jan-2008 at 15:30
The ethnic origins of the Kharchin Mongols 
 
The Kharchins(Харчин) are the Mongols inhabited in the Kharchin three Banners(today’s Kharchin Banner, Ningcheng country, Inner Mongolia, and Kharchin Left county, Liaoning) of the historical Josotu(Зосотуу) League and those who immigrated from this area. The eastern Tumed(тумэд, Chaoyang country, Liaoning) and the Mongoljin(Монголжин, Fuxin country, Liaoning) were also categorized as the Kharchins traditionally.
 
The Kharchin Mongols are the Mongol group descended directly from the Kharchin Tumen of the Northern Yuan Dynasty, which consisted of the former Yunsheebuu Tumen (Юншээбүү Тумэн), the southern branch of the Doyan Uriankhai(Доян урианхай), the eastern branch of the Mongoljin-Tumed tumen.  According to Kharchin folk legend, the Kharchin Mongols are originated from the three sub-groups: the Bornuud(Борнууд), the Sharnuud(Шарнууд) and the Kharnuud(Харнууд). Bor means brown in Mongolian, and Borjigin(Боржигин) is the family name of Chinggis Khaan(Чингис Хаан), the Bornuud Kharchin should refer to the Yunsheebuu tumen(and Mongoljin-Tumed tumen) led by the successors of Chinggis Khaan. Shar means yellow in Mongolian and the Uriankhai were often called as the Yellow-head Uriankhai by other Mongols, the Sharnuud Kharchin should refer to the Doyan Uriankhai led by the Famous Uriankhai general Zelme(Зэлмэ) and his successors. Khar means black in Mongolian, and the Khitans were often named as Khara Khitans by themselves and others, the Kharnuud Kharchin should refer to the descendants of the Khitan-Liao Empire, consisted of the aboriginal Khitans and a few absorbed ethnic groups such as Jurchen and Han Chinese. Kharchin historian Lomy(Ломы) gave another different explanation for the Bornuud and the Sharnuud, the Sharnuud were people of Chinggis Khaan and the Bornuud were people of General Zelme according to his book “The history of Borjigits” in 1732.  It's probably because that the Yensheebuu led by Chinggis Khaan's successors were yellow-eyes for their non-Mongoloid origins while the Uriankhai led by General Zelme's successors were the brown-eyes Mongols.
 
There is an analysis on the Kharchin’s three ethnic origins, the ethnic origins of the eastern Tumed and Mongoljin will be discussed about under the topic of the Mongoljin-Tumed tumen. 

(1) Yunsheebuu Tumen 
 
The Yunsheebuu Tumen consisted of the three sub-tribes Kharchin, Asud(асууд)and Yunsheebuu itself, was one of the right or west wing of the eastern Mongols ruled by Batmenkh Dayan Khaan(Батмөнх даян хаан) and his successors. The Yunsheebuu Tumen or its original tribal alliance was ever the largest and the most powerful one among the eastern Mongol tribes before Dayan Khaan regained the golden family’s ruling power on the Mongols. Many famous chief leaders of the Northern Yuan court, such as the Asud’s Arugtai(Аругтай) Tayisi, the Kharchin’s Bolai(болай) Tayisi, the Bekrin’s Begersen(Бэгэрсэн) Tayisi and Ismail(Исмайл) Tayisi, Oriad’s Ibarai(Ибарай) Tayisi, were also the chieftains of the Yunsheebuu Tumen or its original tribes, and they depended on the power of Yunsheebuu to achieve their political aspiration. The Yunsheebuu Tumen during the rule of Begersen Tayisi consisted of at least ten sub-tribes, they were Asud, Kharchin, Sharnud, Tav Aimag(Тав Аймаг), Dalandaganad (даландаганад), Khonghutan(Хонгхутан), Shibaguchin(шибагучин), Nomochin(Иомочин), Buryat(Буриад) and Barga(Барга). 
 
Asud, Kharchin and Sharnud were known as the Huuchin or old Kharchin, who were the core tribes of the Yunsheebuu Tumen. The Asuds were originated from the Yuan Empire’s royal guard troops of the Alans, the Asud’s Arugtai Tayisi could be recognized as the first leader of the Yunsheebuu-Kharchin tribal alliance and one of the most important leaders during the Northern Yuan dynasty. The Kharchins were originated from the Kipchak guard troops served in Khanbalik or Dadu(today’s Beijing, great capital of Yuan empire) and other Chinese areas, and also the Kipchak royal horse herder groups in the present Khovd province and its neighborhood areas of Mongolia. The Kipchaks got the name of Kharchin because their horse herders were famous for their tribute of horse milk wine to Yuan emperors, the Kharchin originally means people who brew black horse milk wine. Some scholars also argues that the Kharchins were originated at least partly from the Khalaj of the historical Khoransan area in today’s Iran and Afghanistan, who were a sub-group of the Oghuz or Arghu Turks. The Kharchin’s Bolai tayisi was the successor of Arugtai tayisi, he recovered the power of the eastern Mongols against the Oirads. There’s no the exact clues for the origins of the Sharnuud yet, but Yunsheebuu Tumen’s Sharnuud shouldn’t be simply considered as yellow-head Uriankhai or others, while there’re so many tribes like Uriankhai, Naiman and Buryat, that consisted of such a clan of the Sharnuud, even some of the Mongolized Uigurs were named as the Sharnuud too. The name of Sharnuud may suggest their non-Mongoloid physical characters, Yunsheebuu’s Sharnuud seems some European looking group followed with the Alans and Kipchaks to serve for the Yuan court in Khanbalik(Dadu).  
 
Shibaguchin and Nomochin were the original tribes of the Yunsheebuu before the Kharchins allied with them and adopted its name. The Shibaguchins were people who raised hawks as their occupation for the Mongol nobles. Numan means arch in Mongolian, the Nomochins were the royal arch artisans. Both Shibaguchins and Nomochins had multi-ethnic origins, they were served for the Yuan emperors when they went for hunting to the Tsagan Nuur moving imperial palace of Yuan empire’s upper capital Xanadu(Kaiping), located in the present Plain Blue Banner, Shilingol league, Inner Mongolia. Yuan court set up Yunxufu to administer the moving imperial palace, It’s believed that Shibaguchin and Nomochin adopted Yunsheebuu, the Yunxufu’s alternative name in Mongolian, as their common tribal name after they evolved as a nomadic tribe on the steppes.  
 
Buryat and Barga, as a part of the Yunsheebuu Tumen, were different to their cousins in Siberian forest, Their ancestors immigrated from the forest to the western Mongolia steppes, and joined the Oirad alliance. It’s surmised that Buryat and Barga were probably led by an important Oirad Chieftain Aragtemur. He ever struggled against Esen Khaan and defeated him finally. However, Bolai Tayisi defeated him later and absorbed his people of the Buryat and Barga into the Kharchins. It’s also possible that Bekrin’s Begersen Tayisi or Oirad’s Ibalai Tayisi brought them into the Yunsheebuu.  

Tav Aimag that means five tribes, were known as the Jalair(Жалаир), the Hongirad(Хонгирад), the Ikhires(Ихирэс), the Manggud(Мангуд) and the Urugud(Уругуд), who immigrated from the north Mongolia to the Khitan steppes, the present Southeastern Inner Mongolia. But they retreated to the north steppes after the Yuan Empire lost its rule on China. Hongirad and Ikhires were categorized as Darligin(Дарлигин) Mongols, Manggud and Urugud were categorized as Nirun(Нирун) Mongols, Jalair was a Mongolian speaking tribe. Tav Aimags were led by the Urugud’s Orchuu(оршуу) to join the Kharchins, and he became the successor of Bolai tayisi after whom was defeated by the Onligud(онлигуд)’s Morihai(Молихай)tayisi. Orchuu led the whole tribal alliance to immigrate to the southwestern Inner Mongolia, and they began to be considered as a branch of the right wing of the eastern Mongols. 

Dalandaganad and Khonghutan were surmised as people of Bayanmonkh(Баянмєнх) Jinong(assistant Khaan), who was father of Batmonkh(Батмєнх) Dayan Khaan(Даян хаан). Orchuu’s daughter Sikher Taikho(Сихэр Тайхо Xатан) was the Queen of Bayanmonkh Jinong and mother of Dayan Khaan. The Bekrin’s Begersen tayisi immigrated from Uigurstan to the Southwestern Mongolia, he defeated Orchuu there and became the leader of the Yungsiyebu Tume. Begersen tayisi also urged Manduul Khaan(Мандуул Хаан) to defeat and kill Bayanmonkh Jinong later, then the Dalandaganad and Khonghutan were absorbed as a part of the Yungsiyebu Tumen, and Begersen’s cousin Ismail tayisi married Queen Sikher Taikho. Batmonkh was saved by the Dalandaganad, and adopted by Queen Mandukhai(Мандухай хатан) of Manduul Khan later. The Dalandaganad were the descendants of the Tanggud(Тангуд), and the Khonghutans were a branch of the Nirun Mongols.

Bekrin originally inhabited in the Hami mountain area of the Uigurstan and its neighborhood areas. Mongols called them Uigurd(Уигурд), and considered them as the Mongolized Uigurs, however the original Bekrins seemed different compared to the real Uigurs. The Bekrins were one of the most important ethnic orgins of the Yunsheebuu although Bekrin wasn’t listed as one of Yunsheebuu ten tribes during the time of Begersen tayisi. Some scholars considered the alliance between the Asud’s Arugtai Tayisi and the Bekrin’s Oljei Khaan(the descendant of Ogetai Khaan) as the basis of the Yunsheebuu Tumen. When Begersen Tayisi and Abarai Tayisi conquered the Yunsheebuu sequently, they brought many more Bekrins into the Yunsheebuu Tumen.
 
(2) Doyan Uriankhai
 
The main branch of the Doyan Uriankhai were people of the Uls(kingdom) of Eljitai, who was son of Chinggis Khaan’s younger brother Khajiun. According to Rashid al-Din, there were three larger tribes of the Naimans, the Tatar, the Uriankhai, and some unknown smaller ones in Eljitai Uls. A Uriankhai chieftian Chaurkhan(Чаурхан) who was cousin of general Zelme(Зэлмэ) and Subedei(Субэдэй), was appointed to be the chief general of Eljitai Uls by Chinggis Khaan. It was recorded that his troop consisting of 2000 Oirads soldiers. In 1280s, Eljitai’s successors with other Mongol nobles led a rebellion against Khubilai Khaan(Хубилай хаан), but it was finally repressed and they were punished cruelly by Khubilai Khaan. The family of Eljitai lost their rule on their people after the rebellion, while the Uriankhai nobles controlled the ruling power on Uljitai Uls soon. After Khubilai Khaan defeated Khaidu Khaan(Хаидн хаан), the grandson of Ogedei Khaan(Огэдэй хаан), the Kyrgyz, the Ursuud(урсууд) and the Khabkhanas(хабханас) of Khaidu’s Khanate, were compelled to immigrate to Uljitai Uls and joined into the Doyan Uriankhai. A group of the Uriankhai was also appointed to guide the altar of Queen Hoelun(Хоэлун), mother of Chinggis Khaan. They seemed different to the Uriankhai of Uljitai Uls at first, but for unknown reasons they immigrated from the Uls of Queen Hoelun and her youngest son Temuge(Тэмугэ) to join into the Doyan Uriankhai and guarded the altar of Queen Hoelun in Ekh Doyan Ondor Mountain, located in the today’s Jalaid banner, Xing’an league, Inner Mongolia. We also noticed that almost all of Uriankhai families among the Kharchins claimed they are descendants of general Zelme but not Chaurkhan, that maybe suggested there’s a larger population of the Uriankhai from Temuge Uls to join the Original Uriankhai tribe in Eljitai Uls.  
 
Uriankhai had at least the two branches of the forest Uriankhai and the steppe Uriankhai during the time of Chinggis Khaan. The forest Uriankhai were appointed to guide Chinggis Khaan’s mausoleum in the Burkhan mountain and known as the Burkhan Uriankhai later, while a group of the steppe Uriankhai, known as Doyan Uriankhai, were appointed to guide the Queen Hoelun’s altar in the Doyan mountain. There’s no exact evidence about that the forest Uriankhai spoke Mongolian or Turkic yet, but the steppe Uriankhai had been categorized as a group of the Darligin Mongols after they immigrated from Siberian forest to the steppes. The two branches of the Uriankhai had a great influence on the later history of the Mongols after Yuan dynasty, A group of the Burkhan Uriankhai was probably one of the core ethnic origin of the Ordos Mongols of the right wing ruled by Jinong(assistance Khaan), and most of the Burkhan Uriankhai evolved as Uriankhai tumen of the lift wing during the time of Dayan Khaan. After this tumen was destroyed, some of them fled to the north and maybe had the ethnic links with Tannu Uriankhai and Altai Uriankhai. The Doyan Uriankhai were conquered and absorbed by the Tsahar and the Inner Halha in the north, and by the Kharchins and the eastern Tumed and the Mongoljin in the south. The Zaruud(Зарууд) known as one of the Inner Halha were the people of Doyan Uriankhai’s Bagasun Tabunang (Багасун-Табунанг) who married Dayan Khaan’s only daughter. Esen Khaan of the Choros(Чорос) Oirad also claimed him as the seventh generation offspring of Uriankhai General Zelme according to some historical resources.
 
Kyrgyz, Ursuud and Khabkhanas were originally the inhabitants of the Siberian forest. The Kyrgyz was a Turkic group who ever established the great Kyrgyz Khanate based on the former Uigur Khanate in the present north Mongolia, and their nomadic kingdom was destroyed by the Khitans a century later. Some of them immigrated back to their original homeland in the Siberia forest, and some leave there and were known as the Naimans and/or others on the later history. The Kyrgyz absorbed into Doyan Uriankhai wasn’t the only one among the Mongols, there were the Kherenugud(хэрэнугуд), the Mongolized Kyrgyz tribes among the Oirds and the Ar Halha(Outer Halha). The Ursuud who were famous for their traditional medicine, and the Khabkhanas were the neighbors of the Kyrgyz. We have no the clues about their ethnic origins yet.
 
Naiman and Tatar were the main five tribes on the Mongol steppes during the time of Chinggis Khaan. The Naimans were surmised to have the ethnic links with people of the Kyrgyz Khanate in the north Mongolia. There’s a Naiman tribe known as one of the eight aimags of the Tsakhar Tumen, their descendants inhabit in the present Naiman Banner, Tongliao, Inner Mongolia. Haichid, Hailasud, Garhata, Shiranud, Narad, Marud, Nuled and other family names of the Mongols were considered to link with the Naimans. The Tatars were a Mongolic tribe inhabited in the eatern Mongolia, there were the six sub-groups of the Tatars consisted of the Tutukliut, the Alji, the Chagan, the Kui, the Tarat, the Burqui according to Rashid al-Din. The Tsagan Tatars were also known as one of the eight aimags of the Tsakhar Tumen, and there’re Tsagan Tatar, Alji and other family names originated from the Tatars among the Mongols today. The Naiman and Tsagan Tatar were probably absorbed by the Tsahar from the north branch of the Doyan Uriankhai like the Zaruud absorbed by the Inner Halha.

(3)Descendants of Khitan Empire
 
The land inhabited by the Kharchins was also the homeland of the Khitans, a famous Mongolic group in the eastern Mongolia. According to Rashid al-Din, there were 10 thousands families of the Khara-Khitans, the western branch of the Khitans, in Mongolian Khanate which consisted of 93 thousands families in total during the time of Chinggis Khaan. The nomadic Khitans of their original homeland were recognized officially as the Mongols during Yuan dynasty too, Tav Aimags consisted of Jalair, Hongirad, Ikhires, Manggud and Urugud, led by General Muhulai to immigrate to the land of the Khitans and mixed with them. Doyan Uriankhai followed the Tav Aimags to immigrate to the Khitan steppes and became the lords of this land during the northern Yuan, thus, the nomadic Khitans were absorbed by the Mongols gradually and didn’t exist as an independent ethnic group except that the Daur, a small modern Mongolic group, claimed their Khitan ethnic Origin.
 
The Khitan as a large ancient nation had a multi-origins too. The Khitan’s cousin tribe, the Kumoci, were conquered and absorbed by the Khitans after they raised to the power. Both Khitan and Kumuci were originated from the Yuwen tribe of the Xianbei. The Yuwen was originally a Southern Xiong-nu(Hsiung-nu) who immigrated from the present Southwestern Inner Mongolia to the eastern steppes inhabited by the Xianbei(and Wuhuan) and mixed with them there, that was similar to what happened to Yunsheebuu and Doyan Uriankhai later. The Tiele(the orignal Turks) of the northern steppes were also absorbed into the Khitans in part. The Khitans were categorized as the two groups of the Yelu who were the original Khitans and the royal family of Khitan Empire, and the Xiao who were originated from the two Shenmi(Yishiyi and Boli), the branches of the Tiele. There were the eight Khitan’s ancient tribes recorded by Chinese: Xiwandan, Hedahe, Fufuyu, Xiling, Rilian, Pijie, Li, Tuliuyu. And the Kumoci consisted of the five ancient tribes: Ruhuzhu, Mohefu, Qigu, Mukun, Shide. It’s also worthy to mention that a group of the Komuci who immigrated to the west after the Khitan Empire was destroyed by the Jurchen, were probably the ancestors of the royal family of the Kipchaks whom the Kharchin’s Kipchack were originated from.
 
 
 


Edited by Yungsiyebu_Uriankhai - 19-Jan-2008 at 13:06
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote barbar Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 18-Jan-2008 at 22:04
Very informative post, thanks.
 
Can you expand  a little more about the Qirghiz and Naiman relation?
 
As you metioned, Qaraqitan royal clan Yelu were from Tura. I read somewhere Uyghur Royal clan Yaghlaqar (Yeluoge) and Yelu had some relations.  Yelu in Uyghur was called as Yallugh though. Since eastern Tura became Uyghur, and after the collapse  of Uyghurs a branch moved to the Qitans (You earlier mentioned), was there really this possibility?
 
 
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Temujin Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 19-Jan-2008 at 00:09
whats Tura? he didn't mentioned that....
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Yungsiyebu_Uriankhai Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 19-Jan-2008 at 13:24

Sorry, it's my mistake, I have edited my article just now.

Yelu was royal family, and Xiao was the family of the queens. and Xiao was a branch of the Tiele, we considered Tiele as the ancestors of the Uighurs, we know the Khitans and the Uighurs maintained a very well relationship. The Khitans ever invited the Uighurs return their homeland, the present northern Mongolia, after they defeated the Kyrgyz, although the Uighurs finally refused it. and, the Uighur also help to establish the Kara-Khitan Khanate in central asia after the Khitan Liao dynasty was destroyed by the Jurchen in the east.
 
 
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote barbar Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 20-Jan-2008 at 22:00

It is intersting that Qitans could trace ancestors to the Xiongnu.  So They were Tongusified Xiongnu.  

When Jin emissary Wugusun came to Qaraqitan land in 1220s, he said that there were very few remnant Qitans left, and these also adopted the culture of Huihu (Uyghur) and wore like them.  Acutally it was Kuchluk (Prince of Naiman) who had very extreme religous policy so that the vassal Qarakhanids supported Chengizhan.

 
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Yungsiyebu_Uriankhai Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 21-Jan-2008 at 00:02
Originally posted by barbar barbar wrote:

It is intersting that Qitans could trace ancestors to the Xiongnu.  So They were Tongusified Xiongnu.  

Not tongusified, Both Wuhuan and Xianbei conquered by Yuwen Xiongnu, were descended from the eastern Hun, the proto-Mongols.
 
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote barbar Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 23-Jan-2008 at 20:43
Are you implying that Wuhuan and Xianpei were Eastern Hun?
 
AFAIK, Wuhuan and Xianpei were Donghu, eastern Hu, or Tungus.  Indeed they were the ProtoMongol, but they are not eastern Xiongnu. Am I wrong?
 
 
 
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote barbar Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 24-Jan-2008 at 21:35
Shiji, Xiongnu Zhuan, 50:
 
索隐服虔云:“东胡,乌丸之先,後为鲜卑。在匈奴东,故曰东胡。”
 
Translation:
 
In Suoyin, Fuqian said: " Donghu, Ancesters of Wuhuan, later Xianpei. in the east of Xiongnu, so was called Donghu.
 
They were called Donghu, only because they were living in the east of Xiongnu. Historical document is quite clear about this.  As for the term Hu I'm going to open a new thread.
 
Although there were many comments about the cultural similirarities between Xiongnu (Hun), Dingling (Tura), Sai (Sak), Rouzhi( Tohar) in the historical documents, but I failed to find any such comment between Xiongnu and Donghu. I'd appreciate if you can provide some sources related to this.
 


Edited by barbar - 24-Jan-2008 at 21:36
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Permission to copy and paste your post in another forum??? 
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Originally posted by Erdene Erdene wrote:

Permission to copy and paste your post in another forum??? 
 
Hello, friend, you are welcome, I wrote this article because I hope people know we the Kharchins.
 
I post this article on wiki when I was out of china, but I can't edit now, because China can't permit people to enter wiki, I can find a proxy to login but can't edit my post there with proxy.  There're few mistake in my article which needs to edit later, and my english is not so good too.
 
 
 
 
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Yungsiyebu_Uriankhai Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 23-Mar-2008 at 08:06

hello barbar, I'm afraid that people(including scholars) can't recognize correctly who is proto-mongol or proto-turk, sure, Donghu or eastern hun got such a name just because they live in the east of Xiong-nu, and they both called themselves hun. but, hun means people, human being, It is not an ethnic name. as for their ethnicity, we only can guess they were probably different. as for why we consider eastern Huns were proto-mongol, because eastern hun were ancestors of the xian'bei, whose language should be a kind of mongolian dialect, and xian'bei 's decsendants Khitans(although mixed with Yuwen xiongnu) were surely Mongolian speaking group.  However, language didn't reflect on the ethnic links, as we know the khitans were the Xian'bei mixed with Yuwen Xiongnu and Uighurs, the eastern Huns maybe also included many different ethnic groups too, although they may speak a kind of ancient Mongolian dialect.

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Yungsiyebu_Uriankhai Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 23-Mar-2008 at 08:12
and, the Kharichs are another typical example for this, although the Kharchins are ethnic Mongols in the area of eastern hun, Yuwen Xian'bei and Khitans,  and speak a kind of Mongolian dialect, but they have many turkic ethnic roots too.
 
 
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