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Historical maps of the Vlachs regions

Printed From: History Community ~ All Empires
Category: General History
Forum Name: Historical Maps Gallery
Forum Discription: Post and discuss historical maps...
Moderators: Sparten, King John
URL: http://www.allempires.net/forum_posts.asp?TID=14351
Printed Date: 30-Aug-2014 at 11:10


Topic: Historical maps of the Vlachs regions
Posted By: brunodam
Subject: Historical maps of the Vlachs regions
Date Posted: 29-Aug-2006 at 21:15
In the southern Balkans there is a "neo-latin" speaking population: the Vlachs.  They live scattered in an area from Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Bulgaria to European Turkey.  The Vlachs never created a national state, but there was a small "Principate of Pindus" (under the Vlach fascist A. Diamantis) in the italian occupied northern Greece during WWII.
 


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Replies:
Posted By: Jay.
Date Posted: 29-Aug-2006 at 22:50
Yes, there are also some Vlachs in Serbia. I beleive there is some 30, 000? Anyways, here is my contribution to this thread:



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Samo Sloga Srbina Spasava
Only Unity Can Save the Serb


Posted By: brunodam
Date Posted: 29-Aug-2006 at 23:15
Yes, in Serbia live some Vlachs related to the Romanian people.  The Wikipedia divides the Vlachs (or descendants of the Romanized populations of the Balkan peninsula) in northern Vlachs (Romanian) and southern Vlachs ( the "real" Vlachs , who live mainly in Macedonia, Albania, Bulgaria and Greece).
Usually the Vlach language is related to the southern Vlachs.
So, those living in Serbia (mainly in the Banat Voivodina and south of the Iron Gates) are considered Romanian.
There is a small difference between the Romanian and the Vlach language , similar to the linguistic differences between Croatian and Serbian, or Italian and Spanish.
The number of the Vlachs are diminishing and the European Union is creating legislation in their favor.
I have found some maps of the Vlachs (Aromanians, Megleno and Istro) but no one related to the only small political entity of these people: the "Principate of Pindus" (1941-1944).HugI hope someone in the Forum can help.


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Posted By: brunodam
Date Posted: 30-Aug-2006 at 19:46


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Posted By: brunodam
Date Posted: 30-Aug-2006 at 19:56
The above map shows the Vlach population (majority and minority) in the border areas between Albania, Greece, Macedonia and Bulgaria. The map was done with ethnic data of 1913 and was used to promote a possible (but never created) State of the Vlachs at the Conference of Paris in 1919 for the "Treaty of Versailles".

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Posted By: brunodam
Date Posted: 01-Sep-2006 at 20:28
yes, Jay , to be precise in Serbia there are two areas of Vlachs population (but should be called Romanians) and I have found some maps of these areas: Voivodina and central-eastern Serbia.
 MAPS of Vlachs/Romanians in Voivodina (in 1910 and in 1991) and in Central-eastern Serbia. 


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Posted By: brunodam
Date Posted: 02-Sep-2006 at 03:51
This map of 1991 shows the reduction of the Romanian population in central-eastern Serbia, in comparison to the first map of the area that I have posted (and that was done before WWII).

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Posted By: akritas
Date Posted: 02-Sep-2006 at 04:56
Originally posted by brunodam

In the southern Balkans there is a "neo-latin" speaking population: the Vlachs.  They live scattered in an area from Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Bulgaria to European Turkey.  The Vlachs never created a national state, but there was a small "Principate of Pindus" (under the Vlach fascist A. Diamantis) in the italian occupied northern Greece during WWII.
 

The first  as you said suitor was Italy, who in 1917 took over Epirus for a while and declare for the first the ‘Principate of Pindos’, hailing the Vlachs as ‘lost brothers’. This act was repeated in 1942. Alkiviadis Diamantis, who was from Samarina and lived in Romania, appeared as the ‘prince of Pindos’. Accompanied by Italian soldiers and not from the Vlachs  he declared at a time of famine during the World War II, that Romania was sending a shipment of a million okades of wheat for distribution only to Vlachs. Although the wheat did not arrive, the police(control by the Italians)  confiscated flour that people bought for their homes, creating strong remonstrance and accusations that Greece was trying to kill off the Vlachs. Of course Greek Vlachs ignored the fascist propaganda during the Axis ocupation.



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Posted By: greco
Date Posted: 02-Sep-2006 at 08:40


Posted By: greco
Date Posted: 02-Sep-2006 at 08:42


Posted By: greco
Date Posted: 02-Sep-2006 at 08:43


Posted By: greco
Date Posted: 02-Sep-2006 at 08:44


Posted By: greco
Date Posted: 02-Sep-2006 at 08:45


Posted By: greco
Date Posted: 02-Sep-2006 at 08:50
http://www.vlachs.gr/b1.htm - http://www.vlachs.gr/b1.htm


Posted By: greco
Date Posted: 02-Sep-2006 at 08:51
http://www.vlachs.gr/b9.htm - http://www.vlachs.gr/b9.htm


Posted By: greco
Date Posted: 02-Sep-2006 at 08:58


Posted By: greco
Date Posted: 02-Sep-2006 at 09:07
NL22_MAPF.gif (57104 bytes)
"Most important settlements of the Aromanians in Albania"


Posted By: greco
Date Posted: 03-Sep-2006 at 12:30


Posted By: brunodam
Date Posted: 03-Sep-2006 at 22:35
In Wikipedia is possible to find extensive articles on Diamantis and his Principality of Pindus.
The Italians favored the creation of the Albanian state before WWI (as can be seen from the map of 1913 below, showing that Albania was not expected to exist) and enlarged Albania to Epirus and Kosovo during WWII. 
They repeated the tentative of creation of a new Balkan state with the Principality of Pindus for the Vlach people.
 


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Posted By: maria d.
Date Posted: 06-Sep-2006 at 22:15
Yes, Bruno, there was a little "Principality of Pindus" in the mountains between Epirus, Macedonia and Tessalia during the italian occupation of Greece in WWII, but I cannot find any map about.
Anyway, I have found this map from the "Library of the Congress" in Washington/USA related to the tentative of the Vlachs to create a small State in 1919, during the conference of peace in Paris.
It is not the area originally proposed by Italy and France around Korce in Albania, but it shows a little mountanous region that was promoted in the Pindus mountains by the Romanians as a possible autoctonous Vlach State after WWI.
I guess that A. Diamantis may have used this map for his small Principality of Pindus in 1941.  Maria D.    


Posted By: The Chargemaster
Date Posted: 07-Sep-2006 at 07:16
An interesting site in greek language about the vlachs in Greece: http://www.tamos.gr - - images & maps in that site.  http://images.google.bg/images?q=www.tamos.gr/&ndsp=20&svnum=10&hl=bg&lr=&start=0&sa=N&filter=0 - - ...also

An example: the vlach villages in Pindus/Pindos mountain in 1900:

http://www.tamos.gr/images/Pindos.gif">http://www.tamos.gr/images/Pindosl.gif




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The Intelligence wins


Posted By: greco
Date Posted: 07-Sep-2006 at 07:56
maria_d Could you say to me please whereyou this map has? thank you


Posted By: maria d.
Date Posted: 07-Sep-2006 at 09:53

I have done a digital photo of page 196 of the book "Mapping the world" of the National Geographic.      The book was edited in 2006, in Washington (USA).      The map is from the original in the "Library of Congress"  (Washington) and was done by A.D. Atanasiu in 1919 under the name "Carte Ethnographique des Macedo-Roumains (Koutzo-Valaques)".     The original map is part of the "La question des Macedo-Roumains ou des Koutzo-Valaques a Versailles" that can be read in french at http://www.vlachopiles.net/macedo-roumains.htm - www.vlachopiles.net/macedo-roumains.htm                      Maria D.

P.S.: congratulations Greco, many of your maps are gorgeous!


Posted By: maria d.
Date Posted: 07-Sep-2006 at 11:36

I have another digital photo of the Atanasiu map of 1919.

Here it is.        Maria D.


Posted By: greco
Date Posted: 07-Sep-2006 at 15:03
Do you still have maps on the subject? Because I am since a Vlach and me this interests very much.


Posted By: maria d.
Date Posted: 07-Sep-2006 at 16:49
Sorry. These were the only maps about Vlachs that I have found.  If I'll find someone, I'll post quickly.
If you are a Vlach and want to be informed about your people on the web, there are two good sites full of articles and maps:
http://www.vlachophiles.net - www.vlachophiles.net
http://www.farsarotul.org - www.farsarotul.org
Maria D.


Posted By: greco
Date Posted: 07-Sep-2006 at 16:52
thank you...


Posted By: maria d.
Date Posted: 08-Sep-2006 at 20:45
I hope you'll find more maps about the Vlachs, Greco.
You are "flooding" the forum with beautiful and interesting maps...Clap
Maria D.


Posted By: greco
Date Posted: 09-Sep-2006 at 06:22
Embarrassed


Posted By: brunodam
Date Posted: 12-Sep-2006 at 13:09
Thank you Maria d. for your Atanasiu map.
But about the Diamantis's Principality of Pindus? Nothing?
The only idea of the size comes from the Wikipedia: it says that the Principality of Pindus was in the Italian occupied Greece and included Epirus, Macedonia and all of Tessalia.
Bruno


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Posted By: brunodam
Date Posted: 14-Sep-2006 at 12:49
Here it is another ethnic map of the southern Balkans, with data of 1905 .  The Vlachs areas are painted in light blue south of Albania.

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Posted By: greco
Date Posted: 15-Sep-2006 at 09:25
Vlachs groups 1769
 
http://www.vlachs.gr/b1.htm - http://www.vlachs.gr/b1.htm


Posted By: greco
Date Posted: 15-Sep-2006 at 09:27
http://www.vlachs.gr/b9.htm - http://www.vlachs.gr/b9.htm
the diaspora of the grammosteans group


Posted By: brunodam
Date Posted: 19-Sep-2006 at 23:51
Originally posted by maria d.

Yes, Bruno, there was a little "Principality of Pindus" in the mountains between Epirus, Macedonia and Tessalia during the italian occupation of Greece in WWII, but I cannot find any map about.
Anyway, I have found this map from the "Library of the Congress" in Washington/USA related to the tentative of the Vlachs to create a small State in 1919, during the conference of peace in Paris.
It is not the area originally proposed by Italy and France around Korce in Albania, but it shows a little mountanous region that was promoted in the Pindus mountains by the Romanians as a possible autoctonous Vlach State after WWI.
I guess that A. Diamantis may have used this map for his small Principality of Pindus in 1941.  Maria D.    
 
Thank you, Maria D., for the very interesting map above.
I have done my own research too, and I have found this excerpt from a 1906 book (author: H. Brailsford) about Macedonia and the Albanian communities living there:
"...The second claimant (for a possible future Albanian State) is a certain Prince Albert Ghica, who comes of a family of Albanian origin, long resident in Roumania. It has given Hospodars (Governors) to the old Wallachian provinces and diplomats to the modern kingdom, and enjoys princely rank in the Austrian Empire. Prince Albert is a comparatively young man with plausible manners and a dubious past, who speaks fluent French, and knows neither one word of the Albanian language nor the elements of Albanian geography. He has been chosen honorary president by one of the numerous clubs of Albanian immigrants in Bucharest, and on the strength of this social honour poses in European hotels as the chief-elect of the Albanian people. He talks of venturing in person into Albania and raising the flag of revolt. We shall see.

His claim is interesting, only in so far as his programme contemplates a union of the Vlach and Albanian causes. He asserts, probably without any basis, in fact, that he has the support of the Conservative party in Roumania, and may therefore be backed by the Roumanian propaganda in Macedonia and Albania.       His modest dream is a VLACHO-ALBANIAN STATE embracing all the five vilayets of Albania and Macedonia. But the Vlachs are neither numerous nor warlike nor unanimous, and they are much too cautious to rise in support of such a chimera as this. As for the Albanian chieftains, one does not see them accepting the leadership of a denationalised adventurer from Bucharest. The Khedivial family of Egypt might, if it possessed a cadet of character and parts, prefer a claim with some measure of reason, inasmuch as Mehemet Ali, the founder of the House, was an Albanian soldier of fortune. But no member of this family has so far shown any practical interest in Albania, or done anything to assist the national propaganda. On the whole it would be best to seek a Prince from some reigning family of Europe. He must not be a Slav, since the prejudice of the Albanians against all Slavs is quite ineradicable. It would be well that he should not be a Catholic, since he will have so many Orthodox subjects who have been taught to regard the Latins as worse than the Turks. A Protestant would probably be the most generally acceptable candidate. "

As you can see this is the FIRST tentative of create a Vlach state, even if with the Albanian population of 1906. 
I will post a map showing the five Vilayets (that are the most western of the Ottoman Empire in the Balkans of 1906).   Bruno
 


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Posted By: Menumorut
Date Posted: 20-Sep-2006 at 07:00
    

I want say that the link between the Daco-Romanians and Aromanians is made based on their language heritage and appeared in 18-19th century.

Romanians and Aromanians are not exactly the same people, we each other have our own identity which should be preserved.

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http://img210.imageshack.us/img210/3992/10ms4.jpg">



Posted By: brunodam
Date Posted: 20-Sep-2006 at 10:13
Maria d., here it is the map I have created to show the proposed Vlacho-Albanian State of Prince A. Ghica in 1906 (borders are done with my green line).
It includes the Ottoman Vilayets of:
1) Ioannina in violet color
2) Shkoder in orange color
3) Monastir in light green color
4) Salonica in grey color
5) Skopje in yellow color


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Posted By: greco
Date Posted: 21-Sep-2006 at 07:35


Posted By: brunodam
Date Posted: 21-Sep-2006 at 15:19
Originally posted by Menumorut

    

I want say that the link between the Daco-Romanians and Aromanians is made based on their language heritage and appeared in 18-19th century.

Romanians and Aromanians are not exactly the same people, we each other have our own identity which should be preserved.
 
Menumorut, I am puzzled by the neo-latin Timok valley language: is it Vlach or Romanian? If you see the map given by Greco (that reflects the Serbian political position) the language is not romanian speaking (but Vlach)
Other maps support the opinion that in Timok valley the neo-latin people speak Romanian. What is your opinion? Do you have maps about?
In Wikipedia I have read terrible discussions between Serbs and Romanians on the  issue!  Here you have a map from Wikipedia, that shows the Serbian point of view.        Bruno


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Posted By: maria d.
Date Posted: 21-Sep-2006 at 21:53
Originally posted by brunodam

Thank you Maria d. for your Atanasiu map.
But about the Diamantis's Principality of Pindus? Nothing?
The only idea of the size comes from the Wikipedia: it says that the Principality of Pindus was in the Italian occupied Greece and included Epirus, Macedonia and all of Tessalia.
Bruno
 
Well, Bruno, I am still looking for a map of the Principality of Pindus.... Meanwhile I want to post for you this excerpt from Wikipedia about the first "creation" of A. Diamandis : the "Republic of Korce" in Albania, around the remnants of the former destroyed capital of the Vlachs, Moschopolis.
 
...."It is not clear whether he (A. Diamandis) was discharged from the Romanian Army or rather dispatched by the Romanians to http://brunodam.blog.kataweb.it/wiki/Albania - Albania where, under the Italian and http://brunodam.blog.kataweb.it/wiki/France - French tutelage (see http://brunodam.blog.kataweb.it/wiki/National_awakening_and_the_birth_of_Albania - Birth of Albania ), he became in 1918 co-founder of the short-lived Republic of http://brunodam.blog.kataweb.it/wiki/Korçë - Korytsá (Korçë in http://brunodam.blog.kataweb.it/wiki/Albanian_language - Albanian , Curceaua in http://brunodam.blog.kataweb.it/wiki/Aromanian_language - Aromanian ), which was supposed, under the makeshift name of the 'Republic of Pindus' to be the first autonomous state of the Vlachs of http://brunodam.blog.kataweb.it/wiki/Epirus_%28region%29 - Epirus ...."
 
Of course, a map of this short-lived Republic of Koritza/Curceaua/Korce is going to be very difficult to find. 
May be some other forumer is going to be more lucky.Smile   Maria d.


Posted By: greco
Date Posted: 22-Sep-2006 at 05:54

Names of the Aromanians

There are several names of the http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aromanians - Aromanians used throughout the Balkans, both http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autonym - autonyms (like armân) and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exonym - exonyms (like Vlach).

 

< =text/> //

[ http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Names_of_the_Aromanians&action=edit&section=1 - edit ]

Aromanian

The name Aromanian, just as http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romanians - Romanian , derives directly from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latin - Latin http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Romanus - Romanus (" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_Rome - Roman ") through regular sound changes. Adding "a" in front of certain words that begin with a consonant is a feature of the Aromanian language, in order to make it easier to pronounce.

In Greece variants include arumâni and armâni. An older form of "rumân", was still found in http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/19th_century - 19th century , in http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Folk_song - folk songs in Greece. In Albania, the most common form is rămăńi, with occasional forms rumăńi and romăńi.

There's also another form, used especially by the Aromanians of Romania, aromân, which is a modern creation, being a merge between the român form used by the Daco- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romanians - Romanians and arumân used by the Aromanians in Greece. The English form, "Aromanian" is also created by analogy with the word "Romanian".

[ http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Names_of_the_Aromanians&action=edit&section=2 - edit ]

Vlach

Main article: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Etymology_of_Vlach - Etymology of Vlach

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vlachs - Vlachs was a term used in the Medieval Balkans, as an http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exonym - exonym of Germanic origin for all the Romanic people of the region, but nowadays, it is commonly used only for the Aromanians and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Megleno-Romanians - Megleno-Romanians , the http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romanians - Romanians being named Vlachs only in historical context and in Serbia. Greeks also use the name kutsovlach "Limping Vlach".

[ http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Names_of_the_Aromanians&action=edit&section=3 - edit ]

Macedo-Romanian

Macedo-Romanian (macodo-român, derived from " http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Macedonia - Macedonia " and "Romanian") is a form created by the modern linguists and ethnologists in analogy with the other http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eastern_Romance_language - Eastern Romance language : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daco-Romanian - Daco-Romanian (or proper Romanian) in http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dacia - Dacia , http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Istro-Romanian - Istro-Romanian in http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Istria - Istria and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Megleno-Romanian - Megleno-Romanian in Meglena. Although quite often used, it is a rather improper form, as the Aromanians can be found all across the Balkans, not only in Macedonia.

[ http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Names_of_the_Aromanians&action=edit&section=4 - edit ]

Tsintsar

Another name used to refer to the Aromanians (mainly in the Slavic countries such as http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serbia - Serbia and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bulgaria - Bulgaria ) is tsintsar, derived from the way the Aromanians pronounce the /ʧe/ and /ʧi/ as /ʦe/ and /ʦi/. However, there is also a theory that says that the term is derived from the way the Aromanians say the word 'five': tsintsi.

[ http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Names_of_the_Aromanians&action=edit&section=5 - edit ]

Other names

  • çoban - "shepherd", a term used by some of the Turks, as well as the Albanians, although Albanians also use "vla" (derived from "Vlach") and rëmër
  • rëmër, "Roman", an Albanian word derived from "Romanus", the word shows the phonetical changes in Albanian since the Roman times, showing that since ancient times, the Albanians always had some contacts with the Balkan Romans.


Posted By: maria d.
Date Posted: 23-Sep-2006 at 11:03
Another map showing the presence of the Vlachs in Tessalia in 1265:
 
PRINCIPATE OF WALLACHIAN THESSALY         Maria d.


Posted By: brunodam
Date Posted: 23-Sep-2006 at 21:47
Thank you, Maria d., it is a very interesting map that shows that the Vlachs have started to develop their own political entities before the Balkan wars of the last two centuries.
Indeed, I have found the following excerpt from the "British Encyclopedia of 1911" that confirms this Vlach State in Tessalia:
 
" 2. Great Walachia (Μεγάλη Βλαχία). - It is from http://brunodam.blog.kataweb.it/Anna_Comnena - Anna Comnena , in the second half of the 11th century, that we first hear of a Vlach settlement, the http://brunodam.blog.kataweb.it/Nucleus - nucleus of which was the mountainous region of http://brunodam.blog.kataweb.it/Thessaly - Thessaly . http://brunodam.blog.kataweb.it/Benjamin_of_Tudela - Benjamin of Tudela , in the succeeding century, gives an interesting account of this Great Walachia, then completely independent. It embraced the southern and central ranges of Pindus, and extended over part of Macedonia, thus including the region in which the Roman settlers mentioned in the Acts of St Demetrius had fixed their http://brunodam.blog.kataweb.it/Abode - abode . After the Latin conquest of http://brunodam.blog.kataweb.it/Constantinople - Constantinople in 1204, Great Walachia was included in the enlarged despotate of Epirus, but it soon reappears as an independent principality under its old name ("Principality of Wallachian Tessalia"), which, after passing under the yoke of the Serb emperor Dushan, was finally conquered by the Turks in 1393. Many of their old privileges were accorded to the inhabitants, and their taxes were limited to an annual http://brunodam.blog.kataweb.it/Tribute - tribute . Since this period the Megalovlachites have been largely Hellenized, but they are still represented by the flourishing Tzintzar (Vlach)settlements of Pindus and its neighbourhood."
 
By the way, it seems to me that the first Vlach or Aromunian State was the Republic of Ragusa (in Croat called "Dubrovnik").  What do you think about?      Bruno
 
 


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Posted By: brunodam
Date Posted: 23-Sep-2006 at 22:26
I have found another ethnical map, where it is possible see the presence of the Vlachs in the southern Balkans in 1923.  Smile      Bruno


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Posted By: maria d.
Date Posted: 23-Sep-2006 at 23:16
Originally posted by brunodam

Thank you, Maria d., it is a very interesting map that shows that the Vlachs have started to develop their own political entities before the Balkan wars of the last two centuries.
Indeed, I have found the following excerpt from the "British Encyclopedia of 1911" that confirms this Vlach State in Tessalia:
 
" 2. Great Walachia (Μεγάλη Βλαχία). - It is from http://brunodam.blog.kataweb.it/Anna_Comnena - Anna Comnena , in the second half of the 11th century, that we first hear of a Vlach settlement, the http://brunodam.blog.kataweb.it/Nucleus - nucleus of which was the mountainous region of http://brunodam.blog.kataweb.it/Thessaly - Thessaly . http://brunodam.blog.kataweb.it/Benjamin_of_Tudela - Benjamin of Tudela , in the succeeding century, gives an interesting account of this Great Walachia, then completely independent. It embraced the southern and central ranges of Pindus, and extended over part of Macedonia, thus including the region in which the Roman settlers mentioned in the Acts of St Demetrius had fixed their http://brunodam.blog.kataweb.it/Abode - abode . After the Latin conquest of http://brunodam.blog.kataweb.it/Constantinople - Constantinople in 1204, Great Walachia was included in the enlarged despotate of Epirus, but it soon reappears as an independent principality under its old name ("Principality of Wallachian Tessalia"), which, after passing under the yoke of the Serb emperor Dushan, was finally conquered by the Turks in 1393. Many of their old privileges were accorded to the inhabitants, and their taxes were limited to an annual http://brunodam.blog.kataweb.it/Tribute - tribute . Since this period the Megalovlachites have been largely Hellenized, but they are still represented by the flourishing Tzintzar (Vlach)settlements of Pindus and its neighbourhood."
 
By the way, it seems to me that the first Vlach or Aromunian State was the Republic of Ragusa (in Croat called "Dubrovnik").  What do you think about?      Bruno
 
 
 
In my opinion, you are right, Bruno.Clap
Ragusa was the only Illyrian city to survive the Avar and Slav invasions of Roman Dalmatia in the seventh century.  As Romans from the destroyed city of Aquileia escaped to create Venice in a lagoon, so the Romanized Illyrians  escaped the destroyed city of Epidaurum to create Ragusa in the southern Dalmatian coast. 
If we remember that we call Aromuni or Vlachs the neo-latin populations of the Balkans south of the Danube river, we have to consider the Republic of Ragusa as the first Vlach State. 
As the British Encyclopedia says: ..."The great commercial staple of the east Adriatic shores, the republic of Ragusa, seems in its origin to have been a Ruman settlement, and many Vlach traces survived in its later http://brunodam.blog.kataweb.it/Dialect - dialect . Philippus de Diversis, who described the city as it existed in 1440, says that " the various officers of the republic do not make use either of Slav or http://brunodam.blog.kataweb.it/Italian - Italian , with which they converse with strangers, but a certain other dialect only partially intelligible to us Latins," and cites words with strong Ruman affinities. In the mountains above Ragusa a number of Vlach tribes are mentioned in the archives of that city, and the original relationship of the Ragusans and the nomadic Alpine representatives of the Roman provincials (the Vlachs), who preserved a traditional knowledge of the old lines of communication throughout the peninsula, explains the extraordinary development of the Ragusan commerce...."
Ragusa never accepted the Venetian domination, because Venice was Italian and they (the Ragusans) considered themselves Balkan latins until Napoleon destroyed their State.  In the last two centuries the Croat speaking population, a minority during the middle ages, has steadily grown outnumbering the original neo-latin Ragusans, until 1918 when 99% of the people in Ragusa was Croat-speaking and the city changed its official name to Dubrovnik.   The (neo-latin) Dalmatian language is considered an extinct language Cry  Maria d.


Posted By: Theodore Felix
Date Posted: 24-Sep-2006 at 02:25
Ragusa was the only Illyrian city to survive the Avar and Slav invasions of Roman Dalmatia in the seventh century. As Romans from the destroyed city of Aquileia escaped to create Venice in a lagoon, so the Romanized Illyrians escaped the destroyed city of Epidaurum to create Ragusa in the southern Dalmatian coast.


Ragusa wasnt the only city. Up to the 13-14th century Dyrrachium/Durrazzo/Durres was largely a latin speaking city, according to an Irish travelor Symeon Symeonis the city's population was "Inhabitatur enim Latinis, Grecis, Judeis perfidis, et barbaris
Albanensibus."(For it is inhabited by Latins, Greeks,
perfidious Jews and barbaric Albanians)
. The same writter reports Dubrovnik/Ragusa as ”In eadem dominantur Veneti, et ad eam confluunt Sclavi, Barbari, Paterini et alii scismatici negotiatores qui sunt gestu, habitu et lingua Latinis in omnibus difformes” (The
Venetians dominate in it [Dubrovnik] and Slavs, Barbarians, Paterines and other schismatic merchants frequent it, who are entirely different from the Latins in their customs, dress and language).

The change for Durres occured after a devastating earthquake which occured about 50 years before the travellers where the vast part of the city(according to them 24,000) people died causing a massive decline in the city and thus drawing in a large influx of Albanians which would continue to populate it until about the later 14th century where they became the majority.



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Posted By: brunodam
Date Posted: 24-Sep-2006 at 13:27
Yes, good remarks Thgeodore Felix.Clap 
Durazzo/Durres was the Adriatic port of the "Via Egnatia" since 149 B.C. and many Roman colonists settled around this main road between Rome and Costantinopolis.  Their descendants mixed with the Illyrian populations of the area (of actual Albania, western Macedonia) and are believed to have created the local Aromunians (Vlachs) people of
our days.
But I believe Maria d. was referring to "States",not "cities".     She was talking of the Republic of Ragusa, not the simple city-port of Durazzo/Durres.    
Indeed, there are other cities that have maintained the latin (or neo-latin) language in the Adriatic until now, like Pola and Zara.  These two little city-ports changed their official name to the Croat "Pula" and "Zadar" only in 1947, after the italian defeat in WWII. And they still have a 5% of their population speaking the venetian dialect.  But Pola/Pula and Zara/Zadar never created a State like the Republic of Ragusa (now called "Dubrovnik").       In red there is the roman VIA EGNATIA below.     Bruno


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Posted By: nikodemos
Date Posted: 24-Sep-2006 at 17:54

Dyrrachium was a major Byzantine port.Are you sure that it was inhabited by vlachs?

There is no source mentioning vlachs in Dyrrachium.Constantinos Porfyrogennitos mentions latin speaking Romans in Dalmatia but no vlachs
The vlachs in the byzantines sources are described as a mountainous people.They didn't live in cities.Even if some of the inhabitants of Dyrrachium spoke Latin apart from Greek then this would make them just latin speaking Byzantines but not vlachs
The vlachs lived in closed societies up on the mountains and they led a semi-nomadic life.
 
In Byzantine sources vlachs are mentioned in northern Bulgaria and thrace in general,on the Pindos mountains and in Thessaly.
 
The latin speakers of Ragusa spoke the Dalmatian and istrian languages which are not the same with Aromanian/vlach.The people of Ragusa were called Morlachs actually.
 
As far as the great wallachia is concerned,I have to say that this state was one of the Byzantine states that emerged from the corpse of the empire.As a state it was very close to the despotate of epirus and just like the despotate of epirus it had good relations with the frankish states of Greece.
 
 


Posted By: Theodore Felix
Date Posted: 24-Sep-2006 at 18:22
Durazzo/Durres was the Adriatic port of the "Via Egnatia" since 149 B.C. and many Roman colonists settled around this main road between Rome and Costantinopolis. Their descendants mixed with the Illyrian populations of the area (of actual Albania, western Macedonia) and are believed to have created the local Aromunians (Vlachs) people of
our days.


I wouldnt go so far as to say that they were Vlachs. Throughout the 12-13th century many Italian/western european rulers had made their path into the Balkans, along with the Venetians. Its far more likely these people were native and cultured Italians rather then "vlachs". Symeonis also stated that the latin populant of Ragusa were "veneti", we have to obviously make aclear disctinction between the two. AT this time and to this day Vlachs would remain almost collectively a pastoral group.
    
    
The vlachs in the byzantines sources are described as a mountainous people.They didn't live in cities.Even if some of the inhabitants of Dyrrachium spoke Latin apart from Greek then this would make them just latin speaking Byzantines but not vlachs
The vlachs lived in closed societies up on the mountains and they led a semi-nomadic life.


Exactly, Durres by that point had been taken continuously by various Italian groups and the cities strategic positions must have definietly attracted an influx of "Latins"(probably most Italians, but could have also included Franks and even Germans). By the time of Symeonis, Greeks had ceased to be the dominant group in the area. Keep in mind this was in 1322.

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Posted By: brunodam
Date Posted: 24-Sep-2006 at 20:16
I appreciate and welcome the intervention of Nichodemos and Theodore Felix.Thumbs Up           
I want to remember that there are many confusions related to the terms "Vlach, Aromanians, Aromuni, etc..." and the historical times and countries connected with this neo-latin people of the Balkans. 
Recently, at the Fifth International Congress of the Aromanian Language and Culture (held June 25-26, 1999 at the Albert-Ludwigs-Universität in Freiburg,Germany), was agreed that the term Vlach/Aromanian was going to be related to all the "local" neo-latin speaking populations living in the Balkans south of the Danube river, after the fall of the Western Roman Empire (476 A.D.).   
It was a decision based even on the British Encyclopedia that states under the voice "VLACHS/AROMANIANS":
.."Byzantium, which had ceased to be Roman, and had become Romanic, renewed its acquaintance with the descendants of the Latin provincials of Illyricum through a Slavonic medium, and applied to them the name of Vlach, which the Slav himself had borrowed from the Goth. The first mention of Vlachs in a Byzantine source is about the year 976, when Cedrenus (ii. 439) relates the http://brunodam.blog.kataweb.it/Murder - murder of the Bulgarian http://brunodam.blog.kataweb.it/Tsar - tsar Samuel's brother " by certain Vlach wayfarers," at a spot called the http://brunodam.blog.kataweb.it/Fair_Oaks - Fair Oaks , between Castoria and Prespa. From this period onwards the Ruman inhabitants of the Balkan peninsula are constantly mentioned by this name, and we find a series of political organizations and territorial divisions connected with the name of Vlachia. A short synopsis may be given of the most important of these, outside the limits of Rumania itself.

1. The Bulgaro-Vlach Empire. - After the overthrow of the older Bulgarian tsardom by http://brunodam.blog.kataweb.it/Basil - Basil Bulgaroktonos (976-1025), the Vlach population of Thrace, Haemus and the Moesian lands passed once more under Byzantine dominion; and in 1185 a heavy tax, levied in kind on the http://brunodam.blog.kataweb.it/Cattle - cattle of these warlike mountain shepherds, stirred the Vlachs to revolt against the emperor Isaac http://brunodam.blog.kataweb.it/Angelus - Angelus , and under the leadership of two brothers, http://brunodam.blog.kataweb.it/Peter_%28disambiguation%29 - Peter and Asen, to found a new BulgaroVlachian empire, which ended with Kaliman II. in 1257. The dominions of these half-Slavonic half-Ruman emperors extended north of the Danube over a great deal of what is now Rumania, and it was during this period that the Vlach population north of the river seems to have been most largely reinforced. The 13thcentury French traveller http://brunodam.blog.kataweb.it/Rubruquis - Rubruquis speaks of all the country between http://brunodam.blog.kataweb.it/Don - Don and Danube as Asen's land or Blakia.

2. Great Walachia (Μεγάλη Βλαχία). - It is from http://brunodam.blog.kataweb.it/Anna_Comnena - Anna Comnena , in the second half of the 11th century, that we first hear of a Vlach settlement, the http://brunodam.blog.kataweb.it/Nucleus - nucleus of which was the mountainous region of http://brunodam.blog.kataweb.it/Thessaly - Thessaly . http://brunodam.blog.kataweb.it/Benjamin_of_Tudela - Benjamin of Tudela , in the succeeding century, gives an interesting account of this Great Walachia, then completely independent. It embraced the southern and central ranges of Pindus, and extended over part of Macedonia, thus including the region in which the Roman settlers mentioned in the Acts of St Demetrius had fixed their http://brunodam.blog.kataweb.it/Abode - abode . After the Latin conquest of http://brunodam.blog.kataweb.it/Constantinople - Constantinople in 1204, Great Walachia was included in the enlarged despotate of Epirus, but it soon reappears as an independent principality under its old name("Principality of Wallachian Tessalia"), which, after passing under the yoke of the Serb emperor Dushan, was finally conquered by the Turks in 1393. Many of their old privileges were accorded to the inhabitants, and their taxes were limited to an annual http://brunodam.blog.kataweb.it/Tribute - tribute . Since this period the Megalovlachites have been largely Hellenized, but they are still represented by the flourishing Tzintzar settlements of Pindus and its neighbourhood (see http://brunodam.blog.kataweb.it/Macedonia - Macedonia ).

3. Little Walachia (Μικρή Βλαχία)was a name applied by Byzantine writers to the Ruman settlements of http://brunodam.blog.kataweb.it/Aetolia - Aetolia and http://brunodam.blog.kataweb.it/Acarnania - Acarnania , and with it may be included " Upper Walachia," or Άνω Βλαχία. Its inhabitants are still represented by the Tzintzars of the Aspropotamo and the Karaguni (Black Capes) of Acarnania.

4. The Morlachs (Mavrovlachi) of the West. - These are already mentioned as Nigri Latini by the http://brunodam.blog.kataweb.it/Presbyter - presbyter of Dioclea (c. "50) in the old Dalmatian littoral and the mountains of what is now http://brunodam.blog.kataweb.it/Montenegro - Montenegro , Herzegovina and North http://brunodam.blog.kataweb.it/Albania,_Turkey - Albania . Other colonies extended through a great part of the old Servian interior, where is a region still called Stara Vlaska or " Old Walachia." The great commercial staple of the east Adriatic shores, the republic of Ragusa, seems in its origin to have been a Ruman settlement, and many Vlach traces survived in its later http://brunodam.blog.kataweb.it/Dialect - dialect . Philippus de Diversis, who described the city as it existed in 1440, says that " the various officers of the republic do not make use either of Slav or http://brunodam.blog.kataweb.it/Italian - Italian , with which they converse with strangers, but a certain other dialect only partially intelligible to us Latins," and cites words with strong Ruman affinities. In the mountains above Ragusa a number of Vlach tribes are mentioned in the archives of that city, and the original relationship of the Ragusans and the nomadic Alpine representatives of the Roman provincials, who preserved a traditional knowledge of the old lines of communication throughout the peninsula, explains the extraordinary development of the Ragusan commerce. In the 14th century the Mavrovlachi or Morlachs extended themselves towards the Croatian borders, and a large part of maritime Croatia and northern Dalmatia began to be known as Morlacchia. A Major Vlachia was formed about the triple frontier of Bosnia, Croatia and Dalmatia, and a " Little Walachia " as far north as Pozega. The Morlachs have now become Slavonized (see http://brunodam.blog.kataweb.it/Dalmatia - Dalmatia ).

5. Cici of Istria. - The extreme Ruman offshoot to the north-west is still represented by the Cici of the Val d'Arsa and adjoining Istrian districts. They represent a 15th-century Morlach colony from the Isles of http://brunodam.blog.kataweb.it/Veglia - Veglia , and had formerly a wider extension to http://brunodam.blog.kataweb.it/Trieste - Trieste and the counties of http://brunodam.blog.kataweb.it/Gradisca - Gradisca and http://brunodam.blog.kataweb.it/Gorz - Gorz . The Cici have almost entirely abandoned their native tongue, which is the last remaining representative of the old Morlach, and forms a connecting http://brunodam.blog.kataweb.it/Link - link between the Daco-Roman (or Rumanian) and the Illyroor Macedo-Roman dialects.

6. Rumans of Hungary. - As already stated, a large part of the Hungarian plains were, at the coming of the Magyars in the 9th century, known as Pascua Romanorum. At a later period privileged Ruman communities existed at Fogaras, where was a Silva Vlachorum, at Marmaros, http://brunodam.blog.kataweb.it/Deva - Deva , Hatzeg, Hunyad and http://brunodam.blog.kataweb.it/Lugos - Lugos , and in the Banat were seven Ruman districts. Two of the greatest figures in Hungarian history, the 15th-century rulers John Corvinus of Hunyad and his son King http://brunodam.blog.kataweb.it/Matthias - Matthias , were due to this element......"

That is why I consider that the Republic of Ragusa is the first Balkan neo-latin State of the "local" population Aromunian, like the Morlachs.  Bruno

 



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Posted By: maria d.
Date Posted: 24-Sep-2006 at 22:24
I have found one interesting map that can give an idea of the extension of the Aromanian "Principality of Pindus" of A. Diamantis in 1941-1943.  The limits should be: to the north the area of german occupation of Greece (yellow); to the west the greek Epirus annexed to Albania(light blue); to the south the southern border of Tessalia, in Italian occupied Greece.         Maria d.


Posted By: maria d.
Date Posted: 25-Sep-2006 at 09:30
Here it is, Bruno, another map of the southern Balkans after WWI.  May be can useful to find the area of the short-lived Vlach "Republic of Korce/Corceaua" in the Albania of 1918. The data on the map in southern Albania refer to the greek creation of the "North Epirus" state in 1920 (red color).   Maria d.


Posted By: brunodam
Date Posted: 25-Sep-2006 at 18:27
Two GREAT maps, Maria d. !!!
Congratulations. Clap   Bruno


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Posted By: brunodam
Date Posted: 25-Sep-2006 at 21:43
Thanks to your map of Europe in 1941, Maria d., I have been able to create this map of the "Principality of Pindus".
The borders are based :
1) on the expansion of fascist Albania in Epirus, a region that the
    Albanians call "Cameria".
2) on the german occupation zone in greek Macedonia.
3) on the italian occupation zone in central/NW Greece.
3) on the Wikipedia affirmation that the Principality of Pindus of A.  
    Diamantis was "... the so-called Autonomou Kratou tis Pindou or
    Autonomou Vlahikou Kratou on the territory of Epirus, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thessaly - Thessaly and
    parts of http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Macedonia_%28region%29 - Macedonia , which was supposed to constitute a Vlach
    Homeland...."   
I am very happy! Smile Bruno  
 
PRINCIPALITY OF PINDUS (in green color)


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Posted By: maria d.
Date Posted: 26-Sep-2006 at 10:32
Originally posted by brunodam

Thanks to your map of Europe in 1941, Maria d., I have been able to create this map of the "Principality of Pindus".
The borders are based :
1) on the expansion of fascist Albania in Epirus, a region that the
    Albanians call "Cameria".
2) on the german occupation zone in greek Macedonia.
3) on the italian occupation zone in central/NW Greece.
3) on the Wikipedia affirmation that the Principality of Pindus of A.  
    Diamantis was "... the so-called Autonomou Kratou tis Pindou or
    Autonomou Vlahikou Kratou on the territory of Epirus, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thessaly - Thessaly and
    parts of http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Macedonia_%28region%29 - Macedonia , which was supposed to constitute a Vlach
    Homeland...."   
I am very happy! Smile Bruno  
 
PRINCIPALITY OF PINDUS (in green color)
 
 
Well, Bruno, the map of the Principality of Pindus in 1941 is very (and astonishingly) similar to the the map of the Principality of Wallachian Thessalia in 1465.....only a bit to the south in the greek peninsula.
That shows the continuity of the dominant presence of the Vlachs in the Pindus/Thessalian region.
May I ask you why you started this forum? ..To get these maps of the Vlachs?
Smile  Maria d.


Posted By: brunodam
Date Posted: 26-Sep-2006 at 18:09

Another map about the origins of the Aromanians/Vlachs, from a Romanian point of view:                                          Bruno



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Posted By: brunodam
Date Posted: 26-Sep-2006 at 18:28
A German map of Bulgaria in 1912, with references to the Aromanians/Vlachs:               Bruno

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Posted By: brunodam
Date Posted: 26-Sep-2006 at 18:41
Ethnic Macedonia before WWI:              Bruno


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Posted By: maria d.
Date Posted: 26-Sep-2006 at 22:01
Originally posted by brunodam

Two GREAT maps, Maria d. !!!
Congratulations. Clap   Bruno
 
Thank you, but now I have to say the same of your maps.....If you keep posting maps, even Greco will envy you....Wink......
Anyway, here it is another map: this is from the Timok valley in Serbia. It shows the Vlachs communities living south of the Danube river in Serbia and Bulgaria during the Renaissance.    Maria d.
 


Posted By: maria d.
Date Posted: 27-Sep-2006 at 15:13
Actually there are no more Vlachs in northern Bulgaria, only a little community in Vidin, near the Iron Gates of the Danube river.  It seems that nearly all of them moved to the "Cadrilater" of Romania between the two world wars.        Maria d.


Posted By: brunodam
Date Posted: 27-Sep-2006 at 16:06
I agree with you, Maria d.
Wallachian (Wallach, Vlach) population is to be found in the Serbian and Bulgarian regions along the Danube. According to one of the theories, this population consists of Romanian peasants who had migrated from the lands on the other side of the Danube in consequence of Ciocoi /big landlords/ oppression. Some other theories assert that Vlachs are the offspring of Bulgarian émigré families having re-emigrated from Romania for the same reason. It could be that the truth is somewhere in between. Both communities are Eastern Orthodox Christians.

At the turn of the 19th century, trade relations between the Austrian-Hungarian and the Ottoman Empire became more intensive. On the other hand, the southern Albanian lands, where the Aroumanians had settled, were caught up in anarchy and Christian Aroumanians were continuously harassed by Muslim Albanians. The Aroumanian residents of the ruined towns - Moskopolje, Linotipi, etc., were scattered around in Austria, Greece, Bulgaria, while Aroumanian shepherds migrated from the areas of the Gramoz Mountain and Pindus range in northern Greece. During the same period, Wallachians were also migrating from Romania - some of them fleeing from oppression by the big landlords (the Ottoman administration encouraged the settlement of the depopulated territories along the Danube), others were escaping from conscription introduced in the Principality of Wallachia. Aroumanian colonies were established in the towns of Peshtera, Plovdiv, Assenovgrad, Doupnitsa, Gorna Dzhumaya (modern Blagoevgrad), Sofia, etc. Wallachians settled along the Timok valley, near the towns of Vidin and Kula. There are records of clashes between ethnic Bulgarian and Aroumanian urban dwellers during the period of the Bulgarian national revival. The reason is that in the times of struggle for an independent Bulgarian Church the Aroumanian urban dwellers, as subjects of Greek schooling, were pro-Greek minded. After the Liberation, however, the number of Aroumanians grew up. Many of them, driven by their Orthodox Christian religion and by some other factors, preferred to live in Bulgaria rather than where they the had lived before, in Macedonia, which remained within the boundaries of the Ottoman Empire. The migrants of the new wave were no longer of pro-Greek orientation, but rather more closely tied with the Romanian culture. At the same time, they were much more receptive with respect to Bulgarian culture. Meanwhile, with the birth of new states on the Peninsula, many of the Aroumanian shepherds had to adopt a settled mode of living. Wallachians, the majority of whom are to this day characterized by a sense of relatedness to the Bulgarian lands, were actively involved in Bulgaria's political life and in large numbers participated in the wars waged by Bulgaria. The situation changed after 1918. On the one side, at that time Romania began  an active propaganda among the Aroumanians and Vlachs, and, on the other, the successive Bulgarian administrations undertook actions of repression against them, although sporadically or within occasional campaigns. Romanian schools were open in the 1920's - mainly in Gorna Dzhumaya, while the school in Sofia gradually grew into a Romanian Institute and a lyceum. In 1923, a Romanian church was consecrated in Sofia, where Romanian priests conducted the services. (This church, which is under the jurisdiction of the Patriarchate of Romania, is still operative.) Aroumanians in the town of Gorna Dzhumaya have had a church of their own since 1906. Initially, the college and the church were in service of the Aroumanian community alone, but from 1933 on  the lyceum began to admit students from among the Wallachians of the Danubian regions. The school functioned until 1948, when it was closed and the Aroumanian organizations were disbanded. In the 1930's, the Romanian universities would admit students, and provide fellowships to them, from the Wallachian population living by the Danube. There was also propaganda work encouraging migration to Romania. It was more effective among the Aroumanians, while only some 200 Vlach families left to live there. (On the one hand, Vlachs had no economic motivation to emigrate, on the other, we already mentioned their affiliation to the Bulgarian society.) After the coup in 1923, the leaders of the Wallachian movement persecuted by the new Bulgarian government emigrated to Romania, where they, together with Wallachian immigrants from Serbia, founded their associations and published their own newspapers.

Under the Communist regime, except for the overall policy of assimilation, there is no written evidence of some special measures aimed at the two ethnic communities or of some specific ban on the use of their language. This was due perhaps to the circumstance that Romania was also under Communist rule, as well as to the fact that a numerous Bulgarian ethnic minority lived there.

In 1991, an Association of Vlachs in Bulgaria was founded. Its membership includes both Vlachs and Aroumanians, the two communities maintaining the autonomy of their associations. They publish in Vidin one common newspaper Timpul /Time/ and the Aroumanian society issues a Bulletin, Armani, in Sofia. The Association sends to Romania young people to study at the universities there. (Similarly, through the Bulgarian Ministry of Education and Science, and with the help of the Bulgarian ethnic organizations in Romania, ethnic Bulgarians from Romania are admitted to the institutions of higher education in Bulgaria.) The association is a member of international minority organizations. It organizes folk festivals, maintains regular contacts with the Bulgarian and Romanian authorities, with non-governmental organizations, as well as with the organizations  of the ethnic Bulgarians in Romania. Since several years, steps have been made to re-open the Romanian school in Sofia.

It is no chance that no figures have been mentioned so far. The reason is that statistical data are quite contradictory. According to the 1910 census, 1843 individuals have identified themselves using the ethnic names by which Aroumanians were referred to at that time, Tsintsars and Kutzovlachs. The same census, however, reports 80 000 Romanians and a total of 96 502 people whose mother tongue was Romanian. In 1920, when Bulgarian territories,  populated among other people by Vlachs, were ceded to Romania and Serbia, a "Romanian" identity was reported by 57 312 persons, and the people whose mother tongue was Romanian numbered 75 065 of whom 10 648 Aroumanians. In 1926 the number of "Romanians" living in Bulgaria was 69 080, while the total number of individuals whose mother tongue was Romanian ran up to 83 746. The Aroumanins belonging to this group were divided, according to their self-descriptions, into three subgroups: 5000 Aroumanians, 4000 Kutzovlachs and 1500 Tsintsars. In the next census, which was conducted in the years after the 1934 coup, the number of all minority groups was deliberately reduced for political reasons. Numbers varied  not only as a result of immigration, internal migratory movements and natural growth, but also as a result of varying self-identification of the same persons in the different censuses. Nevertheless, in 1992 as many as 5195 people declared themselves to be Vlachs and 2 491 Romanians, or 7 650 people in all. It should be added that these figures might include Roma people too. It is also likely for Vlachs and Aroumanians to have been placed under the title "others" because of their differing self-reported identity. The discrepancy with pre-war numbers is due mainly to the fact that most of the Wallachs, although they have kept their language and folk customs, prefer to identify themselves as Bulgarians.

I am thinking to write a book about the neo-latin populations in the Balkans south of the Danube river.
Bruno


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Posted By: brunodam
Date Posted: 27-Sep-2006 at 22:05
Ethnic map of the Balkans in 1910.
With the number 33 it is possible to see the Aromanian/Vlach areas.
It is clear the presence of neo-latin people south of the Danube river in Bulgaria (and in the Timok Krajina of Serbia) in 1910.  After one century,
in our times this presence is greatly reduced by forced assimilation and ethnic cleansing.   Bruno
 


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Posted By: maria d.
Date Posted: 28-Sep-2006 at 21:59
 "I am thinking to write a book about the neo-latin populations in the Balkans south of the Danube river.
Bruno"
 
So, Bruno, I believe this is the reason of why you are asking for maps on the Vlachs in this forum.  Clap  Congratulations!

Well, I have for you this last map on the neo-latin language diffusion in Bulgaria.   Good luck Thumbs Up  Maria d.  

 


 


Posted By: brunodam
Date Posted: 29-Sep-2006 at 00:07
You are very kind, Maria d. 
Your map of Bulgaria shows a big area of neo-latin speaking people just south of the Danube river.  I believe it is a mixed area with other ethnic people, mainly Bulgarians.
Anyway, I post here my final map: it shows most of the extension ot the Latin-speaking people in Europe since Roman times. It is possible to see on it even the Vlachs/Aromanians in the southern Balkans. 
Good bye to all of you!   Hug     Bruno
 
 
 
 


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Posted By: brunodam
Date Posted: 29-Sep-2006 at 09:54


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Posted By: brunodam
Date Posted: 01-Oct-2006 at 11:02


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Posted By: brunodam
Date Posted: 01-Oct-2006 at 11:19
REDUCTION IN THE NEO-LATIN POPULATION IN THE  TIMOK VALLEY IN SERBIA.


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Posted By: maria d.
Date Posted: 01-Oct-2006 at 20:08
I have found two more maps about the Vlachs in the Balkans for your book, Bruno.   I hope they'll be useful to you.           Maria d.
 
VLACHS IN MACEDONIA (in our days):
 
VLACHS IN ISTRIA.    Note their area reduction between 1840 (when the Italian independence from Austria started, and the Hasburgs favored the Slavs against the neo-Latins) and our days:
 
 


Posted By: brunodam
Date Posted: 01-Oct-2006 at 21:22
I find very useful your last two maps, Maria d.
Thank you again.
 
I have found an interesting article of 1882, about the neo-latin population in the Balkans south of the Danube, that states that "..according to a Report of the Austrian Consulate in Bucarest the neo-latin speaking people in the Balkans are a total of 3.134.450, and are so divided: 400.000 in Serbia, 420.000 in Bulgaria, 289.750 in Bosnia-Herzegovina, 77.300 in Novi-Pazar, 220.000 in Eastern Rumelia, 1.450.000 in Western Rumelia, Macedonia and Albania, 137.000 in the territories that Greece obtained from the Treaty of Berlin and 140.000 in the rest of Greece..."
Even if these numbers have to be taken with caution, because of nationalistic pressure and influence, anyway we remain impressed by the undoubtful  "disappearance" of hundreds of thousands of neo-latin people in just 125 years.   According to a "Report on the Vlach endangered minority" done by the European Union in 2004, there are between 200.000 and 400.000 Vlachs in the Balkans south of Romania.
THAT MEANS THAT IN OUR DAYS THERE ARE APROXIMATELY ONLY 10 % OF THE VLACHS, LIVING IN THE BALKANS AT THE END OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY !
Unbelievable, unbelievable, unbelievable: all this looks like a "SILENT GENOCIDE".   It is similar to the reduction in population of the Amerindians, after the Spanish conquest of central and south America.
But in this case there were terrible epidemies that reduced the Amerindian population.
So, I believe most of the reduction in the Vlach populations is mainly due to "change of nationality", because of SUBTLE OR FORCED ASSIMILATION in other ethnical communities of the Balkans.
 
 Bruno Smile
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


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Posted By: brunodam
Date Posted: 01-Oct-2006 at 21:30
Another map, that is my final synthesis of the neo-latin population in eastern Europe:                        Bruno Hug
 
         


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Posted By: greco
Date Posted: 02-Oct-2006 at 07:44


Posted By: greco
Date Posted: 02-Oct-2006 at 07:49
 


Posted By: greco
Date Posted: 02-Oct-2006 at 07:52
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/43/Vlachs-bgiu.jpg">


Posted By: brunodam
Date Posted: 03-Oct-2006 at 09:19
Originally posted by brunodam

 
I have found an interesting article of 1882, about the neo-latin population in the Balkans south of the Danube, that states that "..according to a Report of the Austrian Consulate in Bucarest the neo-latin speaking people in the Balkans are a total of 3.134.450, and are so divided: 400.000 in Serbia, 420.000 in Bulgaria, 289.750 in Bosnia-Herzegovina, 77.300 in Novi-Pazar, 220.000 in Eastern Rumelia, 1.450.000 in Western Rumelia, Macedonia and Albania, 137.000 in the territories that Greece obtained from the Treaty of Berlin and 140.000 in the rest of Greece..."
Even if these numbers have to be taken with caution, because of nationalistic pressure and influence, anyway we remain impressed by the undoubtful  "disappearance" of hundreds of thousands of neo-latin people in just 125 years.   According to a "Report on the Vlach endangered minority" done by the European Union in 2004, there are between 200.000 and 400.000 Vlachs in the Balkans south of Romania.
THAT MEANS THAT IN OUR DAYS THERE ARE APROXIMATELY ONLY 10 % OF THE VLACHS, LIVING IN THE BALKANS AT THE END OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY !
Unbelievable, unbelievable, unbelievable: all this looks like a "SILENT GENOCIDE".   It is similar to the reduction in population of the Amerindians, after the Spanish conquest of central and south America.
But in this case there were terrible epidemies that reduced the Amerindian population.
So, I believe most of the reduction in the Vlach populations is mainly due to "change of nationality", because of SUBTLE AND/OR FORCED ASSIMILATION in other ethnical communities of the Balkans.
 
 Bruno Smile
  
 
Thank you, Greco, for your maps.  They are very interesting and useful.
 
Anyway, here it is the map of the 1881 Balkan ethnicities on which it is based the above "Report of the Austrian Consulate of 1882".
A clear example of the "subtle and/or forced assimilation" of the Vlachs is the Serbian authorities affirmation that in 2002 in Serbia there are ONLY SERBS SPEAKING IN VLACH DIALECT (please, read a former post with statistical data on the Vlach population in 2002 Serbia).  So, the Vlachs cannot have recognition of minority status and cannot have any school in their language. Their children are forced to go to Serbian schools and so their work language (when they grow in age) becomes the Serbian: no wonder the Vlachs are diminishing in Serbia  with this
TRICKY ETHNIC ASSIMILATION METHOD !!! 
Thanks God, the European Union is starting to take steps to solve and erase this shame......     Bruno
 
 
 
 
 


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Posted By: maria d.
Date Posted: 03-Oct-2006 at 15:24
Originally posted by brunodam

I find very useful your last two maps, Maria d.
Thank you again.
 
I have found an interesting article of 1882, about the neo-latin population in the Balkans south of the Danube, that states that "..according to a Report of the Austrian Consulate in Bucarest the neo-latin speaking people in the Balkans are a total of 3.134.450, and are so divided: 400.000 in Serbia, 420.000 in Bulgaria, 289.750 in Bosnia-Herzegovina, 77.300 in Novi-Pazar, 220.000 in Eastern Rumelia, 1.450.000 in Western Rumelia, Macedonia and Albania, 137.000 in the territories that Greece obtained from the Treaty of Berlin and 140.000 in the rest of Greece..."
Even if these numbers have to be taken with caution, because of nationalistic pressure and influence, anyway we remain impressed by the undoubtful  "disappearance" of hundreds of thousands of neo-latin people in just 125 years.   According to a "Report on the Vlach endangered minority" done by the European Union in 2004, there are between 200.000 and 400.000 Vlachs in the Balkans south of Romania.
THAT MEANS THAT IN OUR DAYS THERE ARE APROXIMATELY ONLY 10 % OF THE VLACHS, LIVING IN THE BALKANS AT THE END OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY !
Unbelievable, unbelievable, unbelievable: all this looks like a "SILENT GENOCIDE".   It is similar to the reduction in population of the Amerindians, after the Spanish conquest of central and south America.
But in this case there were terrible epidemies that reduced the Amerindian population.
So, I believe most of the reduction in the Vlach populations is mainly due to "change of nationality", because of SUBTLE OR FORCED ASSIMILATION in other ethnical communities of the Balkans.
 
 Bruno Smile
 
 
You are very kind, Bruno.  Thanks
 
From the 1881 map that you have posted I realize that the neo-Latin reduction in population seems to be concentrated in the areas of the former Ottoman empire.  The main reason: the Vlachs did not created their own State!  The only Balkan area (south of the Danube) were the neo-Latin language has been preserved and increased is in the Romanian Dobrugia.
But there it is another area in the Balkans were the neo-Latin population has decreased: in Istria and Dalmatia the Italian population has been forced to evacuate after WWII!
Nearly 400000 Italians escaped the ethnic cleansing of Tito's Jugoslavia in 1945/46.   In our days there are only a few thousands of Venetian-dialect speaking population in northwestern Istria.
If your book will be not only on the Vlachs, but on all the neo-Latin populations in the Balkans south of the Danube river, then you must include the Italians in Istria and Dalmatia.
 
Bye bye   Big smile   Maria d.
 
Here it is a map of the italian occupation of Jugoslavia in 1941-1943
 
 


Posted By: brunodam
Date Posted: 03-Oct-2006 at 15:31
Yes.    You are right, Maria d.  Clap
Bruno


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Posted By: brunodam
Date Posted: 03-Oct-2006 at 22:19
FOLKLORE OF VLACHS IN TIMOC KRAJINA / SERBIA
 


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Posted By: maria d.
Date Posted: 04-Oct-2006 at 11:37
Originally posted by brunodam

Yes.    You are right, Maria d.  Clap
Bruno
 
Ok, Bruno.
 
So, allow me to post for you my personal opinions about the ethnicity of the Adriatic Balkans:
 
 The Slavic peoples began to settle on the Adriatic coastal regions about 15 centuries after the autochthonous Illyrians and 8 centuries after the process of latinization of all the Illyrians except the Albanians, but since then consider those regions their permanent home. In so doing their colonization displaced and progressively replaced by demographic force the original latinized Istrians and Dalmatians in the countryside, but much less in the coastal cities. So, often the process of assimilation of the minority (Italian ) to the majority (Slavic) was spontaneously reversed. The Slavic element was mostly peasant, the Italians where mostly urbanized and more often literate, and so when a family elevated herself from peasant class or settled in the coastal italian cities found natural to Italianize her culture. At the time there was not so much nationalistic rivalry or cultural competition or possibility to compare. Venetian rule was equally appreciated by Italians and Slavic elements in Dalmatia (and by Albanese people in south Adriatic).
Things changed with the Italian independence wars, that posed a threat to Austrian rule and so the Austria began to favour the Slavic element. Slovenian and Croatian peoples were fully included in the Habsburg empire boundaries and let the Austrians hope in more interest in the conservation of the state, mainly after 1861.

- During and after first world war Italian and Slavic nationalism competed directly and so the Italianization policy was resented in Istria. Minorities associations and schools where not allowed, italianization of family names was discussed and sometimes encouraged (but not compelled even for italian state officials or dignitaries). - All Italy was under Mussolinian dictatorship, but even Yugoslavia was not a state dedicated to the respect of minorities and development of differences. The scarce representation of the Croats in the state structures of the kingdom of Yugoslavia alienated parts of the Croatian population even if the Union of the Croats, the Serbs and the Slovenians had been originally just an ideal of the Croatian nationalists. -

On the coast of Dalmatia some de-italianization and official slavization had already began: Some stone winged lions ancient symbols of the Venetian presence had been wiped out, local names of roads and localities had been changed in the cities and on the coast and history of literature and art had began to be rewritten declaring many artists Slavic, translating their names never used as such and appropriating their work although if written in Latin, or in Italian. Also Italian cultural associations and minority schools where not favorably looked upon. - History was rewritten and scientifically unfounded theories were circulated like: - That Slavic language is an evolution of Illyrian or that Slavic and Illyrian are very closely related, much more than other indo-european languages. -
 
In consequences there has been a great reduction in the Italian population in the Adriatic Balkans as can be seen from these examples:
Italian population in Dalmatia: 12.5% in 1865 (Austro-Hungarian Census)
                                                   3.1% in 1890 (        "        )
                                                   0.5% in 1910 (        "        )
Italian population in Istria:       93.2% in 1865 (        "        )
                                                 88.5% in 1890 (        "        )
                                                 79.6% in 1910 (        "        )
 
It is very obvious that Italians in Istria, Dalmatia and Fiume are natives and the Slavic people are guests.
 
Finally, you can find  interesting information and maps at the site:
http://www.irredentismo.it - www.irredentismo.it (but it is mainly in italian language) 
 
Maria d.  Thumbs Up
 

 



Posted By: brunodam
Date Posted: 04-Oct-2006 at 12:11
Maria d., I have seen the site http://www.irredentismo.it - www.irredentismo.it
It seems a nationalistic site.  Anyway, I have taken from it the following map that shows the adriatic areas of the Balkan, where Italian (or better: Venetian dialect) was spoken (or is spoken minimally today).
Thanks   Smile  Bruno
 
 
 


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Posted By: maria d.
Date Posted: 04-Oct-2006 at 14:22
Originally posted by brunodam

Maria d., I have seen the site http://www.irredentismo.it - www.irredentismo.it
It seems a nationalistic site.  Anyway, I have taken from it the following map that shows the adriatic areas of the Balkan, where Italian (or better: Venetian dialect) was spoken (or is spoken minimally today).
Thanks   Smile  Bruno
 
 
 
 
Yes, Bruno, it is a bit nationalistic.    But gives a good idea of the areas, outside the Italian borders, where there are (or there were) italian speaking communities.
The real nationalistic sites -the fascist sites- include even areas like the Savoy region in France and all historical Dalmatia, continuously from Fiume/Rijeka to the Cattaro bay in Montenegro and the borders of Albania.
By the way, do you know that the Illyrian Provinces created by Napoleon were populated mainly by Slavs people, but there was a venetian-speaking minority of 33%?
And that this venetian-speaking population was the majority (even 60%) in the coastal towns of the Illyrian provinces?  In cities like Spalato (now called Split) there was, under Napoleon's rule, a venetian-speaking majority of nearly 62% of the total population: now NOBODY speaks that dialect!  In just two centuries the "Spalatini" have disappeared.....
It is sad, believe me, it is sad all this....Cry   Maria d.
 
 


Posted By: brunodam
Date Posted: 04-Oct-2006 at 14:39
Originally posted by brunodam

FOLKLORE OF VLACHS IN TIMOC KRAJINA / SERBIA
 
 
Well, Maria d., you write very interesting things about the reduction of the neo-latin language in the Adriatic Balkans.
 
Anyway, this topic is about the Vlachs and I'd like to pinpoint that in the above photo there is a Vlach folkloristic group that has performed in western Europe with great success, promoting the Vlach/Aromanian cause.
This reason (and of course others) makes me personally believe that the Vlachs are NOT going to disappear! Smile Bruno


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Posted By: maria d.
Date Posted: 04-Oct-2006 at 16:54
Of course they are NOT going to disappear.
The Vlachs/Aromanians have a bright future in the European Union! Thumbs Up
 
Here it is the Report of January 1997 of the ASSEMBLY of the European Union, written by Luis M. de Puig:
 
Aromanians

REPORT 

Doc. 7728

17 January 1997 

Rapporteur: Mr Lluis Maria de PUIG, Spain, Socialist Group


Summary

The Assembly draws attention to the critical situation of the Aromanian language and culture. These have been present in the Balkans for over 2000 years, but face today a serious risk of extinction.

To prevent such a cultural loss for Europe as a whole, the Assembly would encourage the Balkan states, where the Aromanians live, to support their language in the fields of education, religion and the media. In particular the European Charter of Regional or Minority Languages should be implemented. Other member states and the Council for Cultural Co-operation are also called upon for assistance.

I. Draft recommendation on the Aromanian culture and language

1.The Assembly is concerned about the critical situation of the Aromanian culture and language, which have existed for over two thousand years in the Balkan peninsula.

2.Whereas there were over 500 000 Aromanian speakers at the beginning of the twentieth century, there are now only about half that number, dispersed through Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia" and Serbia, which are their home countries, as well as Romania, Germany, the United States of America and Australia. Most of them are elderly. Aromanian, as a minority language, is under threat.

3.The scale of the problem has become evident since the extension of cultural co-operation to the Balkans, the home of Aromanian.

4.The Aromanian language and culture are facing a similar fate to that of many European cultures which are becoming or have become extinct. However, the acceptance of a pluralist system of cultural values is a prerequisite for stability in Europe, and particularly in the Balkans.

5.The Aromanians make no political demands, but merely want assistance in safeguarding their language and culture, which seem doomed to extinction unless the European institutions, and the Council of Europe in particular, come to their aid.

6.The Assembly recalls the texts which it has adopted on related matters, notably Recommendation 928 (1981) on the educational and cultural problems of minority languages and dialects in Europe, Recommendation 1283 (1996) on history and the learning of history in Europe, and Recommendation 1291 (1996) on Yiddish culture.

7.The latter text recommended setting up, under the auspices of the Council of Europe, a "laboratory for dispersed ethnic minorities" with a mandate, inter alia, to promote the survival of minority cultures or their memory, carry out surveys of persons still speaking minority languages, record, collect and preserve their monuments and evidence of their language and folklore, publish basic documents and promote legislation to protect minority cultures against discrimination or annihilation.

8.The Assembly recommends that the Committee of Ministers:

i.encourage Balkan states which comprise Aromanian communities to sign, ratify and implement the European Charter of Regional or Minority Languages and invite them to support the Aromanians, particularly in the following fields:

  1. education in their mother tongue,

  2. religious services in Aromanian in their churches,

  3. newspapers, magazines and radio and television programmes in Aromanian,

  4. support for their cultural associations;

ii.invite the other member states to support the Aromanian language, for instance by creating university professorships in the subject and disseminating the most interesting products of Aromanian culture throughout Europe by means of translations, anthologies, courses, exhibitions and theatrical productions;

iii.introduce fellowships for artists and writers from Aromanian minority groups throughout the Balkans, so that they can engage in appropriate creative work in the fields of Aromanian language and culture;

iv.request the Council for Cultural Co-operation to ensure co-ordination of the activities of Aromanian academic centres throughout Europe;

v.invite the education ministers of member states to include the history of Aromanian in European history books;

vi.seek to establish co-operation and partnership with organisations, foundations and other interested bodies in the private sector with a view to implementing these recommendations;

vii.take account of Aromanian culture in its follow-up to Recommendation 1291 (1996), particularly where the "laboratory for dispersed ethnic minorities" is concerned.

II. Explanatory memorandum by Mr Lluis Maria de PUIG

 

The aim of this report is to draw the Assembly's attention to the impending threats to a people which, although little known, is an integral part of the patchwork of European cultures. This people, on whose origins there is some disagreement among specialists, has been living in the Balkans for two thousand years. It has never had an independent state and has often been a minority in its states of residence. Throughout its history it has apparently maintained good neighbourly relations with the peoples alongside which it has lived and is still living. Despite a certain tendency to integrate (it has almost completely merged with the host population in the north-western Balkans), this people has managed to remain linguistically and culturally homogeneous. However, it does not constitute a "community" in the sense of an organised group, and it is only since the political upheavals of the last few years in virtually all the countries inhabited by Aromanians that local, regional and national cultural associations have emerged and a number of international contacts developed.

The Aromanians are a very exceptional, indeed unique historical, linguistic and cultural phenomenon. And yet this highly original culture is at risk and the Aromanian language is doomed to extinction unless the European institutions, especially the Council of Europe, come to its aid. In fact, it would be unthinkable to remain inert and watch such a rich language and culture disappear. In contrast to other minority groups, the Aromanians make no political demands; all they want is assistance in protecting their language and culture, which form part of the European cultural heritage.

Reporting committee: Committee on Culture and Education

Budgetary implications for the Assembly: None.

Reference to committee: Doc. 7091 and Ref. No. 1948 of 28 June 1994.

Draft recommendation: adopted by the committee with one abstention on 17 December 1996.

Members of the committee: Sir Russell Johnston, (Chairman), MM. Berg, de Puig (Vice-Chairmen), Arnason, Asciak, Banks (Alternate: Sir Keith Speed), Bartumeu Cassany, Bauer, Baumel, Berti, Mrs Bielikova, MM. Cem, Corrao, De Decker (Alternate: Staes), Decagny, Diaz de Mera (Alternate: Varela), Domljan, Dovgan, Mrs Fleeetwood, MM. Gellért Kis, Mrs Groenver, Baroness Hooper, Mrs Isohookana-Asunmaa, Mrs Katseli, MM. Kirsteins, Kollwelter, Koucky, Kriedner, Kyprianou, Legendre, Leoni, Malachowski, Mrs Maximus, MM. Melnikov, Melo, Mrs Mihaylova, MM. Mocanu, Mocioi, Mrs Naoumova, MM. Paunescu, Pereira Marques, Polydoras, Probst, Prokop, Ragno, Rhinow (Alternate: Mrs Fehr), Roseta, Mrs Schicker, MM. Siwiec, Skolc, Sudarenkov, Szakàl, Tanik, Mrs Terborg, Mr Vangelov, Mrs Veidemann, Mr Verbeek, Mrs Vermot-Mangold (Alternate: Caccia), Mrs Verspaget, MM. Vogt, Walsh, Ms Wärnersson, MM Yaroshynsky (Alternate: Kapustyan), Zingeris.

NB: The names of those who took part in the meeting are in italics.

Secretary to the committee: MM. Grayson "

As you can see, Bruno, the Vlachs/Aromanians are NOW in good hands!    Maria d.


Posted By: brunodam
Date Posted: 05-Oct-2006 at 11:21
Very interesting Report, Maria d. Clap
Do you have more information/data from this Report?  
I am very interested !     Bruno


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Posted By: maria d.
Date Posted: 05-Oct-2006 at 11:38
Originally posted by brunodam

Very interesting Report, Maria d. Clap
Do you have more information/data from this Report?  
I am very interested !     Bruno
 
Of course, Bruno.
Here it is:
 

REPORT ON THE AROMANIANS OF Lluis M. De PUIG.
 
Origins and history of the Aromanian people

The Macedo-Romanians and Vlachs, who are sometimes called Mavro-Vlachs, Kutzo-Vlachs or Tsintsars and who call themselves Aromanians, are related to the Romanians living on the left bank of the Danube. Their language, Macedo-Romanian, belongs to the Romanian branch of the Romance languages, as do Daco-Romanian (spoken in Romania), Megleno-Romanian (still spoken in a number of villages in the Gevgelija area on the border between "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia" and Greece) and Istro-Romanian (now virtually extinct). The earliest Aromanian text was found in Albania and dates from 1731, and therefore the documented history of the Aromanians begins only in the eighteenth century, even though there are several earlier historical references to the "Vlachs", a word which stems from the general name given by the earliest Slavs to peoples speaking Latin (or a Latinised language).

Opinions diverge on the origins of the Vlachs. It is, however, likely that they originated in the Roman colonisation of the Balkans, which began in the third century B.C. According to some historians the Aromanians are the descendants of Latinised Illyrian peoples and Roman legionaries who had settled in the Balkans following the conquest of Macedonia by Paulus-Emilius in 168 B.C. On the other hand, the Greeks consider them to be Latinised Greeks, http://www.typepad.com/t/app/weblog/#Footnote2 - (2) the Bulgarians say that they descend from the Thracians, while the Romanians identify their origins in a branch of Romanised Dacians. Comparative linguistic studies show that Aromanian has a similar structure to Albanian, the only surviving Illyrian language, which lends some credence to the first hypothesis. http://www.typepad.com/t/app/weblog/#Footnote3 - (3) The fact that the Roman colonisation of Macedonia began earlier and lasted longer than that of Dacia would suggest that the Aromanians preceded the Romanians in Balkan history.

During the Roman occupation the Vlach language was intensively influenced by Latin. In the early Middle Ages, during the great Slav invasions of the Balkans, the Aromanian populations were dispersed, the only survivors being those who fled to the mountains to preserve their language and culture.

The Aromanians make their first appearance in history in the tenth century, when they were mostly spread over the mountain areas of the Balkan peninsula, from Istria to Greece and from the Adriatic to the Black Sea, though they broke down into two major groups: one along Mount Haemus and the other in northern Greece, Thessaly and southern Macedonia, but especially in the Pindus massif (see appendix). According to their contemporaries, the Vlachs' main activity was pasturage, but they also engaged in trade, which explains their presence throughout the Balkans.

Benjamin of Tudela, a Spanish Jew who travelled through south-eastern Europe and the Middle East between 1159 and 1173, alludes to the Vlachs in The Itinerary of Benjamin of Tudela. He claimed that they enjoyed some measure of independence on their Valachian mountain tops. http://www.typepad.com/t/app/weblog/#Footnote4 - (4) Historians, notably in Bulgaria, agree that the Vlach mountain-dwellers played a major role in the insurrection led by the brothers Theodore-Peter and John-Arsenius (probably of Bulgaro-Cuman origin) against Byzantium in 1186; this uprising led to the creation of the so-called "Second Kingdom of Bulgaria". http://www.typepad.com/t/app/weblog/#Footnote5 - (5)

The Ottoman conquest in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries scarcely changed the Aromanians' situation, as they enjoyed some degree of religious and cultural autonomy within the Orthodox Christian millet. http://www.typepad.com/t/app/weblog/#Footnote6 - (6) According to Pouqueville, Napoleon Bonaparte's Consul to Ali Pasha of Janina, the ruler of Epirus, the Vlachs enjoyed a special status and only paid a modest tribute to the Grand Sultan's mother. Other historians confirm that the Vlachs did indeed enjoy this privileged position. For instance, N. Malcolm points out that they were formally exempted from the law prohibiting non-Muslims from carrying weapons. http://www.typepad.com/t/app/weblog/#Footnote7 - (7)

The Ottomans realised that the Vlachs' mobility and strong military tradition could be of use to them; they allowed them to maintain a national militia, whose members were called armatoles and their leaders capitani. By means of special fiscal measures and permission to pillage enemy territory, this militia was used to guard the border between the Ottoman and Hapsburg Empires. It is interesting to note that the Hapsburgs had the same idea and used the Vlachs who had been driven north by the advancing Ottomans against their brethren south of the border.

The Aromanians' Orthodox religion was one of the factors which assigned them a major role in the various wars and revolutions that culminated in the creation of the states which they now inhabit. The Greek patriotic association "Hetaeria" launched an uprising in 1821, and, after intervention by Russia, Britain and France, this led to the creation of the Greek state in 1830 and its independence in 1835.

Many illustrious names of Aromanian origin are to be found among the protagonists of the revolution and the outstanding figures in Greek culture and political life. Three examples are Baron George Sina, Marshal Constantin Smolensky, Patriarch Athenagoras and the Minister of Foreign Affairs Averoff. This is explained by the fact that many Aromanians were won over to Hellenic culture under the influence of the Greek school and church, because at the time the only nationality in Turkey entitled to maintain national schools, churches and cultural institutions were the Greeks. Taking advantage of the privileges granted to the Christians by the earliest Sultans, the Patriarchs of Constantinople _ all of whom were of Greek origin _ had become the ecclesiastical and civil leaders of all the Orthodox populations of the Empire. In fact, the Turks referred to all these peoples by the collective name of Rum, designating Christians (of the Eastern Roman Empire).

After independence, many Balkan countries adopted a policy of setting up national schools and granting independence to their churches. This trend was a token of their national emancipation and marked the development of the Romanian, Bulgarian, Greek and Serb societies during the second half of the nineteenth century.

The Macedo-Romanians experienced several movements of national reawakening from the eighteenth century onwards. This trend was centred in Moscopolis, the famous cultural centre of the Albanian Aromanians (now called Voskopoje). This liberation movement resumed in 1862 with the setting up of the first Macedo-Romanian school in Macedonia. At the same time, the Aromanian colony in Bucharest founded the Macedo-Romanian Intellectual Cultural Society, which worked to strengthen the movement among the other Aromanian communities in the Balkans.

Around this time Romania began to take a greater interest in the Aromanians' cause. Furthermore, the Turkish authorities were taking steps to promote the Aromanian national cultural movement. An order issued by the Vizier in 1878 gave Vlachs the right to be taught in their own language and afforded assistance and protection to their teachers. In 1888 the Macedo-Romanians obtained an imperial firman granting them the right to set up national churches. In 1908 Aromanian members were admitted to the Turkish Parliament.

The Berlin Treaty of 1878 also recognised the existence of the Macedo-Romanians as a separate nation, and placed them on the same level as the other nationalities in the Ottoman Empire. Under this treaty Thessaly and part of Epirus were annexed to Greece; the new borders thus split the Aromanian population of the Pindus in two. The Aromanians protested to the representatives of the great powers against this division, but in vain.

In the twentieth century, the regions inhabited by the Macedo-Romanians were again divided up among the various states in the region. Following the Balkan wars and the subsequent conflicts, sizeable groups of Aromanians were spread out around Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece, Turkey and Albania.

After the re-drawing of the borders between Bulgaria, Greece and Yugoslavia under the Bucharest Peace Treaty of 1913, the Aromanians proposed incorporating their main groups _ in the Pindus mountains and the regions between Gramos and Bitola _ into the future state of Albania in the form of an autonomous province. Greece put forward the alternative of absorbing the Pindus region into their own territory, undertaking to safeguard its inhabitants' specific national identity. This proposal was accepted, but it did not settle the Macedo-Romanian question. The fact that the Macedo-Romanians were not recognised as a minority at the time prepared the ground for future problems and conflicts. In 1918, Macedo-Romanian schools in Serbia were closed. During the 1920s the same fate befell many schools in Greece, and in 1938 all the Macedo-Romanian schools in Albania were closed. Finally, the last remaining Aromanian schools in Greece were shut down between 1945 and 1948.

Between the two world wars, Romania negotiated the setting up of Romanian-language schools with the other countries hosting Aromanian populations. However, this policy, which was intended as positive support for the Aromanians, had two negative effects: firstly, the Aromanians began to suspect Romania of attempting to assimilate them, and secondly, it also prompted suspicion on the part of the Aromanians' countries of residence, which began to regard them as Romanians (ie foreigners) rather than Aromanians (and therefore nationals).

The current position of the Aromanian community

It is virtually impossible to ascertain the exact number of Aromanians currently living in the Balkan countries. Some states exclude them from censuses and the official figures on them in other countries are disputed. At the same time, there are sizeable communities in Romania, Germany, France, the United States of America and Australia.

The Union for the Aromanian Culture and Language and the Association of French Aromanians estimate that some 1 500 000 Aromanians are currently citizens of various states throughout the Balkans: Albania, Bulgaria, Greece and "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia". Nevertheless, this is most likely an overestimation.

During the Peace Conference in Versailles after the first world war, the Macedo-Romanian delegation, with which most of the participants had agreed to hold talks, issued a communiqué presenting estimates of the various Aromanian populations: the Pindus region (which wanted complete independence): 130 000 inhabitants; Bitola (Monastir): 83 145; Musakia-Corytza: 77 814; Saloniki: 103 877; and Thessaly: 81 520 inhabitants (total population: some 500 000).

Professor Peyfus of the University of Vienna estimates the number of Aromanians who use their mother tongue at 250 000 (in 1996). Greece apparently has the largest numbers of such persons, followed by Romanian, Albania, "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia" and, lastly, Bulgaria.

The situation of the Aromanian community varies from country to country. It should be stressed that the Aromanians are full Albanian, Bulgarian, Greek, Macedonian, Yugoslav or Romanian citizens. They are fluent in the various languages spoken in their countries and are integrated into their national societies. I therefore think it would be ludicrous to consider them as any kind of threat to their countries, which, on the contrary, they enrich culturally.

The Aromanians limit their demands to recognition of their cultural rights, particularly the right to learn and use their language. They listed these rights in the resolution which they adopted at the international conferences held in Mannheim University (September 1985) and Freiburg University (September 1988 and July 1993), and at the six regional conferences held in the United States of America. These rights are also set out in an appeal addressed to the Conference of Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the Balkan States, which took place in Belgrade in February 1988. National conferences have also been held in Albania and "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia".

I will now summarise the situation of the Aromanians in their five countries of origin, that is to say Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, "the former Yugoslav Republic of

Macedonia" and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro), as well as in Romania, since this country has special links with the Aromanians.

Albania

The Association of French Aromanians estimates that 15% of the Albanian population is Aromanian. According to the Aromanian Women's Foundation of Albania, the country's population comprises between 150 000 and 200 000 Aromanians. Other estimates vary between 100 000 and 300 000-400 000. In 1995 T.J. Winnifrith wrote that there were "about 50 000 persons who speak the Aromanian language and consider themselves as Aromanians". http://www.typepad.com/t/app/weblog/#Footnote8 - (8) There are no official statistics as the Aromanians are usually included in the "Greek Orthodox minority" because of their religion. They are concentrated in the south of the country, especially in Korçë, Lushnjë, Përmet, Gjirokastër, Sarandë, Berat, Durrës, Kavajë and Tiranë.

Albania has not yet finalised the status of the Macedo-Romanians. They are fighting for recognition as a national minority, not a cultural association or an "Albanian folk community, which is how they are considered today". http://www.typepad.com/t/app/weblog/#Footnote9 - (9)

There is absolutely no Aromanian-language teaching, press, radio or television in Albania. However, the President of the Aromanian Women's Foundation tells us that there is a church in the town of Korçë which holds religious services in Aromanian. A cultural society called "The Aromanians of Albania" was apparently set up in 1992.

Bulgaria

In Bulgaria, the Aromanian communities have associations in Peshtera, Velingrad, Dupnitsa, Rakitovo and Blagoevgrad, etc. These associations maintain contact with Aromanian communities in other countries. According to the Sofia Aromanian Society, which co-ordinates the activities of the Bulgarian Vlach Association, a distinction must be drawn between the Aromanian Vlachs (2 000 to 3 000, living mainly in the south of the country) and the Romanian Vlachs (20 000 to 30 000, living in the north). Most of the Sofia Aromanians are the descendants of families which emigrated from Macedonia and northern Greece between 1850 and 1914.

The headquarters of the Sofia Aromanian Society, the Church of the Holy Trinity and the Romanian Cultural Institute were built on lands purchased by the Aromanian community (with the help of the Romanian State) at the end of last century. The Romanian Cultural Institute initiated Balkan, Slav and Bulgarian cultural and historical research. Teaching was mainly in Romanian, though Bulgarian language and literature were part of the compulsory curriculum. Latin, Ancient Greek, French and Russian were also compulsory, while German, Italian and English were optional. The Institute closed down in 1948 "owing to a misunderstanding", in the words of Mr Kurkchiev, President of the Bulgarian Vlach Association.

After the political changes in Bulgaria, the Aromanians requested the reopening of the institute and its school, but have so far had no reply. This is their only demand, as otherwise they maintain good relations with Bulgaria and the Bulgarian authorities.

The Romanian Church of the Holy Trinity has never ceased its activities since the beginning of the century, and a Romanian priest dispatched by the Orthodox Patriarchate of Romania conducts services in Romanian.

Greece

The Greek authorities do not recognise Aromanians as a different ethnic group, considering them rather as "Vlach- (or Latin-) speaking Greeks". The Permanent Representative of Greece with the Council of Europe informs us that the Aromanians "are an integral part of the Greek population and have a purely Greek ethnic awareness. Their customs are completely Greek, they speak and write the national language without difficulty, they have never lost the feeling of ethnic belonging to Greece, have never identified with any extraneous element, and have never aspired to identification as a separate national entity. Many members of this group are eminent representatives of the Greek nation in the fields of literature, the arts, sciences and politics".

The Barcelona-based Catalan Socio-linguistic Institute estimates that there are in the region of 200 000 Aromanians in Greece, while the Association of French Aromanians suggests a figure of between 600 000 and 700 000. Other sources have produced an estimate of as much as 1 million, or even 1,2 million, (only half of whom still speak the language), whereas the official figures, based on the 1951 census, mention 25 000 "Vlach-speaking Greeks". The authorities consider that this number has since "significantly decreased". However, it is difficult to imagine that such a small group could produce so many "eminent representatives of the Greek nation in the fields of literature, the arts, sciences and polities". The Greek Government's official reply to my questionnaire acknowledges that some Greeks "use the Greek language as their main language but, when they meet in small groups in certain isolated communities, use, alongside Greek, an "idiom" (not even a dialect) which comprises words of both Latin and Greek origin". Further on in the same paragraph we read that these same Greeks (the Aromanians) contributed "extremely usefully to the creation of the new Greek state, of which they are one of the most active components in all fields".

The Aromanians are concentrated in the Pindus mountains, Epirus, Thessaly and Macedonia. Many Aromanians fled the fighting during the Greek civil war and more recently, the economic decline in their areas, taking refuge in the major cities (Athens and Thessaloniki). The two Aromanian villages which I visited in the mountains above Veria (Selia de Sus and Kato Vermio, or Selia de Jos) are only inhabited at weekends and during the summer.

In accordance with the Lausanne Peace Treaty (1923), the Greek Constitution guaranteed the rights of the religious minorities settled within the Greek territory. However, since their religion is Greek Orthodox, these guarantees do not apply to them.

Greece accepted Romanian schools within its territory until 1948, when Romania stopped subsidising them. The Aromanian language disappeared from all educational levels until recently, when an Aromanian course was introduced at the Aristotle University in Thessaloniki. Nor is Aromanian used in the judicial and administrative fields or the media, apart from the occasional showing of folk dances and songs on television and radio.

The official Greek reply to the questionnaire also states that "Greece has a Pan-Hellenic Union of Vlach Cultural Associations, which was set up in 1985 and comprises some forty local associations, which conduct a wide range of cultural activities in several different fields".

"The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia"

According to official statistics (for 1994), http://www.typepad.com/t/app/weblog/#Footnote10 - (10)  there are only 8 467 Vlachs in "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia", concentrated in the regions of Skopje, Stip, Bitola, Krusevo and Struga, but the Aromanian associations dispute this figure, "which should be 10 or 12 times greater". Some Aromanians also live in Ohrid, Kocani-Vinica, Sveti Nikole, Kumanovo and Gevgelija.

According to a 1994 report by the British Helsinki Human Rights Groups, the figure emerging from the census refers to the number of persons who still use the Aromanian language and who consider themselves first and foremost as Aromanians. However, many Vlach families which have been more or less assimilated linguistically into the majority population are still proud of their origins. Such persons, who consider themselves as Vlachs, had apparently declared themselves to be "Macedonian" in the official context of the census. This being the case, the total number of Aromanians in "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia" would probably just exceed 100 000, http://www.typepad.com/t/app/weblog/#Footnote11 - (11)  a figure akin to the associations' estimates.

The 1991 Constitution officially recognises the Vlachs as a national minority. The Macedonian language must be used in contacts with government departments, but members of minorities can use their mother tongues in court. Under Macedonian law, the choice of name is a personal right. The data printed on identity cards is in the Macedonian language, using the Cyrillic alphabet, but the names of members of national minorities are written in the corresponding languages and alphabets alongside the official language. Despite these provisions the Aromanians complain that they "cannot revert to their Macedo-Romanian names as they were all Slavicised eighty years ago".

Consideration is being given to introducing the Vlach language as an optional primary school subject, and 346 pupils have already expressed interest. In 1995-96, optional one-hour weekly lessons in Aromanian were introduced into state schools.

A Vlach-language newspaper, Phoenix, was launched in 1992, but it collapsed after running into financial difficulties. There is a weekly thirty-minute television programme in the Vlach language, and Radio Skopje broadcasts a thirty-minute programme every day. Local radio stations in Stip, Krusevo, Struga and Ohrid also have weekly programmes in the Aromanian language, and Radio Gevgelija broadcasts half-an-hour per week in the Megleno-Romanian language.

The Macedonian Constitution grants Vlachs the same rights as the members of other nationalities, and the Vlach minority has two representatives on the Macedonian Parliament's Council for Inter-Ethnic Relations.

It is on the basis of these rights that the Aromanians are seeking restitution of the buildings formerly used as national schools, such as the Bitola grammar school. They are also demanding more air time for Aromanian on radio and television, as well as State subsidies for their newspaper.

At the same time the Aromanian community of Ohrid is attempting to set up one of the three bishoprics which they were promised in 1913 under the Bucharest Treaty. Activists are hoping that the Bishopric of Ohrid, subservient to the Patriarchate of Bucharest, will provide religious assistance for all Aromanians in their mother tongue.

Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)

According to the Society of Aromanians in Belgrade, 15 000 inhabitants of Serbia-Montenegro declare themselves to be Aromanian. The majority of these live in Belgrade and the rest mainly in eastern Serbia, that is Vojvodina and Kosovo.

They have no special status and apparently do not want such a status. However, they can use their surnames and forenames in the Aromanian language.

The Belgrade Society of Aromanians publishes a newsletter and organises regular meetings and conferences. The authorities have provided the Society with a meeting room and are paying for its insurance policy. They have also provided financial assistance for publishing a book.

Serbian Aromanians co-operate with other associations abroad and the authorities in no way obstruct their activities. The Society's President and Secretary have also informed us that radio and television programmes are regularly broadcast on the Aromanian community.

According to a representative of the "Yugoslav Vlach and Romanian Movement", there are a 200 000-strong Vlach community in north-eastern Serbia, on the right bank of the Danube between the rivers Morava and Timok, and a 40 000-strong Romanian community in the Banat (Vojvodina region). The Union for the Aromanian Language and Culture informs us that the Timok Vlachs speak Daco-Romanian, which means that they are Romanians rather than Aromanians. Professor Hans-Martin Gauger, specialist in Romance languages at Freiburg University, and Professor Peyfus confirm this view.

Romania

According to the World Union of Aromanian Women (UFAP), the current population of Aromanians who emigrated to Romania from other Balkan countries between the two world wars is between 150 000 and 200 000. The figure is 150 000 according to the President of the Aromanian Youth Foundation "Valahia", 70 000 according to the Romanian parliamentary delegation and the President of the Bucharest-based Macedo-Romanian Cultural Association, and only 28 000 according to the Romanian authorities, who, strangely enough, draw a distinction between Aromanians (21 000) and Macedo-Romanians (7 000). http://www.typepad.com/t/app/weblog/#Footnote12 - (12)

The Aromanian community is concentrated in south-eastern Romania, particularly Dobrudja (75%), but also in major cities such as Bucharest and Constanta and various other parts of the country.

The Romanian Constitution secures the cultural rights of minorities, but as the Aromanians are related to the Romanians they are considered as a "linguistic and cultural community" rather than as a minority.

None of the educational levels comprises teaching in the Aromanian language, but the parliamentary delegation has pointed out that a structure is currently being set up.

The Romanian Ministry of Cultural Affairs publishes a monthly magazine, Desteptarea Aromânilor, but only 25% of the content is in Aromanian. There are Aromanian newspapers and radio programmes, but very few TV programmes. Associations organise a number of cultural and folk events, although they receive no support from the authorities.

Conclusion

The traditional Aromanian lifestyle (including isolation from the other Balkan communities, a very high rate of endogamy, and an emphasis on rural economic activities) was completely disrupted at the beginning of this century by the political and social changes in the Balkans. When their territory was divided up among four different States and the borders were made permanent, the different Aromanian communities found themselves unable to conduct their traditional exchanges. More often than not, their herds and lands were sold, and many Aromanians left their mountainsides to settle in the towns and cities and thus merge with the mass. Compulsory education (in the majority language) and the advent of broadcasting served only to expedite this process.

As a result, the Aromanian language and culture, which had survived for 2 000 years in the Balkan mountains, are today threatened with extinction. The Council of Europe must do its utmost to prevent this risk, by demanding that all states which comprise Aromanian communities respect their cultural rights. This should be facilitated by the fact that all these states (apart from the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)) are now full members of our Organisation.

The Aromanians only want official recognition as a national minority and support from the authorities of the states in which they live, particularly in the following fields:

  • tongue teaching;

  • services in Aromanian in their churches;

  • newspapers, magazines and radio and television programmes in Aromanian;

  • support for their cultural associations.

This being the case, the Council of Europe should scrutinise the problems of this Balkan people and, in co-operation with their states of residence, help them preserve their language and culture, which are an integral part of the European heritage.

The Balkan states which comprise Aromanian communities should be encouraged to sign, ratify and implement the European Charter of Regional and Minority Languages and the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities (which would not imply automatic recognition of the Aromanians as a national minority). Every state signatory to the charter can choose which of the many measures proposed it wishes to apply to the regional or minority languages spoken within its territory. Even if each state concerned only chose the minimum level of protection for the Aromanian language, this would probably be enough to prevent its extinction.

Other Council of Europe member states should consider the possibility of creating university professorships for the Aromanian language and culture.

The European organisations might consider the possibility of supporting historic research into the Aromanian culture.

In its Recommendation 1291 (1996) on Yiddish culture, the Assembly recommended that the Committee of Ministers set up, under the auspices of the Council of Europe, a "laboratory for dispersed ethnic minorities" with a mandate, inter alia:

  1. to promote the survival of minority cultures or their memory;

  2. to carry out surveys of persons still speaking minority languages;

  3. to record, collect and preserve their monuments and evidence of their language and folklore;

  4. to publish basic documents;

  5. to promote legislation to protect minority cultures against discrimination or annihilation.

Such a laboratory or observatory for dispersed ethnic minorities, equipped with modern academic resources, would be the ideal mechanism within the Council of Europe for safeguarding Aromanian language and culture.

 
COMMITTEE OF CULTURE AND EDUCATION
EUROPEAN UNION (1997)


Posted By: brunodam
Date Posted: 05-Oct-2006 at 12:03
The Report is gorgeous!
It contains a perfect synthesis of the Vlachs in the Balkans at the beginning of 1997. 
Only the Vlach community in European Turkey is not covered, but there is plenty of information on the Vlachs in Bulgaria, Romania, Greece, Albania, FYROM and Serbia.
Thank you VERY, VERY, VERY much, Maria d.    Thumbs UpThumbs UpThumbs Up    Bruno
 
Here it is the map of the actual neo-Latin languages in the Balkan peninsula, with the Italian areas (as you requested):
 
 
 


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Posted By: akritas
Date Posted: 05-Oct-2006 at 12:08
Originally posted by maria d.

  Nor is Aromanian used in the judicial and administrative fields or the media, apart from the occasional showing of folk dances and songs on television and radio
The above quote is wrong.There numerous Vlachs in the Greek judicial and administrative fields.The most known is the wife of Greek Prime Minister Natasa Karamanli.
Others known today Vlachs are the parliament members Zeta Makri,Mpezas , the singer Metropanos, the known academaic Tahiaos and many others.
 
http://assembly.coe.int/Documents/WorkingDocs/doc97/edoc7728.htm - http://assembly.coe.int/Documents/WorkingDocs/doc97/edoc7728.htm
 
Of course the date of the report is in 1997. And I am wonder if they had asking the Greek Vlachs as about the history and the situation of them at that timeConfused
 


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Posted By: brunodam
Date Posted: 05-Oct-2006 at 20:23
In the Puig Report there are not references to the Vlachs in the European Turkey.
However, I have been trying to find information about the Vlachs from Turkish websites, but I have only found that nearly 2000 Vlachs with moslem religion were "exchanged" in 1923 and moved from Greece to European Turkey. 
Where exactly they now live and if they are still not assimilated, is a question that I'd like to get answered by some turkish forumer (if possible).  
 
Anyway, Maria d., here it is a turkish report about the ULAH (as are called in Turkish language the Aromanians/Vlachs):
 
 
 
......."THE GEOGRAPHY WHERE THE ULAHS MINORITY LIVE AND ITS SHORT HISTORY



Regarded as one of the native components and oldest communities in the Balkan Peninsula, the Ulahs are the one of minorities living in Greece and non-Greek.

The New Encyclopedia Britannica describes them as " … a European people living in mostly Kamanya and Moldova and spreaded to several places in Europe … " and states "although many Slavs call them Volokh, Ulahs call themselves Romani, Romeni, Rumeni or Armoni". The Encyclopedia Americana gives information under the title "they are a people living in Moldavia, and called Volokh, but they prefer to call themselves Romani" .Greeks describe them as Hellens speaking a different dialect and even Latinized Hellens in the Roman Empire. Beside this argument contrary to historical, ethnologic, linguistic facts, Ulahs are a Latin-originated community speaking a dialect similar to Rumenian and using the Latin, Greek or Crill alphabet according to the county they live in.

Greece does not recognize Ulahs' ethnic identity and does not give correct information about their number. Based on 1951 the census, Greeks say the number of the Ulahs was 39855 and allege that they may reach about 15-20.000 now.

Indeed it is impossible to form and opinion about the number of Ulahs, several research institutes and organizations claim that this number could be between 250.000 and 1.200.000.

About the Ulah Minority, whose ethnical identity is not recognized by Greece, a former Minister of Foreign Affairs Evangalos Averof expressed that this number must have been between 150.000 and 200.000 for 1948.

Until the 9th Century there is no information about the Ulahs, after the second half of the 900s they gave their names to Teselya, Akarnania, Aetolia and Epir regions. It is mentioned about the Ulahs"'" fight against Byzantium under the command of the Bulgarian Tsar in the 11th century.

One of the most important turning points in Ulahs' history is that they were recognized as a nation by the Ottoman Empire in 1905. The establishment of the "Macedoneian - Rumanian Committee", founded in 1860 in Bukres, and educational activities of bishop Margarit exposed an intense consciousness movement for Ulahs in the second half of the 19th century.

Margarit"'"s education of the Ulahian youth and teaching them Ulahian stimulated Rum-Orthodox patriarchate which had formed an indisputable superiority over the Balkanian Orthodox was disturbed by this development. Upon this Margarit went to Bucharest and joined the Macedonian - Rumanian Committee. Many Ulah students were educated in their own language through the said committee. In the meantime, the first Romanian School was opened in Tirnova in 1864.

The Ulah"'"s education in their own language was only possible within the borders of the Ottoman Empire. From 1892, the Ottoman Empire dwelled upon the Ulah issue, and allowed them to get education in their own school and their own teachers in their own language.

The number of the Ulahian people was about 600.000 within the Ottoman Empire borders from the 1890's. These people became an important exploitation factor for countries looking for land in Balkans . Against the pressure of the Bulgarian and Greek-Orthodox Patriartchates, a group consisting of Ulahian representatives requested help from the Ottoman Empire.

The Romanian Government allotted 600.000 Frank to Ulahs schools and churches to prevent pressures and activities to Hellenisation and Bulgarisation efforts in the Balkans.

The recognition of these rights by the Ottoman administration was appreciated in Romania and written about in the Independence Romanian newspaper dated December 23, 1903. In addition to this, the newspaper has also stated that the Ulahs were recognized by the Ottoman administration. It is understood that the acceptance of the help from the Romanian government to the Ulahs by the Ottoman government and support for the freedom of the churches and schools were interpreted as recognization of the Ulahs.

While the recognition of the Ulahs rights by the Ottoman administration resulted in the reaction of the Patriarchate and Greeks living in the region, the Romanian minister of foreign affairs have Istanbul because of the permission given by of the administrator for the opening of an Ulah church in the monastery and performing of their religious ceremonies in their own language. The Ulahs celebrated the opening of their church, which they saw as a victory over the Greeks, with demonstrations.

The Ulahs entered a new period having equal rights for the first time in their history. In addition to the right of electing their own leaders they also had the right to be represented in the Ottoman assembly. In the period until the Balkan wars Ulah members with other representatives worked in Meclis-i Mebusan.

Ulah settlements, especially in the Epir-Pindus region, were constantly attacked by the Greek gangs. Terror movements and/or Hellenization policy against the Ulahs in this region continued from the occupation of Tesalia by Greece in 1901 to the Balkan Wars.

In this period, which lasted from the recognition of the Ulahs by the Ottoman administration and the aid provided by Romania to 1912, the number of Ulah primary schools rose to 114, and high schools to 4 and they published more than 20 newspapers and magazines in their own language.

OPPRESSION Of THE ULAH MINORITY BY THE GREEK GOVERNMENT :

In the intensifying politically competitive environment of the 19th century over Epir – Macedonia – Teselia, the Ulahs have been tried to be sided with by the rival powers and games were played on them. Greece, Bulgaria, Serbia and Romania while trying to expand their territories also tried to show the Ulah population under their ethnic population. Furthermore the fact that the Ulahs were a nomadic nation and spoke a number of languages caused them to be shown as an extention of these nations in there kinds of statistical games.

The Balkan Wars of 1912 – 1913 caused the Ottoman Empire to lose its territories to the Meriç River and affected the remaining non – Greek population"'"s lives in adversely. Athens administration did not have the tolerance for the Ulahs and other non – Greek population as much as the Ottoman administration had. Moreover, Greece accepted the Ulahs as a minority in the Bucharest Treaty in 1913 but managed to decrease the percentage of Ulah the children going to their own schools through policies of mental oppression and deterrence.

In the period between the two wars, especially during the Melaksas dictatorship, as a result of state terror in Greece, the Ulahs as well as the Macedonians were forced to learn Greek, adults were forced to attend night schools and discrimination was made between the children and the young who attended the Ulah schools and learned Ulah / Romanian and the ones who attended the Greek schools and learnt Greek. This state and social oppression on the Ulahs and practices like banning the use of their native tongue have broken their resistance to a great extent. All these have been made in spite of the Treaty of Bucharest which was signed in 1913 and dictated that Greece would allow Romanian financed Ulah schools in its territory.

In the Second World War some parts of Greece were attacked by the Italian forces and the Ulahs were used in these attacks. As a result of these attacks an Ulah princedom under Italian direction was founded under the leadership of Alkibiades Diamandi who was an Ulah. Diamandi, who was declared as the prince of this autonomous structure, was also the commander of a military force named '"'Romanian legion'"' and included the Ulah princedom Macedonia, Teselia as well as Pindus Princedom Epir.

However the post war events, the defeat of Italy, the alliance of Greece with the Allies who won the war resulted in the failure of this undertaking. Romania stopped the support for the Ulahs as a result of being in the Moscow directed block after the war and Bucharest no longer gave any financial support for the Ulah schools and churches

THE REACTIONS OF THE ULAHS AGAIST GREECE'S AND INDIVIDUALS,INSTITUTIONS AND ESTABLISHMENTS THAT CONDUCTED STUDIES CONCERNING THE ULAH MINORITY

After the Wold War 2, some Ulahs ,who thought they were different from the Greeks, could not resist the assimilation policies of Greece and united with Greece , other Ulahs emigrated to the USA, Australia and established the 'Ulah Diaspora"'". Although the Ulahs who settled down in rural areas continued to speak their own language; people who moved to the cities began speaking the Greek language.

Among the Ulahs that emigrated to Germany and France some who were influenced by the 1975 Helsinki Human Rights Final Act carried out important activities dating from the 1980s. One of them ,Vasile Barbara, first in Mannheim and then in Freiburg established '"'The Union Für Aromunische Sprache und Kultur'"', contacted The University of Freiburg and with the help of the "'"Chair of Romanistic' she initiated the "'"language and literature"'" movement. This association publishes a periodical that was called Zborlu A Nostru , too. The Union Für Aromunische Sprache und Kultur signed a protocol with the Romantic Chairs of The University of Mannheim and The University of Freiburg and realized the first "'"International Chair Of Aromance"'".

There are 3000 members of the Ulah Diaspora in Germany. They are trying to continue their identity and particularly their language through the Union Fur Romantic Sprache und Kultur and Zentrum Fur Aromunische Studien that was established in 1995.

The document entitled 'The European Charter of Regional and Minority Languages"'" ,which was prepared by the Ministers Committee of the European Council in1994, came into force in 1998 and was signed by Greece too, envisages conservation including the Ulah language. Although an enterprise called EBLUL, foresees keeping in existence the languages spoken less and is supported by EU. It"'"s known that this enterprise causes reactions in Greece, that is a member of the EU.

Although activities of associations such as the Union of Panhellenistic Ulah Cultural Associations are permitted in Greece recently ; these associations were mainly established for declaring the Ulahs as "'"Greeks speaking the Ulah language'. The movement of Ulahs is still tried to keep under control in Greece.

In recent years it is identified that the Ulahs did some initiatives in Romania and they expected support, because their rights and existence are in danger. Within this framework the union active in Freiburg made a call upon the Parliament Of Romania in 1994. With the intensive studies of Vasile Barbara the report was presented to both Bucharest and the European Council was fruitful in 1996 and 1997, so the European Council took up the Ulah problem. The European Council adopted the report of the Spanish member of parliament Lluis Maria de Puig, which concerning the Ulahs and this report was accepted unanimously on June 24,1997(1).

In the report of Lluis Maria de Puig concerning the Ulahs such as:

Greek authorities do not recognize the Ulahs as a separate ethnic group. They describe them as the Greek people speaking Ulah Language or Latin. 
Greek officials take the census of 1951 as a basis for the population of Ulahs say that the population was 25000 in 1951 and it has decreased since that time 
CONSEQUENCE:

Greece's permanent Representative in the European Council says that Ulahs have Greek ethnic consciousness and among these people there are very famous men of letters ,artists, scientists and politicians that represent the Greek nation.

The European Council has accepted the report of Lluis Maria de Puig and exposed the problems of the Ulahs. They have also said that the rights of Ulahs must be preserved but Greece , although it is a member of EU, continues to ignore these documents and insists on the manifesto idea that includes "'"There is no minority in Greece'.

Richard Clagg(2) points out that the Ulahs speak a language that is very close to the Roman language emphasizes these people are an important minority in Greece. Wace and Thompson who did important research in the region also say that the Ulah language is an independent and different language on the Latin-originated languages.

Although Greece is a member of the EU, it ignores the reality on its lands which it has possessed lands after 1913 and denies the existence of the Ulah Minority 

HATIPOGLU M.Murat Lecturer Dr., Ethnic Group ..................."
 


 


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Posted By: maria d.
Date Posted: 07-Oct-2006 at 23:53
The Turkish report is interesting, but it is full of hate toward the Greeks!
You know, it is not recommended  to trust Turks reports on Greece (and vicecersa) because of the wars between them.Stern Smile  Maria d.


Posted By: brunodam
Date Posted: 08-Oct-2006 at 00:45
Originally posted by maria d.

The Turkish report is interesting, but it is full of hate toward the Greeks!
You know, it is not recommended  to trust Turks reports on Greece (and vicecersa) because of the wars between them.Stern Smile  Maria d.
 
You are right, Maria d.
In the Balkans the only area (with a great extention) populated by Aromanians is in the Greek Pindus mountains.
All the other areas are very small and all are scattered around Moskopolis (Albania), the Vlach capital of the XVIII century destroyed by the Turks.
That means to me that only the Greeks have behaved in a relatively fair way with the Vlachs in the last two centuries. 
All the other countries, for one reason or another, simply have "totally assimilated" the Vlachs so that only little Aromanian communities remain "isolated" in Macedonia, Bulgaria, Serbia,etc...
In Albania only since the nineties there is a Vlach revival, and the number of the Aromanians in Albania is "increasing" statistically (probably there is no more fear of officially say that they are Vlachs and not Albanians).....   Bruno


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Posted By: brunodam
Date Posted: 08-Oct-2006 at 01:08
As an example of what I have just told you, please look at this map of ethnic Romania, showing (in yellow) where the Vlachs south of the Danube were present in Bulgaria in the first years of the twentieth century. 
And now think that there are just a few around Vidin (see Wikipedia: Aromanians in Bulgaria) 
That is why I believe that Greece is the most respectful country (in the Balkans) toward the Vlachs.     Bruno
 


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Posted By: The Chargemaster
Date Posted: 08-Oct-2006 at 03:10
But, dear, why don`t you ask yourself: Was Romania respectfull toward the bulgarians who were living in Northern Dobruja(Dobrogea) up to 1940?

Ethnic Map of the East Balkans in 1912 year - Northern Dobruja after 34 years of romanian colonization:

Half of my grandparents are from Northern Dobruja.

The romanian colonization:

Demographics history


Northern Dobruja

Ethnicity 1880 1899 1912 1930
All 139,671 258,242 380,430 437,131
Romanian 43,671 (31%) 118,919 (46%) 56.8% 67.4%
Bulgarian 24,915 (17%) 38,439 (14%) 13.4% 9.4%
Turkish 18,624 (13%) 12,146 (4%) 5.3% 5%
Tatar 29,476 (21%) 28,670 (11%) 5.6% 3.5%
Lipovan Russian 8,250 (6%) 12,801 (5%) 9.4% 6%
Ruthenian 455 (0.3%) 13,680 (5%)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dobrujan_Germans - Dobrujan Germans 2,461 (1.7%) 8,566 (3%) 2% 2.7%
Greek 4,015 (2.8%) 8,445 (3%) 2.6% 1.8%

Southern Dobruja

Ethnicity 1910 1930
All 282,007 378,344
Bulgarian 134,355 (47.6%) 143,209 (37.9%)
Romanian 6,348 (2.3%) 77,726 (20.6%)
Turkish 106,568 (37.8%) 129,025 (34.1%)
Tatar 11,718 (4.2%) n/a (1.2%)
Gypsies 12,192 (4.3%) n/a (0.8%)



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The Intelligence wins


Posted By: brunodam
Date Posted: 08-Oct-2006 at 11:58
I appreciate your intervention, Chargemaster, but the topic is about the Vlachs.  I am forced to stick to one balkan minority, because it would be enormous the topic if we include the Bulgarians in Romania, the Turks in Bulgaria, the Albanese in Macedonia, the Greeks in Albania, etc...
I am excluding (from my research for a prospected book) the neo-latin populations north of the Danube (the Romanians) because in my opinion it is another extensive topic that reaches central Ukraine and Bukovina (please, see the chart).
If you want to create a new topic about the Dobrugia Bulgarians, I will certainly participate in it. Smile  Bruno
 


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Posted By: maria d.
Date Posted: 08-Oct-2006 at 21:54
I have found an interesting group of maps from another topic (closed because of "hot discussions" about the "macedonia" name).
They are all related to the ethnic groups of the Balkans.   Maria d.


Posted By: maria d.
Date Posted: 08-Oct-2006 at 22:20
Here there are two more maps that show how far in the east the neo-latin population could be found in 1923.
It is possible to see in both ethnic maps that there were Romanian populations in Ukraine between the Bug and the Dnieper!   Maria d.er rivers!   Maria d.
 


Posted By: brunodam
Date Posted: 09-Oct-2006 at 00:24
Originally posted by maria d.

Here there are two more maps that show how far in the east the neo-latin population could be found in 1923.
It is possible to see in both ethnic maps that there were Romanian populations in Ukraine between the Bug and the Dnieper rivers! Maria d.
 
Yes, Maria d.,there were neo-latin speaking populations in the areas of central-south Ukraine (from Bessarabia to the river Dnieper).  Some scholars believe that the Turkish invasions (inside the Balkans of the XVI century) made move north and north-east (deep inside Ukraine) many Vlachs sheperds.  These Vlachs mixed with the local Romanian population of Moldavia and settled (encouraged by local Lords) in what would become the Moldova region of the URSS in the 1920's.       The Soviets wiped out (during WWII) all these people living east of the actual "Transistria authonomous region".   Some of these Vlachs sheperds moved even north-east toward Moravia (Cecoslovakia) in the XVII century...  Bruno


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Posted By: maria d.
Date Posted: 09-Oct-2006 at 11:43
Originally posted by brunodam

Originally posted by maria d.

Here there are two more maps that show how far in the east the neo-latin population could be found in 1923.
It is possible to see in both ethnic maps that there were Romanian populations in Ukraine between the Bug and the Dnieper rivers! Maria d.
 
Yes, Maria d.,there were neo-latin speaking populations in the areas of central-south Ukraine (from Bessarabia to the river Dnieper).  Some scholars believe that the Turkish invasions (inside the Balkans of the XVI century) made move north and north-east (deep inside Ukraine) many Vlachs sheperds.  These Vlachs mixed with the local Romanian population of Moldavia and settled (encouraged by local Lords) in what would become the Moldova region of the URSS in the 1920's.       The Soviets wiped out (during WWII) all these people living east of the actual "Transistria authonomous region".   Some of these Vlachs sheperds moved even north-east toward Moravia (Cecoslovakia) in the XVII century...  Bruno
 
Bruno, there was a Moldovan ASSR between 1924 and 1940.
Here it is two maps and some excerpts from Wikipedia.   Maria d.
 
Moldovan ASSR (Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic; Romanian: Republica Autonomă Socialistă Sovietică Moldovenească) was an autonomous region of the http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukrainian_SSR - Ukrainian SSR between http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/October_12 - 12 October http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1924 - 1924 and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/August_2 - 2 August http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1940 - 1940 , encompassing http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transnistria - Transnistria (now in http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moldova - Moldova ) and parts which are now in http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukraine - Ukraine .
On http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/March_7 - March 7 , http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1924 - 1924 , it was cautiously decided to create the http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moldavian_Autonomous_Oblast - Moldavian Autonomous Oblast within the http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukrainian_SSR - Ukrainian SSR , but eventually it was decided to elevate it to the status of http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autonomous_republic - autonomous republic . The official capital was at the "temporarily occupied city of http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kishinev - Kishinev ", and there was an executive capital until http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1929 - 1929 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Balta%2C_Ukraine - Balta , and starting http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1929 - 1929 until its disbanding in http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1940 - 1940 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tiraspol - Tiraspol .
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Romania_MASSR_1920.png">Moldavian ASSR  and Romania
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Romania_MASSR_1920.png">Enlarge
Moldavian ASSR and Romania

The ASSR had a mixed http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukrainians - Ukrainian (46%) and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romanians - Romanian (32%) population which was estimated to be 545,500. The area was 8,100 km² and included 11 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raion - raions by the left bank of Dniester.

In http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1940 - 1940 , the Soviet Union invaded http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bessarabia - Bessarabia , then part of http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romania - Romania , and created the http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moldavian_SSR - Moldavian SSR , which included most of Bessarabia and the western part of the Moldavian ASSR. The eastern part, which included the city of http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Balta%2C_Ukraine - Balta was merged with the http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukrainian_SSR - Ukrainian SSR , stripping the autonomy and language rights for the Romanians living there.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Collectivization - Collectivization in MASSR was even more fast-paced than in Ukraine and was reported to be completed by summer 1931. This was accompanied with deportation of about 2,000 Moldovan families to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kazakhstan - Kazakhstan
 


Posted By: brunodam
Date Posted: 09-Oct-2006 at 12:03
Great post, Maria d.Clap
 
So, 2000 moldovan families were moved to Kazakhstan in 1931...I wonder how many of these people were ethnic Romanians?  Probably half?
 
They remember me the 2/3000 moslem Vlachs moved to Turkey in 1923: here we have another few thousands Romanian moved to Asia in 1931.
 
They are really the "asian" neo-latin people of our days (if they are not assimilated).    Bruno


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Posted By: maria d.
Date Posted: 09-Oct-2006 at 16:58
Originally posted by brunodam

Great post, Maria d.Clap
 
So, 2000 moldovan families were moved to Kazakhstan in 1931...I wonder how many of these people were ethnic Romanians?  Probably half?
 
They remember me the 2/3000 moslem Vlachs moved to Turkey in 1923: here we have another few thousands Romanian moved to Asia in 1931.
 
They are really the "asian" neo-latin people of our days (if they are not assimilated).    Bruno
 
Yes, I remember to have read some years ago an article on the "National Geographic" about Kazakhstan, and there was an interview with a Moldovian-speaking man, who said that his fathers were sent to Kazakhstan by Stalin.  But I don't remember the date of the magazine.
 
Bruno, you write that the Vlach sheperds reached Moravia in the XVI century, escaping from the Turks: can you be more detailed about?
Iam interested.    Smile   Maria d.


Posted By: brunodam
Date Posted: 09-Oct-2006 at 20:07
Originally posted by maria d.

 
Yes, I remember to have read some years ago an article on the "National Geographic" about Kazakhstan, and there was an interview with a Moldovian-speaking man, who said that his fathers were sent to Kazakhstan by Stalin.  But I don't remember the date of the magazine.
 
Bruno, you write that the Vlach sheperds reached Moravia in the XVI century, escaping from the Turks: can you be more detailed about?
Iam interested.    Smile   Maria d.
 
Prof. Kocurek (Texas, USA) wrote about the Vlachs of Vlassko, a region in Moravia (actual Czech republic) next to the border of Slovakia.
He states that:
 
The Ottoman Turks caused the westward migration of Vlachs and other ethnic groups of people. Vlach westward migration along the Carpathian Mountains ended in Moravia were the Carpathians terminate.
 
As a result of the Hungarian defeat at Mohac (1526), huge areas of the former Hungary were depopulated as Christian Magyars (Hungarians), Vlachs and Slavs (Largely Croats, Serbs, and Slovaks), fled into Habsburg lands (Magocsi 1993). Another major exodus occurred during the Turkish Wars between 1593 and 1606 when Orthodox Serbs and Vlachs fled into the southern part of Royal Hungary (Croatia) (Kann & David 1984).
 
An overall picture that emerges for the 16th Century is a massive flux of people from the whole of southeastern Europe into the borderlands of the Habsburg Empire as the Ottoman Turk wave spread westward. Against this backdrop. The Vlassko area of Moravia, which already had ethnic Moravians inhabiting the lowlands, received colonists who largely occupied the highlands. Although it seems certain that the immigrants were largely shepherds and peasant migrating along the Carpathians from Slovakia, it is impossible to state just which ethnic wave they represented.
 
THE VLACHS OF VLASSKO
 
There is no written account that identifies the ethnic character of the Vlachs who settled Vlassko, only indirect evidence can be called upon. The evidence includes: (1) period reference to the people as a distinct group called the Vlachs or Wallachians, (2) some elements of the language.
 
Period References
As early as the 14th Century, Vlach shepherds of a definite Romanian origin are documented as migrating into Slovakia (Podolak 1969). Somewhat later, disorganized bands of Romanian Vlachs are noted in the Carpathian Mountain regions of Ukraine, Poland, and Moravia. This initial influx of Vlachs does coincide with the early Ottoman conquests in the Balkans, but appears to represent only disorganized bands of shepherds traveling along the Carpathians and is small in comparison to the later influx in the 16th Century.
In Vlassko, the first widespread reference to Vlachs occurred during the Thirty Years War and are well documented in Dostal (1956) and Polisensky (1971). For example, Jan Amos Comenius wrote in 1960 “Moravians of the mountains around Vsetin, called Wallachians, are a warlike people…they refuses to accept the Habsburg yoke and for three whole years defended their freedom with the sword.” Later, in 1624, he wrote “the inhabitants of the lordship of Vsetin and the mountains thereabout (who are called Wallachians) continued to resist with arms and could not be brought to deny their faith or offer submission…” In 1628, Jesuit missionaries, in abandoning their attempt to convert the Vlachs to Catholicism, stated that the “inhabitants of Vlassko were Valachs and hence utterly infractory.” Zlin town records from 1621 refer to “the Wallachians, who are the local rabble,…” Albrecht Waldstein, Habsburg Military lord of Vsetin, wrote in 1621 about the expected uprising of the locals and referred to the Vlachs as “Wallachians” against whom he did not have sufficient support to mount a campaign. A Habsburg commissioner in 1622, writing about the local Moravians, stated that “the people are inclined more to the enemy and the Wallachians.”

The significance of these period references is that the Vlachs of Vlassko were both considered apart from the Moravians, and referred to as Wallachians. Walachia is the Romanian province and the homeland of the Vlachs. This later distinction is important, because, as noted below, “Vlach” came in Moravia to refer to shepherds in general.

Language
Linguists make the argument that the Moravian dialect spoken by the Vlachs had its roots in Slovak, but that the vocabulary concerning aspects of the raising of sheep and goats was Romanian (e.g. Podolak 1969, Hannan 1988). In fact, there is a clear evolution of the Vlach language along the Carpathian Mountains. Ukrainian Vlachs spoke a language that had a strong Romanian influence. Slovakians Vlachs, in turn, spoke Slovak, but with a strong Ukrainian character. The Moravian spoken by the Vlachs in Vlassko had the Slovak character. This geographic evolution of language can be interpreted as an assimilation of the Vlachs in terms of language as they migrated into new areas. The overall pattern shows a westward migration of the Vlachs from Romania into Moravia via the Carpathian Mountains and over a time scale significant enough for local assimilation of the language to have occurred. The only aspect of the language that remained unchanged throughout the Carpathians was that related to the Vlach style of sheep and goat tending (see below), and for which there were no local words that could be used. The counter argument--that this geographic sharing of language would be typical for any groups into cultural contact--is weakened by the fact that the drift in language is in one direction. Ukrainian Vlachs do not show a Slovak influence, and so forth.
 
Destruction of the Vlachs in Vlassko during the Thirty years war.
 
In January 1644, a massive Habsburg raid was conducted against the Vlachs in the mountains east of Vsetin, The Habsburg rout was completed by this time with a battle that culminated in the burning of Vlach villages (e.g. Hovezi, Huslenky, Halenkov, and Zdechov), disarming of the Vlachs, destruction of the fields and livestock, and an estimated 20 percent of the males of Vsetin were killed or later executed. Vlachs who fled the area were pursued by the Habsburgs as far as into Hungary. Ultimately, about one third of the total Vlach population was killed. With the Conscription of Vlassko on February 16, 1644, a complete registration of the remaining Vlachs occurred. Execution or oath of allegiance to Habsburg and conversion to Catholicism were the choices. Many Vlachs were executed during the infamous executions of 1644 in Vsetin. By March 1644, essentially all the remaining Vlachs who had taken refuge in the high high Carpathians had been pursued and killed. Plague then struck the region in September 1644.
The net result of the crushing Vlach defeat with the close of the Thirty Year War was the destruction of Vlach Culture. Retribution by the Habsburg was severe and the Vlassko area remained one of the most repressed in Europe. A harsh serfdom was imposed upon the Vlachs. Whole groups of people and families were relocated. Taxes were raised to the point (two-third of total gross) that extreme poverty resulted. Overlords were entirely foreign. Serfdom was not lifted until the Revolution of 1848 (Pech 1969), one of the last places in Europe.
 
 


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Posted By: maria d.
Date Posted: 10-Oct-2006 at 09:44
So, Bruno, the Vlachs sheperds migrated to Cecoslovakia and to Ukraine during the XVI/XVII  centuries, escaping the Turkish invasion of the southern Balkans.
Do you have a map of the Vlassko area in Moravia?
Maria d.


Posted By: brunodam
Date Posted: 10-Oct-2006 at 13:55
Originally posted by maria d.

So, Bruno, the Vlachs sheperds migrated to Cecoslovakia and to Ukraine during the XVI/XVII  centuries, escaping the Turkish invasion of the southern Balkans.
Do you have a map of the Vlassko area in Moravia?
Maria d.
 
Here it is two maps:
 
In the first there is a general map of where is located Vlassko in Moravia
 
In the second map we can see the first settlements of Vlachs (shepperds and peasants) in Pribor (1200's) and in Vsetin (1308). Then there are the villages settled in the XVI century, escaping from the Turks  (1: Lhota,
2: Hovezi, 3: Zdechov, 4: Huslenky, 5: Halenkov, 6: Novy Hrot, 7: Velka Karlovice, 8: Vidce, 9: Valasska Bystrice, 10: Hor Becva, and
11: Trojanovice).
 


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