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Forum LockedPersian words in Hindi

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Behrouz View Drop Down
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    Posted: 10-Apr-2005 at 11:15
A while ago I had a discussion with some indian friends of mine. Most indians don't seem to realize how many persian words they have in their own language. I remember finding a website which teaches every day talk in Hindi and I can see so many similarities. There are also words that are being used in hindi but hindi-speakers are not able to break it down as it seems like the actual roots havent been borrowed, only the word itself.

I would appreciate any info on this as well as a website which would list all the hindi words and their english (or persian) translations so I can compare the two languages.



Note: I have noticed many indians believe Hindi takes words from sanskrit while urdu takes them from persian/arabic. What I'm looking for is an investigation as to persian words in hindi not urdu.
Thanks.              

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Cywr View Drop Down
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Post Options Post Options   Quote Cywr Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 10-Apr-2005 at 12:05
Quite a few AFAIK.
The very name Hindi comes from the Persian name for the area around the Indus (Sindh).


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Cyrus Shahmiri View Drop Down
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Post Options Post Options   Quote Cyrus Shahmiri Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 10-Apr-2005 at 12:35
I don't know Hindi but I'm sure there are many many Persian words in this language because Persian was the official language of India until mid 19th century.
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Post Options Post Options   Quote Behrouz Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 10-Apr-2005 at 14:04
Here's some intersting stuff I've found, take a look:

Persian words in hindi:

Vegetable: SUB-ZI

Cheese: PA-NEER

Tea: CHAI  EDIT :  Both borrowed the word from china

color- rang

orange-naranji

white - safed

aloof - dur

always      -      hamesha

certainly not      -      hargiz nahin

ever      -      hamesha

every moment      -      hardam

far      -      dur

in      -      andar
inside      -      andar
near      -      pas    **
off      -      dur
once      -      ek bar
again & again      -      bar-bar  
or      -      ya
perhaps      -      shayad
since (conditional)      -      chunki
twice      -      do bar
whereas      -      chunki
easy      -      asan
bad      -      kharab
empty      -      khali
fresh      -      taza
dirty      -      ganda
distant      -      dur
near      -      pas
hot      -      garam
honest      -      imandar   (Iman daar, someone who has iman?)
dishonest -      beiman
wealthy     -      maldar  (someone who hass maal)
poor      -      garib   (gharib?)
healthy  -      tandurust
sick      -      bimar
new      -      naya (no?)
young      -      jawan
narrow      -      sankra, tang
lazy      -      sust
smart      -      hoshiyar
kind      -      meharban
pleased      -      khush
displeased      -      naraz   (naaraazi)
urban      -      shahri
rural      -      dehati
smelling good      -      khushbudar
smelling bad      -      badbudar
not durable      -      kamzor
strong      -      takatwar  (like takat? it sounds persian but do we have takat?)
worthless      -      raddi
hard      -      sakhta
I       -       main
My       -       mera (m) , meri (f) , mere (pl)
We       -       ham  (hameye maa?)
Our       -       hamara (m) , hamari (f) , hamare (pl)
You       -       tum , ap (r)
to answer       -       jawab dena
to attack       -       hamla karna
to attempt       -       koshish karna
to clean       -       saf karna
to forgive       -       maf karna  (moaaf kardan?)
to hate       -       nafarat karna (nefrat kardan/ nefrat daashtan?)
to help       -       sahayata dena, madad dena (madad resaandan)
to waste       -       barbad karna         ; ; ; ;      




Arabic words in hindi:

against (opposite) -    khilaf
alas      -      afsos

at      -      taraf

but      -      lekin

certainly      -      zarur

if      -      agar
immediate      -      zaruri, turamt andar
oft / often      -      aksar
of course      -      albatta
oft / often      -      aksar
over (finished)      -      khatam
scarcely      -      mushkil se
sorry      -      afsos
towards      -      taraf
truly      -      sahi
difficult      -      mushkil
clean      -      saf
durable      -      mazbut
much      -      zyada
right      -      sahi
wrong      -      galat



Words and their english translations are taken from:
http://www.it-c.dk/people/pfw/hindi/index.html




Edited by Behrouz
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Cywr View Drop Down
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Post Options Post Options   Quote Cywr Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 10-Apr-2005 at 14:44
Tea: CHAI


Actualy, thats from the Cantonese root Cha
Looks like Persian and Hindi (as well as loads of other languages) ended up with the Cantonese root, as opposed to the Amoy rooot Te.

again & again      -      bar-bar


That reminds me of a joke.
Seen in an Indian newspaper's matrimonial section:
Education - no bar
Ocupation - no bar
Religion - no bar
Caste - no bar
Age - no bar
Sex - bar bar



Edited by Cywr
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Post Options Post Options   Quote Jazz Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 10-Apr-2005 at 15:17
Here's another Arabic word that is borrowed Kitab (book).  Kitab is also used in East African Swahili.

The list is extensive.  Behrouz, the list you posted covers most of the words that I am aware of.

Persian influence in the north Indic languages dates from the Mogul period, when Persian was the official court language of the Moguls.  Akbar the Great (r 1556-1605) (well he's "the Great" in India, but apparently a sell-out in Pakistan, but that's another story) used to encourage peoetry and prose more than ever before, and most of the work was in Persian.

Cywr - you are correct that the very reference to India in most Middle Eastern languages as "Hind" derives from the name of the Indus River, which may have even been then called "Hindus River".  The name for Sindh (the province at the mouth of the river) I'm not so sure about, it may have developed separately.  I've noticed that the plural for each is different:  Hindus vs Sindhis....I'm sure someone will know more about that...
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Post Options Post Options   Quote Cyrus Shahmiri Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 10-Apr-2005 at 15:20

Some words from Oxford English Dictionary:

Baksheesh
In the Indian subcontinent: a small sum of money given as alms, a tip, or a bribe.
– ORIGIN based on Pers. bakshish, from bakshidan ‘give’.

Biriani (also biriyani or biryani)
An Indian dish made with highly seasoned rice and meat, fish, or vegetables.
– ORIGIN from Pers. biryani, from biriyan ‘fried, grilled’.

Bund
In India and Pakistan: an embankment or causeway.
– ORIGIN from Pers. band.

Charkha
In the Indian subcontinent: a domestic spinning wheel used chiefly for cotton.
– ORIGIN from Pers. charkha ‘spinning wheel’.

Charpoy
In the Indian subcontinent: a light bedstead.
– ORIGIN from Pers. charpai ‘four-legged’.

Chick
In the Indian subcontinent: a bamboo screen for a doorway.
– ORIGIN from Pers. cigh.

Dastur
In the Indian subcontinent: a chief priest.
– ORIGIN from Old Pers. dastobar ‘prime minister’.

Diwan
A chief treasury official, finance minister, or Prime Minister in some Indian states.
– ORIGIN from Pers. diwan ‘fiscal register’.

Durbar
The court of an Indian ruler.
– ORIGIN from Pers. darbar ‘court’.

Durzi
In the Indian subcontinent: a tailor.
– ORIGIN from Pers. darzi, from darz ‘sewing’.

Feringhee
In India, a foreigner, especially a white person.
– ORIGIN from Pers. firangi, from the base of Frank.

Gymkhana
In the Indian subcontinent: a public place with facilities for athletics.
– ORIGIN C19: from Hindi ged ‘ball’ + Pers. kanah ‘house’

Havildar
In the Indian subcontinent: a soldier or police officer corresponding to a sergeant.
– ORIGIN from Pers. hawaladar ‘trust-holder’.

Hindu
· a follower of Hinduism.
– ORIGIN from Pers. hindu, from Hind ‘India’.

Kincob
A rich Indian fabric brocaded with gold or silver.
– ORIGIN from Pers. kamkab, alt. of kimk ‘damask silk’.

Kofta
In Middle Eastern and Indian cookery: a savoury ball of minced meat, paneer, or vegetables.
– ORIGIN from Pers. koftah ‘pounded meat’.

Kulcha
A small, round Indian flatbread, typically stuffed with meat or vegetables.
– ORIGIN from Pers. kulcha.

Kurta
A loose collarless shirt worn by people from the Indian subcontinent.
– ORIGIN from Pers. kurtah.

Lascar
A sailor from India or SE Asia.
– ORIGIN C17: from Pers. lashkari ‘soldier’.

Maidan
In the Indian subcontinent: an open space in or near a town.
– ORIGIN from Pers. maidan.

Mogul (also Moghul or Mughal)
A member of the Muslim dynasty of Mongol origin which ruled much of India in the 16th–19th centuries.
– ORIGIN from Pers. mughul ‘Mongol’.

Nan
In Indian cookery: a type of leavened bread, typically of a flattened teardrop shape.
– ORIGIN from Pers. nan.

Numdah
In the Indian subcontinent: an embroidered rug made of felt or coarse woollen cloth.
– ORIGIN from Pers. namad ‘carpet’.

Paneer
A type of milk curd cheese used in Indian, Iranian, and Afghan cooking.
– ORIGIN from Pers. panir ‘cheese’.

Salwar
A pair of light, loose, pleated trousers tapering to a tight fit around the ankles, worn by women from the Indian subcontinent, typically with a kameez.
– ORIGIN from Pers. Shalwar.

Sardar
In the Indian subcontinent: a leader, a Sikh.
– ORIGIN from Pers. sar-dar.

Sarkar
In the Indian subcontinent: a man in a position of authority, especially a landowner.
– ORIGIN from Pers. sarkar, from sar ‘chief’ + kar ‘agent, doer’.

Sarod
A lute used in classical North Indian music.
– ORIGIN Pers. surod ‘song, melody’.

Sepoy
An Indian soldier serving under British or other European orders.
– ORIGIN from Pers. sipahi ‘soldier’.

Serang
In the Indian subcontinent: an Asian head of a Lascar crew.
– ORIGIN from Pers. sar-hang ‘commander’.

Shikar
In the Indian subcontinent: hunting.
– ORIGIN from Pers. Shikar.

Sitar
A large, long-necked Indian lute with movable frets, played with a wire pick.
– ORIGIN from Pers. sitar, from sih ‘three’ + tar ‘string’.

Tabla
A pair of small hand drums fixed together, used in Indian music.
– ORIGIN from Pers. tablah.

Taj
A tall conical cap worn by a dervish, a crown worn by an Indian prince.
– ORIGIN from Pers. taj ‘crown’.

Tamboura (also tambura)
A large four-stringed lute used in Indian music as a drone accompaniment, a long-necked lute or mandolin of Balkan countries.
– ORIGIN C16: from Pers. dunbara, lit. ‘lamb’s tail’.

Tandoor
A clay oven of a type used originally in northern India and Pakistan.
– ORIGIN from from Pers. tanur.

Zamindar (also zemindar)
In the Indian subcontinent: a landowner who leased land to tenant farmers.
– ORIGIN from Pers. zamindar, from zamin ‘land’ + -dar ‘holder’.

Zenana
In India and Iran: the part of a house for the seclusion of women.
– ORIGIN from Pers. zananah, from zan ‘woman’.

Zedoary
An Indian plant related to turmeric, with an aromatic rhizome.
– ORIGIN ME: from Pers. zadwar.

Zilla
An administrative district in India, containing several parganas.
– ORIGIN from Pers. Nila ‘division’.



Edited by Cyrus Shahmiri
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Post Options Post Options   Quote Behrouz Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 10-Apr-2005 at 16:20
OK this is an updated list, the refrences of english translations are on top of each section. Please correct me ppl, if we have arabs, turks , persians and indians around here please let me know if there's a mistake in the list or origins of words. Thanks.




Cheese: PA-NEER
color- rang
orange-naranji
white - safed
aloof - dur
always      -  hamesha


--------------------------http://www.it-c.dk/people/pfw/hi ndi/index.html
certainly not            hargiz nahin   (hargez is persian)
ever                       hamesha
every moment         hardam
far                          dur
in                            andar
inside                      andar
near                        pas   
off                           dur
once                ek bar
again & again           bar-bar          (dobareh)
or                ya
perhaps           shayad
since (conditional)     chunki
twice                do bar
whereas            chunki
easy                asan
bad                kharab
empty                khali
fresh                taza
dirty                ganda
distant            dur
near                pas
hot                garam
honest               imandar       (Iman daar, someone who has iman)
dishonest           beiman        (someone who doesn't have iman)
wealthy               maldar        (someone who hass maal)
poor                garib         (gharib?)
healthy            tandurust
sick                bimar
new                naya (noe?)
young                jawan
narrow                tang
lazy                sust
smart                hoshiyar
kind                meharban
pleased            khush
displeased            naraz       (naaraazi)
urban                shahri
rural                dehati
smelling good          khushbudar
smelling bad            badbudar
not durable            kamzor
strong                takatwar      (like takat? it sounds persian but do we have takat?)
worthless            raddi
hard                sakhta
I                  main   & ;nbs p;        (sound like man in persian)
My                  mera (male)     (sounds like maraa which is short form of man raa in persian)
We                  ham          (hameh?)
Our                  hamara (m)     (hame raa?)
You                  tum         (toe?)
to answer              jawab dena    (jawab daadan, jawaab is arabic though)
to attack              hamla karna     (hamle kardan, hamle is arabic though)
to attempt              koshish karna    (kooshesh kardan)
to clean              saf karna    (saaf kardan, saaf is arabic)
to forgive              maf karna      (moaaf kardan, moaf is arabic)
to hate              nafarat karna     (nefrat kardan/ nefrat daashtan? , nefrat is arabic)
to help              madad dena      (madad daadan, madad is arabic)
to waste              barbad karna    (barbad daadan / barbaad kardan)       &a mp;n bsp; 
---------------------------------------------------------- ----------http://www.shamema.com/wordlist.htm
head            sar
face            chehra     & ;nbs p;    (chehre)
tounge            zaban       
arm/hand        bazu   
fingelnail        nakhun
leg            tan   
heart            dil   
blood            khun   
urine            peshab         (some old persian word? given aab is water in persian while pani is water in hindi)
house            ghar       
door            darwaza
broom            jharu
knife            chaqu        (chaghoo)
sky            asman
star            ek tara      (setare?)
river            darya
wind            hawa
tree            darakht
flower            phul         (is possibliy taken from hindi rather than given because fruit = phal in hindi)
potato            alu         (Aalou, interesting!!)
onion            piaz
salt            namak
meat            gosht
fat            cherbi     & ;nbs p;    (charbi)
chicken            murghi        (morgh)
cow            gae        (gaav)
tail            dum
name            nam
child            bacha
husband            shohar
wife            bibi
evening            sham (not sure if Shaam is persian or arabic so included in both sections)
week            ek hafta
month            mihana (just similar to persian, possibly not borrrowed)
dry            khushk
--------------------------------------http://faculty.maxwe ll.syr.edu/jishnu/101/FoodItems/default.asp
Wine                 sharaab
bread                naan
tambaakuu            Tobaaco
Vinegar              sirkaa
Black Beans          lobhiyaa
Flour                aattaa        ( sound very similar to persian Aard)
Almond               baadaam
Apple                sev         (similar to persian Seeb)
Grapes               anguur
Melon                kharbuujaa
Pistachio            pistaa
Plum                   aaluubukhaaraa  (aalooye bukhara!)
Tangerine            naarangii
Cinnamon             daalciinii      (similar to persian daarchin)
tasty                 mazedaar
Beetroot             cukandar     (persian choghondar)
Cucumber             khiiraa      (persian khiar)
Eggplant             baingan      (similar to persian bademjaan)
Pumpkin              kadduu    
Vegetable            sabzii

angel          ; ;      farishtaa
alike          ; ;      ek-saa
animal        & ;nbs p;     jaanvar
abstinence          parhez
back                 vaapas
comfort,rest        aaraam
choice, liking       pasand
Complete,full          puraa          (persian por)
colorful          rang-biranga     (persian rang-varang)
colourful          rangiin
city                   sheher
dislike          naapasand
dangerous          khatarnaak
friend          dost
favorite          man-pasand
fragrance (happy smell) khushbuu
happiness           khushii
illness           bimaarii
less                   kam
man                   aadmii
medicine           davaaii/davaa (not sure if dava is persian or arabic)
man                    mard

marriage           Shaadii     (There has to be a relation between this and persian Shaadi meaning happiness)                 
married          Shaadii-shudaa    (Shode is a persian word, again it's very likely Shaadi is a borrowed from persian)
neither... nor       na... na     (seems like a persian structure, specially since na is no/don't in persian)
office           daftar         (persian or arabic?)
opinion, view           khayaal     (persian/arabic?)
oneself           khud
or                   yaa
pain, ache           dard
perhaps           shaayad
prosperity           khush-haalii     (haal is arabic while khosh is persian)
salutation, greetings      aadaab        (persian/arabic?)
someone           kisii
safety, welfare      kheriyat (persian/arabic?)
thousand           hazaar
to buy           khariidnaa
to remind           yaad dilaanaa     (yaad is persian)
to emphasize           zor denaa         (zoor daadan/kardan?)
umbrella           chaataa     (not sure about the origins, similar to persian chatr, could it be arabic?)



Arabic




------------------------------------------http://www.it-c. dk/people/pfw/hindi/index.html
against (opposite)     khilaf
alas                afsos
at                taraf
but                lekin
certainly            zarur
if                agar
immediate            zaruri, turamt andar
oft / often            aksar
of course            albatta
oft / often            aksar
over (finished)        khatam
scarcely            mushkil se
sorrow                afsos
towards            taraf
truly                sahi
difficult            mushkil
clean                saf
durable            mazbut
much                zyada
right                sahi
wrong                galat
---------------------------------------------http://www.sh amema.com/wordlist.htm

body            jism
rainbow            qusr quzah
morning            subah
evening            sham
year            sal
near            qarib
different        mukhtali
whole            mukamal
---------------------------------------------http://facult y.maxwell.syr.edu/jishnu/101/FoodItems/default.asp
answer             javaab
advice             salaah

(a term signifying
respect)          tashriif

age               umar
book              kitaab
condition         haal
chair                kursii
custom            rivaaj
difference         farka         (fargh)
enough            kaafii
insurance         biimaa
medicine          avaaii/davaa (not sure if dava is persian or arabic)
meaning          matlab                  
meeting         mulaakaat
office          daftar (persian or arabic?)
order                hukam
only                  sirf
opinion, view       khayaal (persian/arabic?) 
paper                 kaagaz
patient          mariiz  
question          savaal
request          arz
real, genuine          aslii
salutation, greetings      aadaab(persian/arabic?)
sir                                saahib
safety, welfare              kheriyat (persian/arabic?)
wait                   intzaar
total                   kul
to be known           maaluum honaa (maaluum is arabic)
that is, in other words     yaanii 
vision            nazar
World          ;        duniyaa


Edited by Behrouz
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Post Options Post Options   Quote Guests Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 10-Apr-2005 at 17:11
Why did Indians speak Persian as their official language until that time? Dont they have their own Indian language?
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Post Options Post Options   Quote Guests Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 10-Apr-2005 at 17:42

chunki, khun, kagiz, kisi and some other ones are Turkish originated. And about 1/3 of the words are originated from Arabic...

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Post Options Post Options   Quote Cywr Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 10-Apr-2005 at 17:47
It was the language of government, the Moghul court (the Moghuls were Persian speaking IIRC). Your average Indian wouldn't have spoken it, just like how later during the British Raj, the average Indian didn't speak English, but both would have been the languages of important government and business and such, and and the educated would have learned them.
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Post Options Post Options   Quote Behrouz Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 10-Apr-2005 at 17:57
Originally posted by Oguzoglu

chunki, khun, kagiz, kisi and some other ones are Turkish originated. And about 1/3 of the words are originated from Arabic...



Thanks for the input. I will need to do research on some of those words because I honestly don't know the origins. I would imagine kisi has roots of Kassi in persian which breaks done to Kas (person) + (i) meaning one, or meaning belonging to
Chunki, I would think is Chonke in persian meaning Chon (because) + ke (so)

Now if these words have actually entered persian from turkish or the other way around I wouldn't know, but I'm pretty sure they don't have roots in arabic.
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Post Options Post Options   Quote Cywr Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 10-Apr-2005 at 18:19
Cywr - you are correct that the very reference to India in most Middle Eastern languages as "Hind" derives from the name of the Indus River, which may have even been then called "Hindus River".  The name for Sindh (the province at the mouth of the river) I'm not so sure about, it may have developed separately.  I've noticed that the plural for each is different:  Hindus vs Sindhis....I'm sure someone will know more about that...


I thought it went Sindh[us?] - Hind[us] (and Hindistan) - Indus (India), so a transition from the local language (what ever that was, Sindhi?), to Persian, to Greek and later pretty much all the other European languages (with the middle east adopting the Persian form).
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Post Options Post Options   Quote Miller Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 10-Apr-2005 at 20:34
 

There are two different reasons for common words between Hindi and Persian. Some of the words are more recently adapted in Hindi and for the most part go back to the Mughal period, but Hindi and Persian also have a common Indo-Aryan root and have probably originated in the same area. You will find many common word in ancient Sanskrit and Persian texts long before they was direct interaction between Iranians and Idians or the Mughal period. More info here

 

 

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Post Options Post Options   Quote Behrouz Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 10-Apr-2005 at 20:44
Originally posted by Miller

 

There are two different reasons for common words between Hindi and Persian. Some of the words are more recently adapted in Hindi and for the most part go back to the Mughal period, but Hindi and Persian also have a common Indo-Aryan root and have probably originated in the same area. You will find many common word in ancient Sanskrit and Persian texts long before they was direct interaction between Iranians and Idians or the Mughal period. More info here

 


That is a possiblity, and I would like to research further the real origins of each of these words. However, I find it highly unlikely that any of these words have roots in sanskrit. Many of the words especially the ones that are constructed from two smaller words, have no visible roots in today's hindi while they do in persian. Although anything is possible, the chances of these words somehow being sanskirt but the root getting lost and only the constructed word remaining in the language is slim in my opinion.

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Post Options Post Options   Quote Jazz Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 11-Apr-2005 at 03:41
Originally posted by Miller

  <>There are two different reasons for common words between Hindi and Persian. Some of the words are more recently adapted in Hindi and for the most part go back to the Mughal period, but Hindi and Persian also have a common Indo-Aryan root and have probably originated in the same area. You will find many common word in ancient Sanskrit and Persian texts long before they was direct interaction between Iranians and Idians or the Mughal period. More info here


An obvious correlation that I forgot about....

A lot of numbers are also similar, and some of them are the same.
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Post Options Post Options   Quote Behrouz Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 11-Apr-2005 at 11:01
Originally posted by Jazz

Originally posted by Miller

  <>There are two different reasons for common words between Hindi and Persian. Some of the words are more recently adapted in Hindi and for the most part go back to the Mughal period, but Hindi and Persian also have a common Indo-Aryan root and have probably originated in the same area. You will find many common word in ancient Sanskrit and Persian texts long before they was direct interaction between Iranians and Idians or the Mughal period. More info here


An obvious correlation that I forgot about....

A lot of numbers are also similar, and some of them are the same.


The numbers are actually borrowd from indians by persians I think. Given that generally mathematics and especially the number zero came originally from there.
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Post Options Post Options   Quote Jazz Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 11-Apr-2005 at 16:54
Originally posted by Behrouz

Originally posted by Jazz

....A lot of numbers are also similar, and some of them are the same.
The numbers are actually borrowd from indians by persians I think. Given that generally mathematics and especially the number zero came originally from there.


I understood that the numbers evoled separately, but from the same proto-Indo-Iranian language, much like comparing French and Spanish's numbers which have evolved from Latin.


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Post Options Post Options   Quote azimuth Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 11-Apr-2005 at 23:08

Originally posted by Behrouz


Note: I have noticed many indians believe Hindi takes words from sanskrit while urdu takes them from persian/arabic. What I'm looking for is an investigation as to persian words in hindi not urdu.
Thanks.              

i think Hindi and Urdu are the same , they use the same words which makes them the same.

also i think the muslim Indians call their language Urdu while the rest call it Hindi

 

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Post Options Post Options   Quote Jazz Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 12-Apr-2005 at 01:35
Depeding on your perspective. Hindi and Urdu are either separate languages or 2 forms of the same language.

They are close in that they evolved from a common language called "Hindustani"  Grammar is quite close, virtually identical, but the general vocabulary is different, even though the core vocabulary is the same.  However, it is increasingly different since the partition of India into India and Pakistan.  This is due to movements within each country to purge Persian/Arabic words from Hindi and use more words from Sanskrit, and likewise in Pakistan to purge Sanskritic words for those that are Persian/Arabic in origin.  But to the colloquial speaker both are mutually intelligible, in pure form, not so.
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