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Forum LockedMirwais Khan Hotak's Vengeance

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    Posted: 06-Sep-2006 at 12:03

Mirwais Khan Hotak

 


 
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A picture of life in the old city of Kandahar under the Timurids, the Safavids and the Moghuls has begun to emerge since the British Institute began its excavations in 1974. Bronze ewers, imported glazed ceramics and ornate glass from Persia and im-ported porcelains from China speak of widespread trade. Locally made glazed wares in the Persian style speak of a cultural orienta-tion toward the west.

On the whole the indigenous Pushtun tribes living in the Kandahar area were more attached to the Persians and, indeed, on those occasions when the Moghuls received the city by means other than conquest, it was disaffected Persian governors who instigated the transfer, not the tribes. The tribes were not above pitting foreigner against foreigner in order to further their attempts to better one another. However, siding sometimes with the Persians, sometimes with the Moghuls, but never with each other, they perpetuated tribal disunity and prolonged foreign domination.

The principal contenders in these tribal disputes came from the two most important Pushtun groups in the Kandahar area, the Ghilzai and the Abdali (later Durrani), between whom there was long-standing enmity. As a matter of fact, because of these quarrels, many of the turbulent Abdali had been forcibly transferred to Herat by the irritated Persians by the end of the 16th century. This left the Ghilzai paramount in Kandahar, but the dispute more hotly contested, the hatred more deeply entrenched, and revenge more fervently sought.

The Persians were adept at manipulating such machinations and their rule at Kandahar was tolerant until the court at Isfahan began to sink in decadence. Mirroring this, the Persian governors of Kandahar became more and more rapacious and, in response, the tribes became more and more restless. Mounting tribal disturbances finally caught the concern of the court and they sent Gurgin, a Georgian known for his uncompromising severity toward revolt, to Kandahar in 1704. Kandahar's mayor at this time was Mir Wais Hotak, the astute and influential leader of the Ghilzai.

Gurgin, advocate of law by force, burnt, plundered, murdered and imprisoned, but the tribes would not be subdued; revolts were crushed only to break out anew and Mir Wais, credited with master-minding the rebellions, was sent to Isfahan tagged as a highly dangerous prisoner. Imagine Gurgin's surprise and dismay when Mir Wais returned to Kandahar shortly thereafter clothed in lustrous robes of honour, symbols of respect and trust. The Shah of Persia thus declared the influence of Mir Wais, not Gur-gin, at the Persian court. Mir Wais had extricated himself from a very nasty situation but, more importantly, he had observed the depths of decay at Isfahan, much as Babur had observed it at Herat, and correctly determined that the Safavid Empire was on the brink of collapse.

Mir Wais formulated plans for disposing of the hated Gurgin; only the difficult task of waiting for the right moment remained.

The moment came in April, 1709. Because details of the assas-sination are varied, this discussion recounts the version popular among Kandaharis today who say that Mir Wais invited Gurgin to a picnic at his country estate at Kohkran on the outskirts of Kandahar city. Here the guests were fed all manner of rich dishes and plied with strong wines until "everyone was plunged in de-bauch." This was the moment. Mir Wais struck, killing Gurgin, and his followers killed the Georgian's escort. The rebels then marched to take possession of the citadel.

Isfahan was astounded and sent emissaries to complain. The emissaries were imprisoned. Isfahan sent armies to take the city. The armies were defeated. The Persian court then sat in stunned idleness while Mir Wais extended his authority throughout the Kandahar region.
 
If they were to remain free the tribes must be united and to this formidable task the venerable statesman devoted the rest of his life. But not many years were left for Mir Wais. He died in 1715. An imposing bluedomed mausoleum at Bagh-i-Kohkran, next to the orchard where Gurgin was assassinated, is a fitting monu-ment to one of Afghanistan's first great nationalists.
 




Edited by Afghanan - 06-Sep-2006 at 12:04
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Ave1 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 10-Sep-2006 at 01:45
Thanks,  interesting read.  

Edited by Ave1 - 10-Sep-2006 at 01:45
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote AFG-PaShTuN Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 10-Nov-2006 at 23:42
Great post, i would like to add more.

---------------------------------------------

Gurgin Khan

He was the son of Vakhtang V, also known as Shahnawaz I, whom he succeeded as a ruler of Kartli in 1676. He had to accept Islam and take the name of Shahnawaz II before being able to be confirmed as a wali (viceroy) by Shah Husayn I. However, Georgians continued to consider him as their king under his Christian name George (Giorgi).

It was when nearly half-century long peaceful relations between Kartli and its Persian suzerains significantly deteriorated. Giorgi attempted to centralise loose royal authority in Kartli and to weaken the Persian influence. He patronised Catholic missioners and had correspondence with Innocent XI. After the liberation of Vienna of the siege of the Ottomans hoped Giorgi XI first on weakening of Ottomans. In the letter to Innocent XI from 29.04.1687 he vowed to be a Catholic King and declared the readness and willingness of him and his troops to obey any order of the Roman Pope. According to Catholic missionaries Giorgi remained until his death a faithful Catholic. He attempted, though vainly, to gain an Ottoman support against the Saffavids of Persia. The shah retaliated by deposing Giorgi and put rival prince, Erekle I on the throne of Kartli. Giorgi fled to Racha, western Georgia, whence he made fruitless attempts to reclaim his possession. However, a great unrest in the Saffavid empire, made Husayn to make peace with Giorgi who was summoned to Isfahan in 1696. The shah entrusted him with restoring order along the eastern frontiers of the empire and appointed him beglarbeg (governor general) of Kerman in 1699. It was the beginning of an illustrious but, ultimately, tragic career in the service of the Saffavids. Giorgi, aided by his brother Levan, by 1700 had reestablished the shah's sovereignty in the region. As a reward, George was restored to the throne of Kartli in 1703, but was not allowed to return to his country. Instead, he was soon assigned to suppress the Afghan rebellion in May 1704. He was granted the title of Gurgin Khan by the Shah and was appointed the viceroy of Kandahar and sipah salar (commander-in-chief) of the Persian armies. While he was in the field, he entrusted the administration of his country of Kartli to a nephew, the future King Vakhtang VI. Gurgin managed to crash the revolts of Afghan tribes and ruled Kandahar with uncompromising severity. He subdued many of the local leaders and sent Mir Wais, a powerful chieftain of the Ghilzai clan, in chains to Isfahan. However, Mir Wais managed to gain the favour of the shah and even to arouse his suspicion against the beglarbeg. Determined to bring about the overthrow of Gurgin, Mir Wais staged a carefully planned coup. On April 21, 1709, when the majority of the Georgian troops under Gurgin’s nephew, Alexander, were away from Kandahar on a raid against the rebels, Mir Wais invited Gurgin on a banquet at his country estate at Kohkran and had him assassinated. His small escort was massacred and Mir Wais seized the power in Kandahar. He sent to Isfahan the cross and psalms, found at the murdered Georgian general, as the proof of the latter’s covert defection.

A punitive expedition into the Afghan lands led by Giorgi’s nephew, Kay Khusrau, ended in October 1711 disastrously with his death and the destruction of nearly his entire Persian-Georgian force of 30,000.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gurgin_Khan


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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote 12345 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 17-Jan-2007 at 23:08

Don't know most people confused Turk Saffavid with Persians... the fact of matter is Mirwais rebellions was against Turks Saffavid not Persian... Persians were actual subjected by Turk saffavid. Just as we can not called Ghaznavids Afghan, we can not call Saffavid, and Qajaried Persian!

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Zagros Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 18-Jan-2007 at 06:12
Aha, and the English monarchy is German right?  The rebellion of Indians in the 30s was against the Germans in fact and not the English, since the English royal family has German roots?  Again, where is your evidence? Show me documentation that the Mirwais rebellion was against Turks.  Everyone in Iran was subjucated by the Safavids, who referred to themselves as Shahanshahs of Iran, not just Persians.
 
We can call them Persian because that was what the country was called back then, even though their ethnic roots were different - that is the whole reason why they are called Persian - it does not refer to ethnicity.  But what does that matter? Only a racist would be bothered about small semantics like that.  Do you also believe that Azaris and Ashkenazi Jews are in cahoots with each other to ruin Iran? It wouldn't suprise me if you do.
 
Stop reading the unsubstantiated junk of Oslonor, it seems like it has poisoned your mind.


Edited by Zagros - 18-Jan-2007 at 06:17
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Bulldog Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 18-Jan-2007 at 07:18
I found the comparison a bit wrong, the English royal family and most in Europe "inter-married" with each other. It's not like the German's came over set up base and made themselves rulers of England.
 
Ofcourse the Safavids were Turks, they wern't stupid as most the population was Iranic it's pretty clever and logical to make claims to thing's the mass society feel's as important, they also made claims to attract Turks, basically its pollitics. It's not like it really matters, in that era life was great if you were a King, noble, or general but if you were from the masses well it didn't matter if you were Persian, Turk, Kurd, Arab or whatever.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Afghanan Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 19-Jan-2007 at 12:19
I agree.  And I know some Afghans dont want to believe this, but Mirwais Khan Hotaki is a Khalji aka Khalaj Turk.  All Khalaj in Afghanistan are Pashtuns now.  Its not just a tactic to play, but in reality it shows again the depth of how Turks have made an impact in the Iranic world (totally different topic ofcourse).  :)

Edited by Afghanan - 19-Jan-2007 at 12:19
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Zagros Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 19-Jan-2007 at 12:27
Well there again, Mr 12345's nonsense is exposed.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Afghanan Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 31-Jan-2007 at 15:06
Oh and 12345, Mirwais Khan did attack ethnic Persians in his invasion of Khorassan, I believe he burned down quite a few Zoroastrian temples.
 
Zagros,
 
Didn't you do some genetic geneological study on yourself?  I recently ordered National Geographics "Journey of Man" kit and I haven't opened it yet.  Any suggestions?
The perceptive man is he who knows about himself, for in self-knowledge and insight lays knowledge of the holiest.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote DayI Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 31-Jan-2007 at 20:53
Hmmmm saffavvi's really worked like ancient Turkic khanates, appointing someone as Gurgin (Gürkan today) khan, etc. Really interesting and thanks for sharing. 
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Afghanan Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 07-Feb-2007 at 17:23
I think Gurgin means Georgian, somebody from the land of Georgia.  Or does Gurkan means Georgian also?
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Zagros Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 07-Feb-2007 at 17:49
Be sure to let us know the results of the genographic test.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Nick Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 08-Feb-2007 at 16:52
Originally posted by Afghanan Afghanan wrote:

I think Gurgin means Georgian, somebody from the land of Georgia.  Or does Gurkan means Georgian also?
 
I found it interesting. The Georgians call themselves "GERUOZIAN" with the "Zia" sound. And the Afghans also call them "GERUOZEN" So what's the connection.  Any Georgianians around to conform my understanding.
 
Thanks.


Edited by Nick - 08-Feb-2007 at 16:52
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Datuna Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 08-Apr-2007 at 11:55

I'm georgian and i don't call myself a GERUOZIAN....its GRUZIAN not GERUOZIAN as Russians call us!

Gurj means georgian in turkish!



Edited by Datuna - 08-Apr-2007 at 11:56
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Hazara_Mn Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 10-May-2007 at 11:27
Mongols and Turks have a long history in Central and West Asia. There is a great deal similarities between them. They occupied Central and some parts of Western Asia for a long time. And as a result there is a lot of mixes between them. For example the language we speak these days (e.g Farsi etc) has a lot of Tukic/Mongol words.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote MarcoPolo Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 13-Jul-2007 at 17:40
nice thread..
for anyone who understands Pushto.. isnt Mirwais Khans Hotak name kinda funny.. I couldnt stop laughing when I first heard it..  i dont know.. could just be me..
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Afghanan Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 18-Jul-2007 at 15:05
I think its just you.  :)
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote MarcoPolo Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 24-Jul-2007 at 13:34
ya.. i think it is just me... maybe its a dialect thing...  i just find the last name Hotak funny..
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Gharanai Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 25-Jul-2007 at 13:16
Originally posted by MarcoPolo MarcoPolo wrote:

ya.. i think it is just me... maybe its a dialect thing...  i just find the last name Hotak funny..
 
Dear can you tell me what you found so funny about it so we may also laugh Angry ?


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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote MarcoPolo Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 26-Jul-2007 at 20:00

Ok.I know this is highly immature &irresponsible.. kho. ghafaa--kigii maaa.!

hotak... khotak..... khotay...
 
LOL  lol!!
 
ya.. i know.. i think i might have a few screws loose.. my friends tell me all the time..
 
sorry for this guys.. (doesnt the new guy in these forums get a grace period to bust some balls!!<---ironic)
 
anyhow, on a mature note.. Its interesting to read up on all this history.  Its too bad they dont teach us abt Mirwais Khan Hotak  in our history curriculum and I did abt 2 yrs of history!!  but for some reason there's a lot of emphasis on poets! like Rahman Baba, Khushal Khan Khattak (I think Afghanan is going to like me for this one!!lol), Allama Iqbal, Rumi, Omar khaiyam..  but we have touched on a few great military leaders like Sher Shah Suri, Mahmud of Ghaznavi, Babur, Alexander, Ahmed Shah Abdali, Mohammed Bin Qasim etc.. so i think if those topics come up. i can add something a lil more serious!
 
Also, a lil side note, I wonder if someone can offer some insight.  I have a friend of mine who sometimes visits me from Iran.  His last name is Ghanderi.. and I asked abt the history behind his name.. he wasnt quite sure, but thought maybe his forefathers might of come from Ghandara (near Swat/Malakand) or Kandahar.. I thought.. mm.. thats plausible.. as I know that many Pashtun tribes were resettled by the persian but i've only heard of resettlements of Kandaharis to NW Afghanistan (i.e. Herat).. not all the way to Tehran.. our other theory is that maybe since much of the region of Afghanistan and Pakistan was under Persian rule or cultural influence it may be possible that his family shifted to modern day Iran some time back.. Also, I've also read somewhere, that at one point, many of the people of Ghandara settled in the locality of Kandahar and gave it its name (there are several stories as to the origin of the name Kandahar, this is just one)
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