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gok_toruk View Drop Down
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    Posted: 16-Jun-2007 at 03:17
As I believe Korean, along with Japanese, are part of Altaic language and share the same roots, I had already started the topic 'Japanese - Turkic' which still has got a long way to go. And this is for 'Korean - Turkic.

Much is known about Middle Korean, the language spoken in the 15th century (when the script was invented); but unfortunately information about the language before that time is limited. Several hundred words of early Middle Korean were written with phonograms in the vocabularies compiled by the Chinese as far back as 1103. A still earlier form of the language, sometimes called Old Korean, has been inferred from place-names and from the 25 poems (called ‘Hyangga’) that were composed as early as the 10th century and reflect the language of the Silla kingdom. Written with Chinese characters used in various ways to stand for Korean meanings and sounds, the poems are difficult to understand, and there is no common idea on the meaning of the content. That’s why I could only compare the Proto – Korean, Middle Korean and Modern Korean.

Edited by gok_toruk - 16-Jun-2007 at 03:57
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote gok_toruk Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 16-Jun-2007 at 03:29
1- Korean usually gets rid of the Proto - Altaic endings such as ‘pa’/’pe’, ‘qa’/’ke’, ‘na’/ne’, etc or changes them into to ‘stop’s which are shown as ‘ih’/’hi’, ‘ah’/’ha’. When they are initial, the simple stops ‘p’, ‘t’, and ‘k’ are pronounced much as in English ‘pie’, ‘tie’, ‘kite’), with light aspiration. When final, they are cut off with no release; like the saying English “Up! Out! Back!”. So please note that by writing Korean ‘kaph’ here, I don’t mean ‘kaf’. What I mean is that there’s a stop on ‘p’ and it is followed by an aspiration.

2- Korean shifts a lot between Proto – Altaic ‘r’ and ‘l’.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote gok_toruk Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 16-Jun-2007 at 03:30
Proto – Altaic: muti
English: to complete; gather, together

Proto – Korean: mot
Middle Korean: mota
Modern Korean: modu

Proto – Turkic: büt, bit
Old Turkic: 1- büt (to accomplish, to end); 2- bÜtÜn (together; completely)
Modern Turkic: 1- büt, bit, püt, pit; 2- bütün, bütin, pütün, pütin

Notes: Korean ‘mota’ and ‘modu’ are derived from the verbal root moˋt- 'to gather, flock together'. Proto - Turkic ‘bütün’ 'all, whole' is a derivative from ‘büt-‘. Here, Turkic word is a good match for Tungus - Manchu (as partner for Korean) equivalent also : it is quite satisfactory both phonetically and semantically.

Edited by gok_toruk - 17-Jun-2007 at 02:41
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote gok_toruk Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 16-Jun-2007 at 03:36
Proto – Altaic: jiayna
English: to burn; ashes

Proto – Korean: chai
Middle Korean: chai
Modern Korean: cha

Proto – Turkic: yan, yan-tir
Old Turkic:
Modern Turkic: yan, jan, zhan, yantir, jandir, sandar,

Notes: Medial ‘y-’ accounts for loss of ‘-n-‘ in Korean.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote gok_toruk Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 16-Jun-2007 at 03:37
Proto – Altaic: kapa
English: bark, skin

Proto – Korean: kaph, kiph
Middle Korean: kaphir, kaphar, kipchir
Modern Korean: kipchil, kaphil, kiphil, kiptigi

Proto – Turkic: kap-uk
Old Turkic:
Modern Turkic: qabiq, qobuq, qap, qabi

Notes:
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote gok_toruk Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 16-Jun-2007 at 03:38
Proto – Altaic: boga
English: pregnant (of an animal)

Proto – Korean: pag, pai (belly)
Middle Korean: pai
Modern Korean: pa

Proto – Turkic: bogar
Old Turkic:
Modern Turkic: bogaz, buwaz, buos, poos, boos

Notes: The Korean word has been secondarily associated with ‘pai’ 'belly' under ‘peylo’.
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Proto – Altaic: koke
English: plenty

Proto – Korean: kih (big)
Middle Korean: khi
Modern Korean: khi

Proto – Turkic: kÖk (1- root 2-powerful)
Old Turkic:
Modern Turkic: kÖk

Notes: The meaning 'big' in Korean certainly derives from 'plentiful'. The match between Korean ‘khɨ-‘ and Japanese ‘kəkə-‘ appears quite satisfactory.

Edited by gok_toruk - 16-Jun-2007 at 04:04
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Proto – Altaic: kume, kiume
English: black; coal

Proto – Korean: kim (black)
Middle Korean: kim
Modern Korean: kim, kam

Proto – Turkic: kÖmÜr (coal)
Old Turkic: kÖmÜr
Modern Turkic: kÖmÜr, kÜmer, kumir

Notes: Modern length is a later change. This word is present only in Korean and Turkic and also in old Koguryo (of Japanese dialects) ‘kamul’'black'. Perhaps also Manchu
‘ʯumara-‘'to sully'. The comparison seems quite possible, although the scarcity of reflexes prevents a secure reconstruction of vocalism.

Edited by gok_toruk - 16-Jun-2007 at 04:02
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote gok_toruk Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 16-Jun-2007 at 03:43
Proto – Altaic: chayj
English: breast

Proto – Korean: chyech
Middle Korean: chyes
Modern Korean: chit, chich

Proto – Turkic: chichig
Old Turkic:
Modern Turkic: chichi, chizhiq

Notes: An onomatopaeic root.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote gok_toruk Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 16-Jun-2007 at 03:59
Proto – Altaic: deka
English: to burn

Proto – Korean: tha
Middle Korean: tha, thaio
Modern Korean: tha, thau

Proto – Turkic: yak
Old Turkic:
Modern Turkic: yaq, jaq, zhaq

Notes: Korean has a usual vowel reduction between a stop and a fricative.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote gok_toruk Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 16-Jun-2007 at 04:00
Proto – Altaic: tiupo
English: nail; hoof

Proto – Korean: toph
Middle Korean: thop
Modern Korean: son-thop

Proto – Turkic: tubna-k (hoof)
Old Turkic:
Modern Turkic: toynaq, toyaq, tuwaq, tuygaq, tunak, duyug

Notes:
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Gubook Janggoon Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 16-Jun-2007 at 17:57
Modern Korean words in Revised Romanization

(To) Gather:  Moi(da)
Ashes: Jae
Skin:  Pibu, Ggeopjil
Belly:  Bae
(To be) Big: Keu(da)
Black Color: Ggaman(saek)
Breast:  Gaseum (A common and slightly vulgar term used by children to refer to a woman's breasts is Jjijji, if that's what you were going for.)
(To) Burn: Ta(da)
(Finger) Nail/(Toe) Nail:  (Son)top, (Bal)top [There doesn't seem to be a word for simply a nail.]




Edited by Gubook Janggoon - 16-Jun-2007 at 17:58
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote gok_toruk Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 17-Jun-2007 at 02:32
Thanks Gubook Janggoon. I appreciate your help.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote gok_toruk Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 17-Jun-2007 at 02:37
Proto – Altaic: choki
English: incline, sink

Proto – Korean: chuk (1-to die 2- to kill = chuk-yo 3- to bow, incline 4- to squat)
Middle Korean: 1- chuk 3- chuskiri 4- chok-yom (killing)
Modern Korean: 1- chuk 2- chugi 3,4- chugiri

Proto – Turkic: chök (1- to kneel down 2- to sink 3- to sit)
Old Turkic: chök
Modern Turkic: chök, chük, shök, sügürüj

Notes: The original meaning must have been 'squat', 'kneel down' - whence 'incline, sink', and further metaphorical developments: 'lose hope', 'die'.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote gok_toruk Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 17-Jun-2007 at 02:38
Proto – Altaic: kang
English: dog

Proto – Korean: kang (1- dog 2- puppy)
Middle Korean: 1- kahi 2- kang-achi
Modern Korean: 1- ka 2- kangaji

Proto – Turkic: kang-chik (1- bith 2- female)
Old Turkic: qanchiq
Modern Turkic: qanchiq, qanjiq, qanshiq, qansiq, qangshi

Notes: The Korean form ’kahi’ points to a suffixed ‘ka-h-‘ (from ‘ka’ as a verb + -k-). Also Modern Korean ‘kin'uini 'a kind of dog’.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote gok_toruk Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 17-Jun-2007 at 02:39
Proto – Altaic: siari
English: earth, sand; marsh

Proto – Korean: har-k (earth)
Middle Korean: hark
Modern Korean: hik, hilk

Proto – Turkic: siar (marsh, dirt)
Old Turkic:
Modern Turkic: saz, sas, haz

Notes: Perhaps also Modern Korean ‘hɨri-‘ 'dirty' (from ‘hari’ with vowel assimilation).
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote gok_toruk Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 17-Jun-2007 at 02:42
Proto – Altaic: je, ja
English: to eat

Proto – Korean: cha
Middle Korean: cha-si
Modern Korean: chasi, chapsu

Proto – Turkic: ye
Old Turkic: ye
Modern Turkic: ye, iy, che, de, yie, si, sie, hie, chi, je, zhe, jeye, yi

Notes: Korean ‘chap-‘ equals to Тungus - Мanchu ‘je-p- and also to Proto - Japanese
‘da-pa-‘.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote gok_toruk Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 17-Jun-2007 at 02:43
Proto – Altaic: kiarme
English: fat

Proto – Korean: kirim
Middle Korean: kirim
Modern Korean: kirim

Proto – Turkic: kiari (inner fat)
Old Turkic:
Modern Turkic: qazi, qezi, qaha

Notes:
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote gok_toruk Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 17-Jun-2007 at 02:44
Proto – Altaic: pore
English: fire; to burn

Proto – Korean: pir
Middle Korean: pir
Modern Korean: pul

Proto – Turkic: ör-t
Old Turkic: ört (1- fire 2- to burn 3- steppe fire 4- to get burnt)
Modern Turkic: örte, örtet, birt

Notes: Turkic, like some other cases, has got rid of Proto – Altaic starting ‘p’.

Edited by gok_toruk - 17-Jun-2007 at 02:45
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote gok_toruk Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 17-Jun-2007 at 02:46
Proto – Altaic: nero
English: to fly; to rise

Proto – Korean: nar
Middle Korean: nar
Modern Korean: nal

Proto – Turkic: yar-man (to clime up)
Old Turkic: yarma, yarman
Modern Turkic: yarmash, yarpa, yarman, zharmas, charban

Notes: In Korean, also ‘nar-kai’ 'wing' (with change of tone), ‘narɨ-da’ 'to transport'. The Turkic and Japanese forms can be alternatively compared with Modern Korean ‘nir-‘ 'to stand up, rise'.
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