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Cham Resistance and the Malay-Islamic Regional Network



French missionary sources mention that during the thirty years prior to the fall of Champa to the Nguyen in 1693, there were many Malay scribes and missionaries in the court of Champa. Their main task was to propagate the Islam faith to the Chams. It is likely that these Malays became involved in the Cham struggle against Vietnamese encroachment into Cham territories, resulting in several anti-Vietnamese movements. In this regard, the Chams clearly invoked their Malay-Islamic identity in trying to enlist help against the Vietnamese.

Between the establishment of Nguyen rule over Champa in 1693 and the final annihilation of the Cham political entity in 1835, the Chams made many attempts to break away from Vietnamese rule. These normally took the form of armed revolts. Among the major Cham revolts were those of 1693, 1728, 1796, and 1832-34.

In the case of the 1728 revolt, Po Dharma suggests that the main cause was Cham dissatisfaction with their socio-economic situation. It was through these revolts that the Chams began to rekindle their ties with the Malays and seek their help in resisting the Vietnamese.

The Cham resistance of 1796 control was led by a Malay nobleman named Tuan Phaow. He is believed to have been from Kelantan, as he told his Cham followers that he was from Mecca (Kelantan). His followers consisted mainly of Chams from Binh Thuan and from Cambodia (giving rise to the suggestion that he was from Cambodia), as well as Malays. Tuan Phaow’s resistance had a religious dimension (Jihad). In order to legitimize his actions, Tuan Phaow claimed to have been sent by God to help the Chams resist the Vietnamese. Tuan Phaow’s forces were up against Nguyen Anh (Gia Long, founder of the Nguyen Dynasty). Despite putting up strong resistance for almost two years, Tuan Phaow’s forces were cornered and defeated by the Nguyen army working in league with a pro-Nguyen Cham ruler. Tuan Phaow reportedly escaped to Mecca. This resistance movement was the first clear indication that Cham resistance had a strong Malay connection. It also shows the Islamic religious dimension becoming a common rallying call.


The 1832 Cham revolt took place as a reaction against Emperor Ming Mang’s harsh oppression of the Chams in reprisal for their support of Ming Mang’s viceroys in Gia Dinh in the south. Viceroy Le Van Duyet had refused to accept orders from Hue since 1728. After Duyet passed away in 1832, he was succeeded by his adopted son, Le Van Khoi, who continued to resist the Nguyen court. Ming Mang’s army carried out a series of oppressive activities against the Cham population in Binh Thuan to punish them for supporting Le Van Duyet and Le Van Khoi. In this conflict, the Malay-Cham connection is again evident in the form of Malay leadership. The Chams were led by a Islamic clergyman from Cambodia named Katip (Khatib) Sumat, who had spent many years studying Islam in Kelantan. Apparently, upon hearing that Champa was under attack by the Nguyen army, Katip Sumat immediately returned. Arriving in Binh Thuan in 1833, he was accompanied by a large force of Malays and Chams from Kelantan. Katip Sumat led the Chams in a series of guerrilla attacks against the Nguyen army. Apart from fighting for the survival of Champa, Katip Sumat invoked the Islamic bond in rallying Malay and Cham support for the cause. In some ways this turned the Cham struggle against the Vietnamese into a form of religious war. The Katip Sumat-led resistance, however, was defeated by the Nguyen army.

Katip Sumat’s Malay contingent did not consist only of volunteers. It is believed that they were sent by Sultan Muhamad I of Kelantan (1800-1837), who raised an army to accompany Katip Sumat to Champa. According to Po Dharma, the underlying factors were the Sultan’s acknowledgement that he and the ruler of Champa shared the same lineage (descendants of Po Rome) and of the need to preserve Islamic unity.


The defeat of Katip Sumat and other Malay-Cham resistance against the Vietnamese in 1835 marked the end of Champa as an independent or autonomous political entity. However, resistance up to that time demonstrates that the Malay-Cham relationship was very old and based first on their common Malay identity and, increasingly since the sixteenth century, on their common adherence to the Islamic faith. Malay-Cham relations continued after 1835 as well, mainly culturally and religiously.



The Twentieth-Century Legacy of Cham-Malay Linkages


The final annihilation of Champa by the Vietnamese Emperor’s troops in 1835 effectively marked the end of almost two millennia of continuous Champa existence. Since then, the last strips of Champa territories, known as Panduranga to the Chams, were fully incorporated into the Vietnamese realm. The end of the Cham royal house also effectively ended the little protection afforded the Cham population between 1693 and 1835. Unlike the previous arrangement, wherein the Chams were subjects of the Cham rulers and governed by Cham regulations and laws, the post-1835 Cham population came under direct Vietnamese rule. The provincial administrators were the highest authority, and Cham notables served as middlemen between the population and the Vietnamese rulers.

With the end of 1835 revolt, Cham links with the external world were also considerably reduced. This situation persisted until the second half of the nineteenth century, when Binh Thuan and five other provinces in the south were ceded to the French by the Nguyen at the end of the Franco-Vietnamese War of 1858-1861. The advent of French colonization of Vietnam actually ended Nguyen attempts to wipe out the Chams. The breakdown of the Nguyen administrative apparatus in the face of greater French control over the provinces saw the rekindling of ancient Cham aspirations to exert Cham identity. Efforts to re-establish traditional external linkages, including those with the Malay states, played an important role. This is evident from reports of religious teachers (ulama) from the Malay Peninsula who frequented the former land of Champa during the final years of the nineteenth century and the early decades of the twentieth. Like their predecessors, many of these visitors stayed for long durations in the former Champa as well as among the Chams in Cambodia. They married local Cham women and had children. Several of these families remained in the former Champa and in Cambodia, cementing relationships established in earlier centuries.

During the twentieth century, exchanges of visits between the Chams and the Malays became more frequent and were often family visits, though the religious factor remained strong. Until recently, Malay missionaries visited southern Vietnam to spread the Islamic faith among the Chams. In the annual international Quranic recital competition in Kuala Lumpur, representatives from Vietnam (Binh Thuan) continued to take part until the escalated Vietnam War made it impossible for them to attend.

From the end of the Vietnam War in 1975 until 1993, the Malaysian government took in no fewer than 7,000 Muslim Cham refugees from Vietnam and Cambodia, making them the only group out of the tens of thousands of Vietnamese refugees who passed through Malaysia to be accepted and settled. Though the official explanation was based on humanitarian considerations, the truth lies with Malay-Cham connections based on common Malay and Islamic identity.



----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------                                                                                           

Danny Wong Tze Ken is associate professor in the Department of History, University of Malaya. This project was funded by a SEASREP-Toyota Foundation Regional Collaboration Grant.



Sources : http://kyotoreview.cseas.kyoto-u ... e4/article_353.html
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote arafatc Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 10-Feb-2009 at 00:06
TranHungDao, are you vietnamese? of course you are. you history perspective sounds belong to viet history

 

You can not deceive cham history. I am cham people where my homeland was located at SEA and the country was vanished from the world map by Vietnamese. Now we are cham are scattered all over the world.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote TranHungDao Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 11-Feb-2009 at 13:06
Originally posted by arafatc arafatc wrote:

TranHungDao, are you vietnamese? of course you are. you history perspective sounds belong to viet history


LOL, have you not noticed that I go out of my way to cite non-Vietnamese sources?

With all due respect, you remind me of Cambodians who blame Vietnamese for that truly tragic "killing fields" episode of Cambodian history, even though neutral historians say otherwise.  BTW, you do know that the Khmer Rouge are NOT Vietnamese, right?


Edit:  And just so you know, I strongly, strongly suspect that the modern Vietnamese, particularly in the central and southern regions of Vietnam are probably 1/2 Cham and/or Khmer.  One can tell simply by the rather discernible phenotypical difference from northern Vietnamese.  That is, the Vietnamese who conquered the central (Cham) and southern (Khmer) regions of modern day Vietnam did not kill or expell everyone as popular myth has it, but rather absorbed the local defeated populations.  Further, the Khmer population in southern Vietnam has always been relatively small to begin with.  Even now, the population of Cambodia is but a tiny fraction of that of Vietnam.  I've even heard, though have never independently verified it thru the historical record, that the Chinese immigrant population in Vietnam has always rivalled that of the Khmer population since the southern region was annexed by the Vietnamese.


Edited by TranHungDao - 11-Feb-2009 at 13:18
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote TranHungDao Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 12-Feb-2009 at 02:31
Originally posted by arafatc arafatc wrote:

The issue was not debated because from our perspective view, the war became worst when the viet created a party named Khmer Rouge and used all them as to riot the Cambodian country. Look at Britannica.com who creates that party!. It is like a game, your people start the game and end it. Then you want a credit.? Shame on u. Forgot one thing.. I am Cham people from Cambodia.


arafatc,

Perhaps you should widen your perspective then: 

0.  Genetic (mtDNA) studies suggest the (proto) Vietnamese have been in  the Red River delta (aka northern Vietnam) longer than pretty much everyone else in both NE and SE Asia.  This is a theory by some Chinese as well as a few Western researchers, btw.  Ultimately, the Vietnamese are not "immigrants", illegal or otherwise, contrary to long held Vietnamese myths concerning their Yueh origins.  Thus, at the very least, we have a fundamental right to be in northern Vietnam, no?  (I'll get to the central and southern parts below...)  In contrast, the Hmong, Lao, Thai are all originally from China.

1.  For millenia, the Viet, Thai, Lao, Hmong, Khmer, Cham, Montagnard, etc., fought amongst each other.  On top of this, Vietnam was periodically invaded by China to the immediate North.  Indeed, the Vietnamese were the gate keepers that kept the mighty Chinese out of mainland S.E. Asia.

2.  This all took place during the age of empires, if you will, where "everything goes":  conquest, plunder, annexation, and even slavery and genocide.  Let's remember that the Chams, according to neutral/non-Vietnamese sources, were particularly reliant upon plunder and slavery more than anyone else.  The prosperous Vietnamese, in particular, were among their favorite victims for 1500 years--continuously.  The Chams certainly out-Vietnamesed those barbaric Vietnamese in barbarism.  Slavery is barbaric, no?

3.  Self-defense is a fundamental right of a people.  No?  Don't expect people to always turn the other cheek.  A woman who is being raped has every right to kill her assailant, especially if he won't stop.

4.  A state has the right to defend itself from internal threats.  No?  After Champa was annexed, the Chams periodically revolted, with the outside help from the Malays, no less (see HangPC2's posts citing Malaysian sources above).   Naturally, this means such internal threats are also external threats.

5.  Annexation was the norm during the age of empires.  No?  Vietnam annexed the central and southern regions during the age of empires, before the UN, before the League of Nations, before the Declaration of the Rights of Man.  Heck, all modern countries, their borders and whatnot, were formed by their past rulers' hegemonistic exploits.  But everyone knows this.  Ermm

Chams, Khmers, or anyone else for that matter, can't apply modern concepts of humanism, liberation theory or what have you to those times so self-righteously, without applying it to the their own past brutality.  All empires, be it Cham, Khmer, Viet, Chinese, Arab, Mongol, Roman, Viking, etc., formed because one day, a rather ambitious dude said:  "Hey, let's go out there and crush the competition!" Viking

Of course, one can apply such enlightened logic to the self-genocide that occurred in those "killing fields", for they took place recently.

Vietnam annexed Champa (central Vietnam) out of self-defense, i.e. 1500 years of continuous Cham plunder-based economy.  Vietnam then eliminated the self-rule of the Chams when they revolted.  Harsh conditions or not, states have the right to put down revolts.  BTW, there were numerous Vietnamese revolts against the Vietnamese court too.  And those were either all defeated or ended with a new court taking over.

Vietnam did indeed annexed southern Vietnam out of pure hegemony.  But again, it was during the age of empires.  And mind you, the Thai have taken far more land from that rather vast old Khmer Empire than the Vietnamse ever did.

And please don't tell me had the shoe been on the other foot, both the hapless, hopeless & helpless Khmers and Chams would have freely returned the lands they had taken by force throughout the centuries.  Disapprove

No way.  There simply wouldn't have been Khmer empire nor a Cham empire in the first place, if both respective peoples were so swell in their pro-human rights dispositions. Historically, Champa was THE major hub of slavery in Asia, was it not?

Let me be clear here:  I'm not justifying age old atrocities and hegemony, just explaining them in their context.

6.  Concerning the Vietnamese creation of the Khmer Rouge, as you put it:  You need to be reminded that in the modern age, it was none other than the Khmer ruler who invited the French into Indochina.  Vietnam alone lost millions upon millions of people during French colonial rule.  There were individual famines which literally wiped out upwards of 2 MILLION Vietnamese, or 8-15% of the population during the respective time periods in which they occurred.  I'm sure Cambodia and Laos suffered proportionately as well.  Yes, both the Vietnamese communists, as well as their comrades the Chinese communists, did  encourage the formation of the Khmer Rouge.  Indeed, Pol Pot was a member of the Vietminh. 

However, you need to remember that the Chinese were fully in charge when Pol Pot when went rather insane in the membrane, if you will.  Cambodia was a satellite of the PRC when it attacked Vietnam.  The PRC has a habit of cultivating pretty crazy satelites, Khmer Rouge Cambodia being one and Kim Jon Il N. Korea being the other.  Another such one is Darfur.  China was a selfishly behaved as key ally of N. Vietnam right up to 1975, only to turn around and attack Vietnam in 1979.  Confused   Go figure... LOL

It was none other than Cambodia who repeatedly attacked Vietnam first, resulting in the Vietnamese invasion of Cambodia and the ouster of the KR in 1978.  Entire border villages of civilians/peasants including women, children were massacred by the KR.  Please don't try to convince me the Vietnamese were telling the Khmer Rouge to do this.  Initially, the Hanoi tried to close its eyes the numerous reports of Vietnamese being massacred within Cambodia when the their ally the KR took over.  Then, they even tried to ignore the initial border raids by the KR into Vietnam which resulted in numerous civilian atrocities.  You simply cannot expect a country to tolerate never ending attacks into its borders, especially when KR leaders literally uttered breathtaking nonsense like "Two million Khmers can kill 50 million Vietnamese!  Each man will kill 25 Vietnamese!"  Yeah!  Tongue

Other things to consider are:  Vietnam lost a lot of land, which it had conquered from both Laos and Cambodia, when the French colonial administrators redrew the respective maps of each country according to their whims.   In little Quang Tri province alone, 4 times more bombs were dropped by the US military than was dropped on all of the European theatre (Nazi Germany, Nazi controlled Europe) during WWII.  Loas was even more bombed than Vietnam, believe it or not.  Using your own self-serving logic, the Vietnamese and the Laotians then have the Cambodians to thank for this, for if the French were never invited into Indochina, Vietnam included, then the Americans never would have come in either.  The course of Vietnamese history would have been drastically different:  Continuous war and/or occupation from 1820-1990.  Dead

1820-1954:  French colonial rule, where resulting in at least 5 million deaths.
1940-1945:  Franco-Japanese colonial rule.
1955-1975:  US involvement, 2-4 million dead depending on the estimate.
1979-1990:  Hot and cold war with China, much of which involved Cambodia and Laos as pawns of both.

Or, let's just call Vietnam for what it was during this 170 years period:  Hell on Earth.  Tongue

The Vietnamese also spent 10 years at the cost of 20,000 soldiers and vital resources it simply should not have spared fighting the KR insurgents, supported by the US, China, Thailand and Prince Sihanouk, who was once their arch enemy.  That is, they were fighting the very people who were killing Khmers.  (And just so you know, the losses on the Vietnamese side were due largely to land mines and tropical diseases.)

BTW, did the Vietnamese train and/or brainwash Sihanouk into supporting one of the worse genocidal regimes ever? Disapprove

-----------------------------------------

With all due respect, you're logic cuts both ways.  And frankly, you've hurt yourself pretty badly with it, not unlike how the twisted and contorted logic of the KR invariably resulted in the hellish self-genocide which took place in those infamous "killing fields".



Edited by TranHungDao - 12-Feb-2009 at 02:35
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote TranHungDao Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 12-Feb-2009 at 02:46
Originally posted by pebbles pebbles wrote:

Originally posted by arafatc arafatc wrote:

 The Vietnamese people took over Cham country through war.Many of them were killed by Minh Meng King (Vietnamese king )
 
 
Nope ... Tongue
 
Most Cham assimilated into modern day Vietnamese " Kinh " ethnicity.
 
Authors Peter and Sanda Simms who wrote, "Champa had been proved to be an extremely powerful and civilized nation."

There is a Vietnamese scholar named Dr. Thanh Liem Vo of Australia who wrote about the Cham people as follows:

"…the vast majority of the population in Central Vietnam are from Cham descendants but assimilated into Viet culture wholely." Listen to their accent!!

Mr Pham Van Dong ( a Cham descendant ) was Prime Minister of North Vietnam for 45 years.Former S Vietnam president Mr Nguyen Van Thieu ( also a Cham descendant).
 
They both did nothing for Chams...No one in South and Central Vietnam can say for sure they have no Cham or Cambodian blood.


Thanks for the citation.  I kinda knew this instinctively.  In fact, I was certain of it despite never reading about it.

-----------------------------------

At any rate, arafatc, have a nice life, b'coz I'm bored with this thread.  I just had to respond because I see a lot of anti-Vietnamese spiel on the fancy-schmanchy internets all the time by Khmers.  Their logic is pretty much without exception highly convoluted and/or breathtakingly hypocritical.  Normally I don't bother to respond, but I felt compelled this time, since you threw down the gauntlet.

Vietnam can definitely be criticized for its current domination of both Laos and Cambodia, but the criticism needs to be fact-based, taken in context,  and non-hypocritical.

Later bro.  Wink
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote samsetza Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 02-Mar-2009 at 10:16
Hi TranHungDao,
your nick name is taken from a name of a hero VietNamese General in Tran Dynasty, but you have made so many rubbish statements and try to distort history itself. Could you tell me when is Vietnamese army 've got a courage to invade China territory? If you read the whole Vietnamese history. Vietnam army just resistant and and expel China from Vietnam land. And because of pressure from china in the North Vietnam try to survise by expand land to the South, i.e invaded Champa Kingdom. And do you know why Vietnam can beat Champa at that time. i think you understand well the Huyen Tran princess & Che Man King marriage, in which Tran Nhan Tong purposely settle an marriage for political purpose.

About Polpot genocide ended by Vietnam, after that why Vietnam troop take such over 10 years to withdraw if vietnam did not intent govern Indochina. your knowledge is like a flog in the well. Don't forget all your excuses for leveling Champa will be used by China to eleminate Vietnam in the future. Hoang Sa & Truong Sa is a proper examples.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote lirelou Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 26-Mar-2009 at 13:59
Some very interesting comments, mostly cuts and pastes, on Champa on this thread. And, one expects the usual flame wars. Just back from several months in Vietnam, where I spent a few weeks teaching English in Dalat.

While there, I visited the Lam Dong provincial history (Bao Tang Lam Dong) museum, which is actually well worth the 4,000 (25 cents) dong entry fee. Most provincial "museums" in Vietnam have nothing to do with history, and merely regurgitate the standard "Uncle Ho as Venerable Saint" fare. The Lam Dong museum has its Uncle Ho section, but it also has displays well worth seeing. First, there are good exhibits on the local indigenous peoples (principally Koho and Ma), even to the point of showing how they really dressed. Loincloths are shown with the back looking like sumo wrestler garb, and the flaps worn to the front and front side. Photographs and mannequins show (tastefully) that the women often went topless. There are tribal musical instruments, pottery, baskets, and weavings.  And, up at the edge of the museum compound, they have taken the trouble to construct small Koho and Ma houses. Far superior to anything in the Buon Me Thuot and Pleiku museums. Second, they have included some pieces from the Hindu temples unearthed at Cat Tien, to include its stone lintel, a ganesh figure, and a model of the linga-yoni stone, as well as a few pieces of gold offerings. The site is dated as 700 AD, and the museum states that whether it is a Cham site, or earlier Oc Eo site, is still being determined. Third, there is a collection of Chinese and other pottery that evidence the areas link's to both the Cham and Nguyen Lord periods. The underlying message is that the peoples of Lam Dong had links, and interaction with, the Oc Eo cultures, and the Cham at Panduranga and Kauthara.

In Dalat city, I found a bookstore that had a book on Cham cultural ceremonies entitled "Le Hoi Chuyen Mua Cua Nguoi Cham" by a "PGS. TS.  Ngo Van Doanh". Professor Doanh has photographs and descriptions of Cham ceremonies both in Vietnam, and other sites of the Cham disapora. That the Vietnamese even published such a book is a positive sign. Though I doubt that many Kinh have purchased it, it is a step forward.

Finally, on a trip to a local tourist site, Doi Mong Mo, with my wife's (Vietnamese) family, we ran into a group of about 20 Cham who had come up from Phan Rang. Of interest, they were a family group that included both Cham Bani (muslim) and Cham Balamboom (Hindu). The older women had headscarves, but the younger moslem women were wearing hair nets which made them look quite attractive. None of the women were obviously secluded, as all showed their faces. One of the older men was a veteran of the 4th Company of the 55th (Nha Trang) MIKE Force, a parachute assault unit of the Vietnam War that served with the 5th Special Forces Group. I remembered the company, as all its members wore a green neck scarf with the sword and Arabic writing as depicted on the Saudi flag. My own unit, which included Raglai tribesmen, had been based in nearby Dien Khanh. The point here is that these Cham had the money and time to come up to Dalat as tourists. There was a Koho band which sang a combination of Vietnamese and Koho songs, and at one point all the male Cham in the audience stood up and began singing and cheering. Then, several of their young men and women took the microphone to deliver a song in Cham.

This brings me to my final point. Having grown up in both French and Spanish speaking regions of the U.S., I long ago noted that those who best learned English ended up with better jobs and careers. Those who did not, remained at the economic fringes of U.S. society. It's nice to maintain positive cultural values, but cultures, like people themselves, develop and either move on or fade away. The Rhade longhouses of my earlier Vietnam experience have disappeared, outlawed after 1975 to break up the large matriarchal families and encourage nuclear families, thereby undercutting the importance of the clans. FULRO, once with strong support in the Highlands, has been rendered irrevelant by a wave of Kinh immigrants who have moved in to exploit the land adjacent to roads and highways, making Vietnam the world's #2 coffee producer in the process.  (Buon Ma Thuot, long the Rhade tribal capital, is now a city of 300,000, the great majority Vietnamese.) For the Highland Cham, and this historically included both Malayo-Polynesian as well as some Mon-Khmer peoples, their best course of action is to learn Vietnamese well, and be able to function within Vietnamese society. That will, of course, lead to eventual absorbtion, the same process begun by the Nguyen lords, but by the same token, they will add to making the Vietnamese more "Vietnamese". Some posters have already noted the differences between Bac, Trung, and Nam Viet, with many Trung showing signs of partial Cham ancestry. Genetic testing can now confirm such. Development is changing Vietnam. The process may be slower than some would desire, and anti-Dega and anti-Khmer prejudice is common in some rural areas. I have a strong distaste for the current government, but for all their faults, which are legion, they do push a vision of Vietnam that sees all of Vietnam's "ethnic minorities" as Vietnamese. And, they have made serious efforts to bring modern amenities to remote tribal areas. As Vietnam's economy continues to grow, it is in the best interests of the so-called "ethnic minorities" to be a part of that growth. At the same time, the government would do better to drop the "ethnic minority" term altogether, and adopt the term "Dega". There is no reason that a modern Vietnam cannot adopt a few non-Kinh terms into its language. Likewise, while books on the Cham or tribal customary law (such as Ngo Duc Thinh's "Nhung Mang Mau Van Hoa Tay Nguyen") are a step forward, one wonders why there are no Viet-Ede, Viet-Jarai, Viet-Koho, or Viet-Cham dictionaries in print. Such -Englisn and -French dictionaries or word lists are occasionally printed in Thailand!  But asking for one in any book store in Pleiku, Buon Me thout, or Dalat still elicits less than polite responses. 
Phong trần mài một lưỡi gươm, Những loài giá áo túi cơm sá gì
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Sarmat Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 27-Mar-2009 at 17:52
Dear lirelou,
 
Welcome to AE and thanks for your very interesting input.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote HangPC2 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 13-Apr-2009 at 05:28
Kelantanese







Cham



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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote cahaya Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 13-Apr-2009 at 05:41
Most of the men in east coast Malaysia (Kelantan & Terengganu) use to tie the cloth around their heads like that.. and usually they are fishermen not working in Paddy field like the Cham.
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