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    Posted: 23-Dec-2007 at 13:04
most the time we are  to hear about azeris of iran probably because they are the majory turkic group in iran but have also another turkic groups in iran such the khalaj turks...who are the khalaj turks?where they live in iran? what are their population? i realy interesting about they if anybody can help me ...thanksSmile
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Afghanan Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 24-Dec-2007 at 17:55
This is a good link in regards to the Khalaj of Afghanistan:
 


Edited by Afghanan - 24-Dec-2007 at 17:57
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote ORHAN11 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 25-Dec-2007 at 08:26

thanks about the information

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote ORHAN11 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 26-Dec-2007 at 20:58

what about the khalaj turks today? they are shiite or sunni?

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Afghanan Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 27-Dec-2007 at 17:54

The Khalaj that are still Khalaj Turks (and their related tribe the Qashqai)  are Shiites in Iran.  The Khalaj in Afghanistan are known as the Khalji (aka Ghilzai), are all Sunni and make up the majority of Pashtuns in Afghanistan.

 
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Afghanan Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 27-Dec-2007 at 18:11

Here is some more information on the Khalaj in Afghanistan from Clifford Edmond Bosworth:

"...Turkish ethnic elements had been established in eastern Afghanistan for some time, perhaps for several centuries.  Marquart visualized the whole of this region as once held by first the Kushans and then by the Ephthalites or White Huns, the Sveta Huna of the Hindus and the Haital (more correctly, *Habtal) or Hayatila of the Arab historians.  He believed that it retained in the early Islamic period a strong Ephtalite ethnic flavour, and connected the very name 'Zabulistan' with an Epthalite tribe, the Jauvla, Jabula, or Jabuvlah, known from northern Indian inscriptions.  The Oghuz and Khalaj Turks, who in early Islamic period nomadised from Tukharistan and Badakhshan in the north down to Bust, would thus be the remnants of Turkish peoples brought from north of the Oxus as part of the Ephtalite confederation that then left behind in eastern Afghanistan.  Marquart's theory is by no means certain, although Frye and Sayili have recently followed him.  Yet there is no doubt about their existence there in pre-Ghaznavid times.  At the opening of the 9th century, the Kabulshah had to send an annual tribute of 2000 Oghuz slaves to the governor of Khurasan, 'Abdallah b. Tahir.  In the Caliphate of al-Mansur Ma'n b. Za'ida as-Sulami was governor of Sistan, and he received from the Zunbil at his winter capital of ar-Rukhaj [Arochosia/Kandahar] the customary tribute of camels and Turkish felt tents and slaves.  The Zunbil is said to have had a bodyguard from the local Turks, at-Turk-ad-Dawari.  Istakhri says that up to his own time, the Khalaj of Zamindawar had kept their Turkish customs, external appearance and language.  The Khalaj survived as an ethnic unity fo rseveral more centuries;  they were subdued by Sebuktigin and recruited into his army ; they formed an important element in the armies of the Ghaznavids, Ghurids and Khwarizmshahs; they were the progenitors of the Lodi Kings of Delhi (1451-1526); and their anme probably survives today in that of the modern Ghilzai Afghans.  Some form of authority was excercised over these nomads in the 10th century by the Samanid central government; the youthful Sebuktigin was once sent by his master Alptigin in a military force to collect the customary taxes from the Khalaj and Turkmens." - C.E. Bosworth

Source:

Ghaznavids: Part 1: The Empire under Mahmud Section 2: The establishment of Sebuktigin in Ghazna: pg. 271-272.
 
-
 
Maybe somebody else can give more information on the Khalaj in Iran.


Edited by Afghanan - 27-Dec-2007 at 18:13
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote DayI Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 28-Dec-2007 at 20:42
Originally posted by Afghanan Afghanan wrote:

The Khalaj that are still Khalaj Turks (and their related tribe the Qashqai)  are Shiites in Iran.  The Khalaj in Afghanistan are known as the Khalji (aka Ghilzai), are all Sunni and make up the majority of Pashtuns in Afghanistan.

 


the last sentence seems interesting if its correct.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote ORHAN11 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 30-Dec-2007 at 17:00
Originally posted by Afghanan Afghanan wrote:

The Khalaj that are still Khalaj Turks (and their related tribe the Qashqai)  are Shiites in Iran.  The Khalaj in Afghanistan are known as the Khalji (aka Ghilzai), are all Sunni and make up the majority of Pashtuns in Afghanistan.

 
 
wow i dident knoe that',thanks about the information brotherSmile
 
but the pashtuns speak persian language no?
 
are the pashtun feel himself as a turks or related to turks? what are their relationsheep with turkic group in afghanistan such turkmens,uzbeks...?
 
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Afghanan Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 30-Dec-2007 at 17:48
Pashtuns speak an "Iranian language - Pashto/Pakhto.  Pashtuns organize themselves into Tribes.  They are the largest Patriarchal tribal society in the world.  The biggest Khalji tribes in Afghanistan are the Suleimonkhel , Khaarot, Ahmadzai, and Ghilzai (corruption of Khalji).
 
The Ghilzai have a story that relates them to Turks (If the Ghorids were Turkics).   The story paints Shah Husain (the father) to be a Ghorid and the daughter, an Afghan (Bibi Mato) to have had a son out of wedlock, who they called Ghilzai.  In my opinion, there is not much validity in this story other than that the Ghorids (whose Origins were Iranic and slightly Turkic) intermingled and amalgamated themselves on Afghans, who were their neighbors. 
 
In fact, when the province of Ghor was captured by Muslims, the king at the throne at that time in Ghor had the last name of Suri.  Which is the same last name of a famous Afghan - Sher Shah Suri, who was a Khalji.  To me, that shows evidence of amalgamation between the Ghorids and Khalji Pashtuns.
 
There is many folk stories that relate certain tribes to Noah, some to Jewish, and others to Alexander the Great.  Personally, I don't believe in any of these lineages because many history books can attest that Afghanistan is a crossing point for many people.  If there was any Macedonian, or Semitic ancestry, it is minimal and soon swept over by invading Tocharians and Scythians, Huns, Turks, and Mongols.
 
As for Turkic elements, Raverty theorized that some tribes in Eastern Afghanistan are descendants of Turkic tribes.  During the last days of the Ghaznavaids, Turkics settled in the neighborhood of Ghazni, The Kurram Valley, and Gardez, and for a short time, they controlled Ghazni after it was burned to the ground by the Ghorids.  The tribes mentioned by Raverty are:  Turis, Mangals, Muqbils, Jajis, and Khagiani of Ningrahar. (Pg. 124, The Pathans by Sir Olaf Caroe). (Caroe himself disagreed).
 
Most of my research and many books that I have read, theorize they are most likely Iranics.  Many Turkic tribes that migrated to Afghanistan or lived in Afghanistan may have had Turkic culture , but not necessarily a Turkic language.  Pashtuns in fact speak an Iranic language.  and many scholars believe the Khalaj to be descendants of the Iranics. 


Edited by Afghanan - 30-Dec-2007 at 17:52
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Afghanan Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 30-Dec-2007 at 17:56
As for their relations today with Turkics, Afghan Kings made alliances with Uzbeks in Afghanistan, and they mixed with the Uzbeks in their provinces, which allowed Afghanistan to form completely under the reign of Emir Abdur Rahman Khan.  In fact Uzbeks lived in Kandahar, Wardak province, and in Kabul and Jalalabad.  
 
The Aimaq nomads clashed with Pashtun nomads for land and grazing rights, and the civil war has severed ties with Pashtuns and Uzbeks completely.  Pashtuns and Uzbeks today are bitter enemies, but when they are not fighting each other they are fighting their common rivals, the Tajiks.


Edited by Afghanan - 30-Dec-2007 at 17:59
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Afghanan Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 30-Dec-2007 at 18:01
Originally posted by DayI DayI wrote:

Originally posted by Afghanan Afghanan wrote:

The Khalaj that are still Khalaj Turks (and their related tribe the Qashqai)  are Shiites in Iran.  The Khalaj in Afghanistan are known as the Khalji (aka Ghilzai), are all Sunni and make up the majority of Pashtuns in Afghanistan.

 


the last sentence seems interesting if its correct.
 
 
This link here gives more information on how historical documents relate the two.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote DayI Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 03-Jan-2008 at 13:05
Thank you Afghanan for the link and information you gave.
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Anytime.
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Originally posted by Afghanan Afghanan wrote:

This is a good link in regards to the Khalaj of Afghanistan:
 
 
Can you paste the article here please? I can't open this page.
 
I'm Kharchin Mongol from Inner Mongolia, Many scholars believe that one of core ethnic origins of the Kharchins was the Khalaj Turks in ancient Khoransan area, who were defeated and forced to migrate to Mongolia by Tolui, the youngest son of Chinggis Khan.
 
 
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Afghanan Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 12-May-2008 at 01:23

The Khalaj West of the Oxus

V. Minorsky

Excerpts from "The Turkish Dialect of the Khalaj", Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies, University of London, Vol 10, No 2, pp 417-437

Muslim authors agree that the Khalaj are one of the earliest tribes to have crossed the Oxus. In addition to I. Khurdadhbih whom we have quoted above, Istakhri (circa AD 930) [1] says: �The Khalaj are a class of Turks who in the days of the old (fi qadim al-ayyam) came to the country stretching between India and the districts of Sijistan, behind Ghur. They are cattle breeders of Turkish appearance (khilaq), dress, and language.� Mas�udi, Muruj (AD 943), iii, 254, speaks of the Turkish tribes �Ghuz and خرلج living towards Gharsh (= Gharchistan) and Bust in (the region) adjoining Sijistan�. Contrary to Marquart, Eranshahr, 251, I think that خرلج  must be read here *Kharlukh, and on the other hand, under Ghuz the author may mean the Khalaj, for, as we now know from Kashghari, the Khalaj were considered as the two �lost tribes� of the Ghuzz. [2]

If Istakhri and Mas�udi (?) place the Khalaj on the middle course of the Helmand, the compilator of the Hudud al-Alam (AD 982), f. 22b quotes the Khalaj in the region of Ghaznin and the adjoining districts. He speaks of their wealth in sheep and describes their habit of wandering along pasture-lands. He adds that the same tribe is numerous in �Balkh, Tukharistan, Bust and Guzganan�. In fact the name is misspelt in the MS. as خلخ and it is very possible that the author has mixed together the Khallukh خلخ and Khalaj خلج. In Tukharistan and (?) Balkh he most probably has in view the former tribe, and in Ghaznin, Bust, and Guzganan the latter.

The Saffarids were the first Muslim dynasty to penetrate into Central Afghanistan. According to Ibn al-Athir, vii, 171, [3] Ya�qub conquered (AD. 868) �the Khalaj, Zabul and other (lands) but I do not know the year in which it happened.

Mahmud of Ghazni
 
The Ghaznavids, from the outset of their activity, had to deal with the Khalaj. Nizam al-mulk [4] reports an episode of Sabuktagin�s early career when he was sent by his master Alaptagin (d. 352/963) to collect taxes from �the Khalaj and Turkmans�, which he tried to do by peaceful means. In 385/995 Sabuktagin being in Herat, sent summons to the rulers of Sistan and Guzganan as well as to the *Khalaj Turks. [5]

Utbi, in his history (written circa 411/1020) refers to the Khalaj several times: i, 55, he announces his intention to narrate Mahmud�s victories �in India, as well as among the Turks and Khalaj�; i, 88, (Persian translation, 43, very free), he reports that after Mahmud�s expedition against India, �the Afghans and Khalaj submitted to him�; ii, 78 (Pers. Transl, 294): when Ilak Khan took up a menacing attitude Mahmud arrived in Ghazna and summoned �the Khalaj Turks, ever on their horses, [6] manly son of swords�� Equally, during the inroad of Qadir Khan to Tukharistan. Mahmud rushed to Balkh �with his Turkish, Indian, Khalaj, Afghan, and Ghazna troops��

The fact that the Khalaj were associated in Mahmud�s victories may account for their subsequent ambitions, Already under the weak Sultan Mas�ud, they became restive. On 19 Muharram 432/1040, Mas�ud had to send an expedition from Ghazni in order to obtain the submission or punishment of the Khalaj who, during his absence, had committed some transgressions (fisad), Abul Fazal Bayhaqi, ed. Morley, 826, 830 [where خلج is mis-spelt as بلخ]

Najib Bakrans geography Jahan-nama, written (circa AD, 1200-1220) on the eve of the Mongol invasion, contains a particularly interesting paragraph on the changes which the originally Turkish tribe was undergoing: �The Khalaj are a tribe of Turks who from the Khallukh limits migrated to Zabulistan. Among the districts of Ghazni there is a steppe where they reside. Then, on account of the heat of the air, their complexion has changed and tended towards blackness; the tongue (zuban) too has undergone alterations and become a different language (lughat).�

In the earliest mention of Juvaynis Jahan-Gusha, i, 132, �the Khalaj of Ghazni� are curiously associated with �Afghans�; a levy (hashar) of these two tribes mobilized by the Mongols took part in the punitive expedition to the region of Merv, ii 194-8: after the disruption of the kingdom of Sultan Muhammad Khwarazim Shah, a �numberless� mass of �Khalaj and Turkmans from Khorasan and Transoxiana� gathered at Purshavur (Peshawar) under the leadership of Saif al-Din Ighraq (var. *Yighraq) [7] � Malik, who according to a gloss was himself a Khalaj. This army defeated the petty king of Ghazna, Radhi al-Mulk, but when Jalaladin Khwarazim Shah arrived in Ghazna, Ighraq came to greet him. After Jalaladin defeated the Mongols at Parvan, the Khalaj, Turkmans, and Ghauris of his army quarrelled with the Khwarazimians over the booty and finally retreated towards the south. Ighraq returned to Peshawar while his rival Nuh-Jandar stayed at *Ningrahar, but Ighraq retraced his steps and killed him. Finally, Mongol detachments reached the spot and destroyed the whole of the 20,000 - 30,000 Khalaj, Turkmans, and Ghauris who had abandoned Jalaladin. [8]

This historical sketch very clearly shows the gradual expansion of the southern branch of the Khalaj from the lower course of the Helmand to the environs of Ghazna and later to the neighborhood of Peshawar; on the other hand, it indicates how the Khalaj were utilized by the lords of the time and how gradually they found their way to power.

India was ever a most welcome field for energetic adventurers, and as early as AD. 1197 Muhammad Bakhtiyar Khalji [9], acting on behalf of the Ghurid Muiz al-Din Muhammad occupied Bihar and AD. 1202, at the head of a small troop of horse, conquered Lakhnauti in Bengal of which he became the governor.

In 689/1290 Jalal al-din Firuz Khalji succeeded the Mamluk kings on the throne of Delhi and his short-lived dynasty lasted till 1320. [10]

Another Khalji dynasty, descended from a brother of Firuz, ruled in Central India (Malwa) AD. 1436-1531. Equally the Lodhi kings of Delhi (AD. 1451-1526) belonged to a Khalji family which was established in Multan already towards AD 1005.

The Khalji in India were considered as Afghans and perhaps in the fifteenth century possessed no knowledge of Turkish but we must remember what Najib Bakran says on the changes undergone by the Khalaj of Afghanistan. In Afghanistan and India the descendants of the Khalaj are called Ghal-zae, i.e. �sons of the thief�. [11] This later popular etymology and the legend built up round it are certainly artificial. The fact is that the important Ghilzai tribe occupies now the region round Ghazni, [12] where the Khalaj used to live and that historical data all point, to the transformation of the Turkish Khalaj into Afghan Ghilzai. Even the phonetic evolution of the name has nothing astonishing. The ancient Turkish form was Qalaj (or Qalach), and it is well known that Turkish q was heard by the Arabs now as kh and now as gh. [13] Qalaj could have a parallel form *Ghalaj of which it was easv to bring the end in conformity with the usual Afghan terminology of zae, zai (= Persian �zada).

Notes:

[1] In the account of the province of Davar on the Hilmand.

[2] After all Mas�udis vague passage may even not refer to the Khalaj but only to the Kharlukh and the Turkmans (often quoted alongside with the Khalaj).

[3] Probably based on the history of Ibn al-Azhar al-Akhbari, see Barthold, Zur Geschichte der Saffariden, in Oriental Studien Th. Noldek, 1906, pp 173, 186.

[4] Siasat Nama (485/1092), ch. xxvii, p. 96

[5] Gardizi, 56. The text has Turkan-e Sulh but the editor has already suggested the reading *Khallukh. I admit the necessity of the emendation, but, in view of the circumstances, I prefer *Khalaj.

[6] Ahlas al-Zuhr

[7] The alternance of initial i- and yi is frequent; cf. Inal/Yinal

[8] But certainly not at all the Khalaj.

[9] i.e. Khalaji. In Indian pronunciation the middle short vowel of a tri-syllabic word regularly omitted (shafaqat > shafqat), shafaqal > while a mono-syllabic word ending in two consonants becomes bi-sylabic (fahm > faham).

[10] His father had the Turkish title Yughrush, see M. F. Koprulu, Zur Kentniss der altturkischen Titulatur, in Korosi Csoma Archivum, 1938, Erganzungsband, p. 339, who quotes Tarikh-e Farishta, I, 152, 155.

[11] Or with a further reduction of the vowel: Ghilzae, in Persian Ghiljai

[12 See Longworth Dames, Afghanistan and Ghilzai in EI. The author seems not to have realized the weight of the earlier historical evidence and disbelieved the possibility of the transformation Khalaj > Ghilzai, fully admitted by other collaborators of the EI. (Barthold, Sir W. Haig); cf. laso Marquart, op. cit., 253. In fact there is absolutely nothing astonishing in a tribe of nomad habits changing its language. This happened with the Mongols settled among Turks and probably with some Turks living among Kurds. [Sir W. Haig in the Cambridge History of India, III, 90, gives a pertinent reply to Raverty: �If the Ghilzay be not Khaljis it is difficult to say what has become of the latter.�]

[13] Cf. Tabari, iii, 1416: Ghamish < Turkish Qamish �a reed�

 
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Thank for your links, Ghorid you mentioned, sounds like Hori (Horid and Hori-Tumad) who was an original Mongolian-speaking Sibeirian forest hunter, related to today's Buryatians.
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Ghor is a region in Afghanistan. People who come from that region are often refered to as Ghorid/Ghori. When Ghor is used as a person it is usually referring to Muhammed of Ghor who lead an empire in the late 12th century. His empire is often called the Ghorid Empire or Ghorids.
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thank for all the informations about the Khalaj, especially about ethnic links between Khalaj Turk and Afghan's Ghilzai. I was always wondering where's the Khalaj of the areas around Ghazni after Mongol conquest before.

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                                    KHILJI or KHALJI or KHALAJ or GHILJAY or GHILZAI.

          In MAFATIH UL AL KHWARZMI in 975 AD it is written that HAYATILA are a tribe of men who enjoyed grandeur and possessed the country of TUKHARISTAN and the turks called KHALUKH or KHALAJ are their descndants.
         So it is clear from above that the ancesstors of khiljis were HEPHTALITES or HAYATILA.
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                                      KHILJI/KHALJI/KHALAJ/GHILJI/GHILZAI.
    Khilji is the biggest and most popular tribe of afghans.It major sections are SURI,LODHI,TURAN and BURAN or PURAN.Tur was the second son of king fareedune of persia who was given the central asia and china as kingdom by his father,the turani family came in to being from him and also puran is a persian name as the name of king ashah puran.The turani sardar tur bur tur killed Zoraster in fire in balkh or bakhter 4000 years ago at the age of 78, again the name of turani sardar shows tur for turan and bur for buran ,the famouse mountain hit by us planes tura bura is after the name of turan and buran.Sur who was himself a governor of khurasan during the persian rule his son MUHVI SURI killed yazdrad 3rd rand son of khusro and MUHAVI SURI became king of persia,khurasan and some area  of central asia.Then BANJI BAHARAN SURI was made king of ghor by muslim rulers of arabia.In the time of ghaznavi rule muhmood ghaznvi conquered subcontinent 17 times with the help of these khiljis but when later ghaznavi were against the afghans these khiljis made alliance with ghories and crushed ghaznavis and then these gories and khiljis in the kingship of muhhammad ghori took the way of subcontinent where they defeated and killed the king of subcontinent PRITHVI RAJ CHAUHAN and SHAHABUDDIN MUHAMMAD GHORI became first muslim king of subcontinent.BAKHTIAR KHILJI caputred bihar and then bengal with only 18 men and he was the first muslim king if bengal and his descendants ruled bengal for a long time.The three dynasities of these khiljis ruled whole subcontinent these are 1-KHILJI DYNASITY. 2-LODHI DYNASITY. 3- SURI DYNASITY.In these allauddin khilji,bahlol lodhi and sher shah suri had no match in subcontinent kings.The urdu or hindi language of subcontinent was made in the times of allauddin khilji who was also called alexander the second,he defeated mongols or mughals many times and crushed their sardars by wild elphants so they forget the way oof subcontinent for a long time then sher shah suri defeated mughal king humayun son of babur and restored afghan rule.Besides this the khilji dynasity of malwa enjoyed its rule for a longtime.In qandahar  when the safavi king of persia converting afghans forcefully from sunni to shia sect the great MIRWAISE KHAN KHILJI came forward and killed the goergian governor garhgine khan and mad independent qandahar as afghan state then his descendant MUHMOOD KHAN KHILJI also conquered persia and became king of afghan area and persia now called iran.The head of taliban government MULLAH UMAR was also a khilji.
                            EAST OR WEST PUKHTUNES ARE THE BEST.
            m.z.khan.khilji.
           hayatabad.peshawar.
          permanent.mardan.       
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