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Forum Home > Regional History or Period History > Steppe Nomads and Central Asia > Ethnic History of Central Asia
Ethnic origins of the Khalkha Mongol
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Topic: Ethnic origins of the Khalkha Mongol
Posted: 30-Apr-2008 at 04:02
I found this article on another forum.
Eighty percent of the Mongolian population is of Xalx Mongol ethnicity. The name "Xalx" referred until the 15th-16th century to a political territory, but since the beginning of the 17th century has been attributed to its corresponding ethnic group. Some of the major Xalx tribes are listed below.
6 Xirgis (Kirghyz)
7 Xüree Xoroo and Cooxor
The Zhalair were a tribe whose existence was first recorded in the 10th century, made up of Mongol, Turkic and Tungus clans. Since the 11th century they came under the jurisdiction of the Xamag Mongol State. At the end of the 13th century they were included in the 13 xüree communities administered by Chingis Xaan, and participated in establishing the Great Mongol State. The Zhalair were divided into seven myangat divisions, some of which were subjected to lords belonging to Chingis Xaan's lineage. The Zhalair were incorporated into the Xalx tribe from the 16th century, and at present their descendants live in Gov'-Altai, Bayanxongor and Dornod aimags.
This was an original Mongolian tribe whose existence was first recorded in the 10th century. At the beginning of the 13th century they came under the rule of Öyelun Xatan, the mother of Chingis Xaan, and later joined the Ar Xalx. At present they make up the majority of the population of Bayan-Uul, Xöxmor't and Zhargalan sums of Gov'-Altai aimag and Darvi sum of Xovd aimag.
The Besüd branched off from the Taichut at the end of the 13th century. The Besüds came under the rule of Otchigin, younger brother of Chingis Xaan, and later joined the Xalx. They settled around Xangai Mountain in the 16th century, but since the 17th century have resided to the south of the Altai Mountains. They make up most of the population of Gov'-Altai aimag and the southern sums of Bayanxongor aimag.
The Elzhigin tribe was formed by members of the Xonkereit, Borzhigin and Barga tribes during the Xitan period (10th-12th century). At the end of the 12th century the were included in the 13 xüree of Chingis Xaan. They joined the Ar Xalx in the 17th century, and moved westwards and settled at Xan Xöxii Mountain at the beginning of the 18th century. At present they make up most of the population of Öndörxangai, Cagaanxairxan, Züünxangai and Baruuntürüün sums of Uvs aimag.
The Gorlos are derived from the Kori Tumet. Long ago they moved from Barguzhin to the Xentii Mountains, since which time they settled with the Xonkereit and Ixer tribes near the Xentii and Xingan Mountains, becoming subjects of the Xamag Mongol state. Some became subjects of Öyelün Xatan, and some joined the Xalx tribe in the 17th century, settling between the Tuul and Orxon Rivers. The Gorlos people made up the basic population of the Xalx Tüsheet Xan aimag.
This is a tribe of Turkish origin. Some of the Kirghyz who lived near the source of the Yenissei River were Mongolized under the Great Mongol State at the beginning of the 13th century. They long remained under the jurisdiction of princes from the Golden Horde, and most ultimately settled in the Xalx Sain Noyon Xan aimag.
Xüree Xoroo and Cooxor
These tribes originated from more recent military and economic units. Most settled in the east of Mongolia, making up one of the three eastern xoshuu of Secen Xan aimag.
The Xatagin were descended from Alungoo Xatan and her illegitimate son Buxa Xatagi in the 10th century. They settled around the Xerlen, Onon and Tuul Rivers, and in the vicinity of the Xentii Mountains. During the 12th century, the Xatagin settled near Xalx Gol River and were included in the Great Mongol State, under the rule of the descendants of Tolui. They came to be known as the three Xatagin xoshuu of Secen Xan aimag. At present they live in Matad sum of Dornod aimag, and in Erdenecagaan, Süxbaatar and Baruun-Urt sums of Süxbaatar aimag.
This was a small ethnic group which came into being prior to the 15th century. The Xoxuid fell under the rule of the descendants of Tolui, Chingis Xaan's younger brother, and had been included in Aru Doloon Otogs of the Xalx, settling in the areas of Xalx Gol and the Dornod steppe. They were included in the Xatagin constitution. Currently they can be found in Erdenecagaan sum of Süxbaatar aimag.
These were a Mongolized Turkish tribe captured at Bucharest and Urgench and brought to Mongolia during the 13th century. They fell under the rule of the descendants of Chingis Xaan, and were assimilated into the Xalx at the end of the 16th century. Settling near the west side of the Xangai Mountains, they also made up Secen Zasagiin xoshuu of Zasagt Xan aimag and lived in Cecen-Uul, Zavxanmandal, Urgamal, Tüdevtei, Santmargac, Songino, Erdenexairxan, and Dörvölzhin sums of Zavxan aimag, as well as in Zavxan sum of Uvs aimag.
These were the descendants of the ancient Kumosi or Si tribe, the latter being a Mongol tribe connected with the Sianbe and Xitans in their origin. The Urianxai were rendered to the Xitans as tribute in the 10th century. Some of the Uriangxans settled in the area of the Xentii Mountains. At the beginning of the 13th century, with the establishment of the Great Mongol State, they were divided into 5 myangan divisions. One of these 5 myangans was responsible for guarding the Spirits (Burial Place) of the Mongolian Ix Xaans, located near Xentii Mountain, known as Udachi (Otochi) Myangan. At the beginning of the 15th-16th century they became one of the six Tümen of east Mongolia, and some of the Uriangxans were included in the Xalx Tümen. They migrated for a while to the Xangai Mountains in the west of Mongolia at the beginning of the 16th century, and still more reached the Altai Mountains at the beginning of the 17th century, settling in the Xalx Zasagt Xan aimag. During the Manchu period the Uriangxans were divided among the Daichin Zasagiin and Darxan Zasagiin xoshuu sums, and today are found in Tonxil, Tögrög, Ceel, Altai and Bugat sums of Gov'-Altai aimag and Ceceg sum of Xovd aimag.
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|Post Options Quote Reply Posted: 30-Apr-2008 at 04:20|
There're two branches of Halha Mongols, 7 clans of Ar Halha(north or outer Halha) and 5 clans of Ovor Halha.
7 clans of Ar Halha:
1) Uusin and Jalair
2) Besud and Eljigen3) Gorlas and Kirghyz
4) Horogo, Buriy-e and Cohogur
5) Khereid and Hatagin
6) Tangud and Sartaul
Uusin, Tangud and Kheriet aren't listed in the article above.
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|Post Options Quote Reply Posted: 13-Nov-2008 at 03:53|
Urianghai is almost a founding tribe of Mongols. If you know Ergune Kun legend after fighting broke out between Mongol and Turk tribes Mongols were defeated and runaway into a secluded Iron ored mountain somewhere in north Mongolia. The two tribes who run away referred to as Nokhos or Nukuz and Uriankhai. After living there for a while these two tribes multiplied into other names probably.
Then during Ghenghis Khaan time Zelme saved Genghis Khaans life many times and there were a lot of close and powerful Uriankhais next to Genghis Khaan, like Zebe, Subudai and many more. During that time they lived in Khentii area, after Ghenghis Khaan's death they were guarding his tomb. And as known from some historical sources in or around 1600 or 1700 many of them moved to western Mongolia after the argument of Sain Majig Noeon of Uriankhai and Tusheet Khan, because Sain Majig Noeon despised the cruelty of Tusheet Khan towards Oirats during their raid on them.
It is unknown to me whether those who migrated to Altai became allies or subjugates of Oirats, on the records Oirats did not include them into Oirat House, but it seems they have participated in Amarsanaa of Khoid and Chingunjav of Khotgoid rebellion like all other Mongols according to Dr. Chuluun's book.
And most confusingly according to one legend Choros clan who were the ruling clan of Oirat is said to have decended from Uriankhai.
And it makes Uriankhai history very chaotic in term of who should we consider us? :).
Today there are a lot of Uriankhais in Both among Central Khalkh's and in the Western Mongolia and Uriangkhai clan name was registered in every province of Mongolia.
To some degree Genghis Khaan might have been Uriankhai himself, in Secret History of Mongols written that fair complexion Malig Bayud Uriankhai slave might have impregnated foremothers of Genghis Khaan.
If this is not the case Uriankiad as it were written in some sources might have been same tribe as Kiad clan where Genghis Khaan came from.
Uriangkhai's everywhere... All over Mongolia, Xinjang, Inner Mongolia, Russia (living as Tuvan's, which speak in Turkic language).
Bayan-Ulgii province where now lives majority Kazakhs is actually Altai Uriangkhai Territory, Khovd has two Uriankhai soums Munkhkhairkhan and Duut. Uriankhais make around 20 percent of Bayan-Ulgii Province. And there are a lot of Uriankhais in Gobi-Altai, Zavhan, Hubsugul, Khentii but seems to me they actually do not know that they are Uriankhais.
If not secret are you from Inner Mongolia?
Edited by zukline - 13-Nov-2008 at 04:01
Impossible is Nothing. Copper next to Gold becomes yellow. Everything has reason.
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|Post Options Quote Reply Posted: 22-Nov-2008 at 10:13|
I'm Kharchin, Inner Mongolian, Our tribe was originated partly from Zelme's Urianghai. Ordos, Kharchin, Mongolcin and eastern Tumed were mainly or partly from Urianghai in Inner Mongolia.
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