History Community ~ All Empires Homepage


This is the Archive on WORLD Historia, the old original forum.

 You cannot post here - you can only read.

 

Here is the link to the new forum:

  FAQ FAQ  Forum Search   Events   Register Register  Login Login

Forum LockedDrinks in the History of the Americas

 Post Reply Post Reply
Author
pinguin View Drop Down
Editorial Staff
Editorial Staff
Avatar

Joined: 29-Sep-2006
Location: Chile
Status: Offline
Points: 7508
Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote pinguin Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Topic: Drinks in the History of the Americas
    Posted: 18-Aug-2007 at 22:32
In this thread I wish we could share the history of the drinks of the Americas.
 
Let's start it with the history of Tequila. I invite everyone to post the history of the drinks of every corner of the Americas that have an history.
 
----
 
Tequila is the national drink of Mexico, and the only international drink that has a strong Native American root. In other time we will discuss (I hope), other drinks of the Americas. For now, let's see the wonderful history of Tequila.
Blue Agaves, cut and ready for press
blue agave
Olmeca, a brand of Tequila
 
 
INTRODUCTION

The brand "tequila" is controlled by the Mexican government. Anybody interested in its production must comply with strict regulations set forth by the Secretary of Economy (formerly Secretary of Industry and Commerce) who has delegated authority upon the Tequila Regulatory Council (
Consejo Regulador del Tequila) CRT, a private non-profit organization based in Guadalajara, Jalisco responsible for the regulation, verification, and quality certification of tequila. The Council oversees every aspect of production, from agave cultivation to bottling and labeling in order to guarantee consumers of the genuineness of the product.

To ensure that tequila is genuine, it must be produced according to the strict standard NOM-006-SCFI-1994 and must bear the official standard or NOM (Norma Oficial Mexicana) and the Council's monogram "CRT" on the label. Premium Tequila must also have the "100% Agave" markings on the label. Each approved tequila distiller gets its own NOM that ensures that the product complies with the official Denomonation of Origin.

History

The history of tequila began when the Spaniards arrived in Mexico in the 16th Century. The Conquistadors brought the process of distillation with them and when it reached the western Mexican town of Tequila the townspeople were quick to put it to good use. They knew that the blue agave plant contained sugars that could be fermented, and very probably there was a fermented drink that the native Indians would drink. By fermenting and distilling the sweet sap of the blue agave plant, they produced liquor with a distinctive taste. For many years tequila was a local liquor with relatively low demand. In the early 1980's the famous Herradura Reposado was sold almost exclusively at the distillery in Amatitán with few cases going to Mexico City. But then in the 90's it became fashionable to sip tequila and production soared as new brands were introduced to a growing and discriminating market. People began to demand more authentic tequilas, particularly those made following artisan tradition and Premium Tequilas made 100% with the sap of the blue agave.

With the new millennium more brands came into the market and tequila has become one of the top three best seller liquors in the world. Blue agave production has soared covering extensive fields where none were harvested before. As one travels in the western states of Jalisco, Michoacan, Nayarit, and Guanajuato you will sea beautiful rolling hills covered by a pale blue agave that seem to go as far as the eye can see.

There is a lot of confusion in encyclopaedias and dictionaries about the meaning of the term “tequila”. Merriam-Webster defines it as “a Mexican liquor distilled from pulque”, a serious error that most tequila websites repeat. The famous Encyclopaedia Britannica defines it as: “distilled liquor, usually clear in colour and unaged, that is made from the fermented juice of the Mexican agave plant, specifically several varieties of Agave tequilana Weber.” We all know that tequila can be clear, pale, amber, and even dark brown and it is aged to produce Añejo

-----------------
Now, this is mezcal, a variety of Tequila that is famous because it carries a worm in the bottle. Tequilas don't come with worms but Mezcal. Mezcal the product of other cactus, not necessarily the blue agave, and is considered less classy LOL.
 
Looking carefully at this mezcal you can see the worm at the bottom of the bottle.
 
"He who attempts to count the stars, not even knowing how to count the knots of the 'quipus'(counting string), ought to be held in derision."

Inca Pachacutec (1438-1471)
Back to Top
Yaomitl View Drop Down
Immortal Guard
Immortal Guard
Avatar

Joined: 05-Jul-2007
Location: United Kingdom
Status: Offline
Points: 85
Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Yaomitl Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 19-Aug-2007 at 11:24
Not sure why mezcal should have that reputation. To my tastebuds it's a much smoother drink than tequila (though maybe I've only had the best mezcal and the most average tequila) and a whole lot nicer. Annoyingly, decent mezcal is not so easy to find in England (and that's one of many reasons I'm getting out of here ASAP). The best mezcal I had was in Oaxaca when me and my friend Rob got roped into the independance day celebrations, and a group of locals kept plying us with a locally made mezcal in return for cigarettes. I can't remember the brand (though it wasn't Oro de Oaxaca) but I'd know it if I saw the bottle again. Still humbled by how a pair of nacos like us were made to feel so welcome and I'm ashamed to say it's not the sort of thing I can see happening here in the UK.
Oh - the worm is in the bottle so you know that the mezcal is fresh, by the way. If the worm looks less than perfectly pickled, don't drink it.
We wanted to try pulque as well (or at least I did) as it doesn't keep (so can't be bottled) and is only sold in pulquerias, but the only one we found was closed (at least on the one afternoon when we thought 'hey! Let's drink pulque!'). I've been told so much about pulque - it's very weak/incredibly smooth/very strong/ rough as f*** and one day I will learn the truth I swear! Someone told me not to go into a pulqueria as I wouldn't be too welcome, though I'm not so sure how that would work. I've been plenty of places where I've been told not to go and nobody realised I was a tourist so I got on just fine.
I'm told Chia is the South American equivalent of pulque. Anyone know anything about that?
"For as long as the world shall endure, the honour and the glory of Mexico-Tenochtitlan must never be forgotten."
- Chimalpahin Quautlehuanitzin
<a href="http://www.theotherconquest.com
Back to Top
pinguin View Drop Down
Editorial Staff
Editorial Staff
Avatar

Joined: 29-Sep-2006
Location: Chile
Status: Offline
Points: 7508
Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote pinguin Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 19-Aug-2007 at 11:38
By Chia do you mean Chicha?
 
Pulque is a drink of fermented cactus. It is specific.
 
On the other hand, Chicha is any fermented drink in unstable condition. Ancient Americans made Chicha of Maize, and still is made that way in places like Bolivia. Mapuches of Chile also make a Chicha of Maize and Wheet that is called Muday. Several other fruits are used to made Chicha as well, quite exhotic.
 
In Chile the traditional Chicha is made of grapes, and has nothing to do with wine or a destilled brandy at all. Is a juicy drink. Today it is produced in industrial plants with all the higiene that modern people requires.
 
Chicha of apples is very popular in Southern Chile, particularly in regions settled by German colones and traditional natives.
 
I'll post more on Chicha.
 
Pinguin
 
 
 


Edited by pinguin - 19-Aug-2007 at 11:41
"He who attempts to count the stars, not even knowing how to count the knots of the 'quipus'(counting string), ought to be held in derision."

Inca Pachacutec (1438-1471)
Back to Top
pinguin View Drop Down
Editorial Staff
Editorial Staff
Avatar

Joined: 29-Sep-2006
Location: Chile
Status: Offline
Points: 7508
Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote pinguin Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 19-Aug-2007 at 12:00
From Wiki. I check it out and is fine:
 
Chicha is a Spanish word for any variety of fermented beverage. It can be made of maize, manioc root (also calledyuca or cassava), or fruits, and other things. During the Inca Empire women were taught the techniques of brewing chicha in Acllahuasis (feminine schools). It is traditionally prepared from a specific kind of yellow maize (jora) and is usually referred to as chicha de jora. It has a pale straw color, a slightly milky appearance, and a slightly sour aftertaste, reminiscent of hard apple cider. It is drunk either young and sweet or mature and strong. It contains a slight amount of alcohol, 1-3%.

While chicha is most commonly associated with maize, the word is used in the Andes for almost any homemade fermented drink, and many different grains or fruits are used to make "chicha" in different regions.

In Peru, chicha also means an informal and transient arrangement, or a street vendor. In Chile, chicha refers to a type of homemade sweet wine made by families for special occasions. In other Latin American countries like Panama, chicha can simply mean "softdrink" or "juice."

The common Spanish expression Ni chicha ni limonada (neither chicha nor lemonade) is roughly equivalent to the English "neither fish nor fowl." (Thus, it is used when something is not easily placed into a category.)

Ethymology
 

According to the Real Academia Española and other authors, the word chicha comes from the kuna word chichab, which means maize. However, according to Luis Goatherd it comes from the Nahuatl word chichiatl, which means "fermented water"; the verb chicha meaning "to sour a drink" and the postfix -atl meaning water.

Preparation
 

Chicha de jora is prepared by germinating maize, extracting the malt sugars, boiling the wort, and fermenting it in large vessels, traditionally huge earthenware vats, for several days.

In some cultures, in lieu of germination of the maize for release of the starches in the maize, the maize is ground, moistened in the chicha maker's mouth and formed into small balls which are then flattened and laid out to dry. Naturally occurring diastase enzymes in the maker's saliva catalyses the breakdown of starch in the maize into maltose. (This process of chewing grains or other starches was used in the production of alcoholic beverages in pre-modern cultures around the world including for example sake in Japan.)

Chicha Morada on the other hand is not fermented. It is usually made of black maize which is boiled with pineapple, cinnamon, and clove. This gives a strong purple-colored liquid which is then mixed with sugar and lemon. This beverage is usually taken as a refreshment.

A good description of the preparation of a Bolivian way to make chicha can be found in Cutler, Hugh and Martin Cardenas, “Chicha a Native South American Beer”, Harvard University Botanical Museum Leaflets, V.13, N.3, December 29, 1947

Traditional Maize Chicha
 
 
 
In short, is chicha is a kind of beer.
 
In Chile it is traditional for our Independence day that the president drink Chicha in horn. A very male custom. Now that we got a female president, she has to continue the tradition. Look
 
 
 
 
 
"He who attempts to count the stars, not even knowing how to count the knots of the 'quipus'(counting string), ought to be held in derision."

Inca Pachacutec (1438-1471)
Back to Top
pinguin View Drop Down
Editorial Staff
Editorial Staff
Avatar

Joined: 29-Sep-2006
Location: Chile
Status: Offline
Points: 7508
Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote pinguin Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 20-Aug-2007 at 10:42

In Mexico, the old pre-columbian fermented cactus potion, called pulque, converted in tequila.
Meanwhile, in North America the Amerindians grew Maize that was consumed as food, but also to make some beers (chicha), in the same way it was done accross the Americas.
When the British settlers arrived, they got Maize from the Natives, and it was so productive that excedents were left to produce alcoholic drinks.
Europeans brought with them the destiling technology so they managed to mutate chichas in whiskeys.
This is the history of Corn Whiskey or Bourbon, also known as Tennessy Whiskey, that's a tradition part of the Unites States.

 
 
History of Bourbon

At Fort Harrod (modern Harrodsburg, Kentucky), established in 1774, the residents planted corn (maize). Within a few years, when their harvests exceeded what they and their livestock could eat, they began to convert the rest into whiskey, because it didn't spoil and could be transported more readily than the grain itself. Here is how this whiskey came to be called "bourbon":

“ When American pioneers pushed west of the Allegheny Mountains following the Revolution, the first counties they founded covered vast regions. One of these original, huge counties was Bourbon, established in 1785 and named after the French royal family. While this vast county was being carved into many smaller ones, early in the 19th century, many people continued to call the region Old Bourbon. Located within Old Bourbon was the principal Ohio River port from which whiskey and other products were shipped to market. "Old Bourbon" was stenciled on the barrels to indicate their port of origin. Old Bourbon whiskey was different because it was the first corn whiskey most people had ever tasted, and they liked it. In time, bourbon became the name for any corn-based whiskey.[2] ”

It is often written that many of the original distillers of bourbon were Pennsylvanians fleeing taxation during and after the Whiskey Rebellion, but this claim is widely disputed.

A refinement usually credited to Dr. James C. Crow was the sour mash process, by which each new fermentation is conditioned with some amount of spent mash (previously fermented mash that has been separated from its alcohol). The acid introduced by using the sour mash controls the growth of bacteria that could taint the whiskey and creates a proper pH balance for the yeast to work. As of 2005, all straight bourbons use a sour mash process. Dr. Crow developed this refinement while working at the Old Oscar Pepper Distillery (now the Woodford Reserve Distillery) in Woodford County, Kentucky. (Spent mash is also known as distillers spent grain, stillage, slop or feed mash, so named because it is used as animal feed.)

Most bourbons are distilled in Kentucky and it is widely but mistakenly believed that only Kentucky whiskey can properly be called bourbon. As of today, there are no running distilleries within the current boundaries of Bourbon County due to new counties being formed from Bourbon County since early whiskey making days.

An act of the U.S. Congress in 1964 declared bourbon to be "America's Native Spirit" and its official distilled spirit.[3] A concurrent resolution of the U.S. Congress restricted bourbon to U.S. production. Some of the most common stories about its origins are untrue, such as its invention by Baptist minister and distiller Elijah Craig. Each county in Kentucky tends to name a favorite son as the "inventor" of bourbon. In fact, there was no single "inventor" of the product, which evolved into its present form only in the late 19th century.[4]

Tennessy Whiskey
 
Other form of corn whiskey is the Tennesy. This is its definition.
 
 

Tennessee whiskey is a type of American whiskey. This whiskey is generally similar to bourbon, in that it is composed of a mash of at least 51% corn (maize) and is aged in new, charred oak barrels, typically for four or more years.

But unlike Bourbon, Tennessee whiskey undergoes a filtering stage called the Lincoln County Process, in which the whiskey is filtered through a thick layer of maple charcoal before it is put into casks for aging. This step gives the whiskey a distinctive flavor. The process itself is named for Lincoln County, Tennessee, which is where the Jack Daniel's distillery was originally located. In 1871, the Jack Daniel's distillery, and the surrounding area became part of the newly created Moore County.

 


Edited by pinguin - 20-Aug-2007 at 10:43
"He who attempts to count the stars, not even knowing how to count the knots of the 'quipus'(counting string), ought to be held in derision."

Inca Pachacutec (1438-1471)
Back to Top
Yaomitl View Drop Down
Immortal Guard
Immortal Guard
Avatar

Joined: 05-Jul-2007
Location: United Kingdom
Status: Offline
Points: 85
Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Yaomitl Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 20-Aug-2007 at 14:07
Whoops. Sorry - you're right, I meant chicha. I'm getting mixed up with chia the plant.
Interesting to note that the name Mexico may derive from this, depending upon one interpretation - the Me- deriving from me-tl (Nahuatl for century plant or maguey; xi- from xic-tli - navel or something central hence Mexica = people from the heart of the century plant, and Mexico with the locative -co suffix. There's other interpretations of the name (notably one citing metz-tli [moon] as the stem) but for my money they seem less convincing. How this might relate to the maguey cactus itself (as the source of pulque - it being made from sap drawn from a "well" cut in the centre of the plant, although of course they took many other things from the plant) though is probably a long and complicated topic.
"For as long as the world shall endure, the honour and the glory of Mexico-Tenochtitlan must never be forgotten."
- Chimalpahin Quautlehuanitzin
<a href="http://www.theotherconquest.com
Back to Top
pinguin View Drop Down
Editorial Staff
Editorial Staff
Avatar

Joined: 29-Sep-2006
Location: Chile
Status: Offline
Points: 7508
Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote pinguin Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 20-Aug-2007 at 16:00
Interesting. Do you know if exist a glyph for Mexico? Like the one of tenochtilan I show in here?
 
 
If there is a glyph, the plant of mangey should be part of it if the first theory is correct.
 
Pinguin
 
"He who attempts to count the stars, not even knowing how to count the knots of the 'quipus'(counting string), ought to be held in derision."

Inca Pachacutec (1438-1471)
Back to Top
Perun View Drop Down
Immortal Guard
Immortal Guard
Avatar

Joined: 13-Mar-2007
Location: Bosnia Hercegovina
Status: Offline
Points: 28
Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Perun Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 21-Aug-2007 at 10:54
Very interesting topic Thumbs%20Up
Gromovnik
Back to Top
pinguin View Drop Down
Editorial Staff
Editorial Staff
Avatar

Joined: 29-Sep-2006
Location: Chile
Status: Offline
Points: 7508
Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote pinguin Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 21-Aug-2007 at 11:05
Let's continue with another famous drink of the Americas: Rum. Rum has an history that is tied with the origin of suggar cane and with the transatlantic slave trade. Let's start with the origin of suggar cane.
 
 
 
 
-----------
 
Origin of Suggar Cane

It is thought that cane sugar was first used by man in Polynesia from where it spread to India. In 510 BC the Emperor Darius of what was then Persia invaded India where he found "the reed which gives honey without bees". The secret of cane sugar, as with many other of man's discoveries, was kept a closely guarded secret whilst the finished product was exported for a rich profit.

Early%20Refining%20in%20Europe

It was the major expansion of the Arab peoples in the seventh century AD that led to a breaking of the secret. When they invaded Persia in 642 AD they found sugar cane being grown and learnt how sugar was made. As their expansion continued they established sugar production in other lands that they conquered including North Africa and Spain.

Sugar was only discovered by western Europeans as a result of the Crusades in the 11th Century AD. Crusaders returning home talked of this "new spice" and how pleasant it was. The first sugar was recorded in England in 1099. The subsequent centuries saw a major expansion of western European trade with the East, including the importation of sugar. It is recorded, for instance, that sugar was available in London at "two shillings a pound" in 1319 AD. This equates to about US$100 per kilo at today's prices so it was very much a luxury.

The%20Caribbean

In the 15th century AD, European sugar was refined in Venice, confirmation that even then when quantities were small, it was difficult to transport sugar as a food grade product. In the same century, Columbus sailed to the Americas, the "New World". It is recorded that in 1493 he took sugar cane plants to grow in the Caribbean. The climate there was so advantageous for the growth of the cane that an industry was quickly established.

--------------
 
History of Rum

An early alcoholic drink, rum has been around since ancient times. Nothing if not old, it is practically forced to walk with a (sugar) cane. Though it wasn't first distilled in plantations until the 17th century, rum is believed to have existed thousands of years prior in the form of brum, a drink made by the Malay people. In the 14th century, Marco Polo (the explorer, not the swimming pool game) wrote about a wine made of sugar, giving further credence to the belief that rum was around before the 1600's.

When the first distillation of rum began, it began in the Caribbean when plantation slaves realized the molasses, left over from sugar refinement, could be turned into alcohol. This alcohol, however, was not well received...at least not at first. Like the beginning of most things, the beginning of rum was a little shaky and the spirit was dispirited to learn that it was initially thought to be a terrible tasting liquor.

Once the Caribbean set the rum ball in motion, it quickly spread to the American Colonies. In 1664, the first distillery for rum was set up in what is now Staten Island; a distillery in Boston quickly followed.

New Englanders had a special penchant for making rum; not only was the rum industry their most profitable industry, but the rum they produced was considered to be of higher quality than all others.

An alcoholic drink determined to have a place in history - even the dark parts of history - rum was involved in the slave trade, as slaves, molasses, and rum were part of the triangular trade. When this trade was interrupted because of the 1764 Sugar Act, another straw was thrown on the American Colonists back. Thus, bottles of rum can often be overhead bragging to bottles of wine and bottles of whiskey that they were the reason for the American Revolution.

More than any other alcoholic drink, rum was associated with pirates (yo ho ho and a bottle of rum, anyone?). This initially started when English privateers began trading it. As some of these men eventually became pirates (aim high, kids), they carried with them their liking of rum. Pieces of literature that coupled rum and piracy perpetuated this notion.

Rum was also associated with the British Royal Navy, an association that began in 1655 when Jamaica was captured by British sailors. Once ashore, rum was so available that the seamen began drinking it instead of the brandy to which they were accustomed.

The refinement of rum began in the place it all started: the Caribbean. Prior to the late 1800's, rums were dark and heavy. The Spanish Royal Development Board set out to make rum more appealing to the general public and offered a reward for anyone who could improve its quality. And so enter Don Facundo Bacardi Masso.

After moving to Cuba from Spain in 1843, Masso began to refine his rumming techniques. He improved distillation, filtering, and aging in casks made of American oak. This all worked together to produce a rum that was light and smooth, a spirit that today we have come to love, to drink, and one that makes our senses rum...ble.

A differen Rum:  Cachaça
 
 
 
Cachaça (IPA: [ˌkaˈʃasɐ]) is the most popular distilled alcoholic beverage in Brazil. Cachaça is denomination of origin, in other countries it is known as "aguardente", "aguardiente" or other names. Cachaça is only produced in Brazil. The average Brazilian drinks about three gallons (roughly twelve litres) of Cachaça annually.[1] Cachaça is, "...the product of the distillation of fermented sugarcane juice, with its alcohol strength between 38% and 48% by volume. Up to six grams per liter of sugar may be added."[2]

Cachaça is often said to differ from rum in that it is made from sugarcane juice while rum is made from either molasses or sugarcane juice then aged in oak barrels.

1.3 billion liters of Cachaça are produced each year. Only 1% of this production is exported (mainly to Germany).[3]. Outside Brazil, cachaça is used almost exclusively as an ingredient in tropical drinks, with the caipirinha being the most famous cocktail.

 
-------
 
Pinguin
 


Edited by pinguin - 21-Aug-2007 at 11:07
"He who attempts to count the stars, not even knowing how to count the knots of the 'quipus'(counting string), ought to be held in derision."

Inca Pachacutec (1438-1471)
Back to Top
pinguin View Drop Down
Editorial Staff
Editorial Staff
Avatar

Joined: 29-Sep-2006
Location: Chile
Status: Offline
Points: 7508
Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote pinguin Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 21-Aug-2007 at 17:46

Now on Wines. Let's start from Native American wines, a tradition of the United States.

In school we are though that Spaniards brought the parrs to South America to make wine to celebrate the Catholic mass... Well, that's actually true. However, no matter it is true for South America, it isn't for North America, because in there there is a tradition of wine making from thousand of years.
North America has a large variety of grapewines that were used to make wine by the indigenous people. When Norses arrived to North America they called the land Vinland (the land of wines); there is a chance they actually found some parrs in the places they had theirs posts.
Even today, Native wines are made in the United States, no matter than the European varieties of wines are the more popular around the world.
This is an example of wines make with Native varieties
 
 
Catawba wine
from Catawba
This word originated in United States
The tribe named the river, the river named the grape, and the grape named the wine. Or perhaps the tribe named the grape and the grape named the river. Whatever the sequence, the Indian tribe of South Carolina known as the Catawba are remembered in a grape and red wine now produced more in New York State and the Midwest than in South Carolina.
Present-day oenophiles are strangely silent on the merits of Catawba wine, but we are rescued by one of the great literary figures of the nineteenth century. In 1854, a gift from the vineyards of Nicholas Longworth of Cincinnati inspired Henry Wadsworth Longfellow to write the poem "Catawba Wine." We take this opportunity to include three of the eleven stanzas:

Catawba is still said to be the principal wine grape of Ohio.
At an earlier time, back east, the Catawba were among the first Indians to become acquainted with English-speaking settlers. They maintained friendly relations with the newcomers, taking the colonists' side in the French and Indian Wars and the Revolutionary War, and have managed to keep something of their tribal identity to the present day. Their language belongs to the Siouan family because their remote ancestors came from Siouan territory in the Black Hills of the west. Catawba is still spoken by a handful of Catawba Indians at their 630-acre reservation near Rock Hill, South Carolina. From the Catawba language we also have yaupon (1709), a plant whose leaves make a bitter tea that is described as "emetic and purgative."
 
Concord Wine
 
 
 


Edited by pinguin - 21-Aug-2007 at 17:55
"He who attempts to count the stars, not even knowing how to count the knots of the 'quipus'(counting string), ought to be held in derision."

Inca Pachacutec (1438-1471)
Back to Top
Yaomitl View Drop Down
Immortal Guard
Immortal Guard
Avatar

Joined: 05-Jul-2007
Location: United Kingdom
Status: Offline
Points: 85
Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Yaomitl Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 22-Aug-2007 at 13:04
Originally posted by pinguin pinguin wrote:

Interesting. Do you know if exist a glyph for Mexico? Like the one of tenochtilan I show in here?
 
 
If there is a glyph, the plant of mangey should be part of it if the first theory is correct.
 
Pinguin
 
You know I don't think I've ever come across one, although most sources I've read seem to use the term Mexico (in the pre-Hispanic sense) to mean a very general region where the Mexica were a major power - sort of like a county although less specific. The closest thing I've seen is the glyph for the town of Mexicatzinco ('Little Place of the Mexica') which combines a maguey plant with the "small seated man" glyph that supplied a phonetic pun for 'tzinco' (small place) with 'tzintli' (base or erm... "anus"). I'll see if I can find that and post it here. As an aside, Fr. Duran (writing in Historia de los Indios de Nueva Espana) referred to the time the nomadic Mexica spent at Mexicatzinco in dismissive and slightly disgusted terms without going into detail. It seems he'd been refering to an original glyphic text and mistook the entirely innocent Mexicatzinco glyph for an implication of blasphemous doings involving er... how can I put this... men's bottoms and cacti.
Sorry... please continue with this interesting topic.


Edited by Yaomitl - 22-Aug-2007 at 13:06
"For as long as the world shall endure, the honour and the glory of Mexico-Tenochtitlan must never be forgotten."
- Chimalpahin Quautlehuanitzin
<a href="http://www.theotherconquest.com
Back to Top
pinguin View Drop Down
Editorial Staff
Editorial Staff
Avatar

Joined: 29-Sep-2006
Location: Chile
Status: Offline
Points: 7508
Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote pinguin Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 22-Aug-2007 at 18:02

Please, try to find the glyph... I got curious... Thanks.

Now, let continue with this alcoholic tour to the history of the Americas.

This time I am posting the history of the Latin American wines. Several countries produce wine in the region, but I am afraid it is not lack of modesty to say the most known are the Chilean and Argentinean wines. I will show here the history of the Chilean wine as an example. Why? Because it is my country and I know it better. Let's go

Pinguin

-----

 
WINE IN CHILE
 
Chile has a long history of wine making, going back to the conquistadores who brought grape vines with them in the mid 16th Century and planted vineyards. In the mid 18th century, French varietals such as Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot were introduced. However, government decrees prohibited the planting of new vineyards between 1938 and 1974.

Much low quality wine has historically been produced (often from table grapes such as sultanas) and producers have traditionally been more interested in quantity than quality. However, in the early 1980s a renaissance began with the introduction of stainless steel fermenters and the use of oak barrels for ageing. Subsequently, the export business grew very quickly and large amounts of quality wines were produced. The number of wineries has grown from 12 in 1995 to over 70 in 2005. Chile is now the fourth largest exporter of wines to the United States.

The climate has been described as midway between that of California and France. The most common grapes are Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Carmenère, which is often regarded as perhaps the most suitable grape for the Chilean climate.

 

The Wines of Chile
From Bonnie Hamre,

500 years of experience equals great wines!

With five centuries of wine-making experience behind them, it's no wonder that Chilean winemakers are harvesting the benefits of hard work, a pleasant climate, good soils and perseverance in the wide - and growing - scope of their wines.

Misionaries traveling with the conquistadores brought cuttings from their native Spain to Chile in the mid-sixteenth century. Finding the area around one of the first settlements, Santiago, to be close to their own Meditarrean climate, and the valleys fertile, the missionaries planted the black pais grape to produce their sacramental wine. Farmers joined the missionaries, and the first plantings gave fruit for more than religious purposes. These commercial wines proved to be popular and were exported to other countries. By the early 1800s, the wines from Chile were proving such a competition for Spanish export wines that the Spanish crown ordered heavy taxes and restrictions followed by acres of vineyards destroyed.

(No wonder the Chileans revolted against the Spanish monarchy!)
Following the wars of independence, immigration from Europe brought French farmers and vines, notably Bordeaux cuttings. In the 1870's the Phylloxera louse spread rapidly through European and North American vineyards. Isolated by natural conditions, the Andes on one side, the Pacific on the other, and the barren deserts to the north, the vineyards of Chile were not damaged. When the affected vineyards began the process of replanting, they turned to Chile for healthy plants. Some of the earliest Chilean vines still produce grapes, and Chile remains free of the disease while the rest of the winemaking world continues to suffer.

In the 1940's, Chilean wines grew in popularity, then faded somewhat with governmental restriction on production and the nationalization of many wineries. In the 1980's, Chilean wines again hit the worldwide market, becoming an inexpensive way to enjoy wine. While some were not as good as others, the wines caught the eye of many French and American winemakers such as Spain's Miguel Torres, France's Baron de Rothschild and Chateau Lafite, and the U.S.'s Robert Mondavi among others, and today, with foreign capital and joint ventures, Chile's wines are reaching an ever wider and more demanding audience.

Chile's wine producing areas stretch through the narrow central valleys from north of Santiago to Concepción in the south. For years, the main concentration of vineyards was in the Maipo valley, but recently, the region south to Bío Bío sees more vines.

When you visit Santiago, no doubt you'll tour the nearby winery of Concha y Toro founded in 1883 and promoted as one of the oldest and the biggest winery in Chile. It exports, under various labels, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc y Semillón to over 70 countries. The grounds are beautiful (see photo).

Concha y Toro may be the biggest, but it is certainly not the only producer of fine wines. When you think of Chilean wine, the names Viña Cousiño Macul, Viña Undurraga, and Viña Errázuriz spring to mind, but there are many, many more!


Some of the wonderful varities of Chilean wine include Riesling, Semillón, Shiraz, Sauvignon Blanc, Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Malbec, Pinot Noir, Carmenère, Syrah, Cabernet Franc, Verdot, Viogner, Gewürztraminer,Chenin Blanc and others.

Not all of the wineries are old and established enterprises. A number of small, boutique wineries are gaining recognition.

Next time you're serving wine, either alone or with food, try one of these fine Chilean wines. And remember the toast:
Salud, amor y dinero, y tiempo para gustarlos
Health, love and money, and time to enjoy them!

To get to Chile to tour the wineries and savor the wines, check flights from your area to Santiago and other locations in Chile. You can also browse for hotels and car rentals.

Buen viaje!

 

 

 


Edited by pinguin - 22-Aug-2007 at 18:10
"He who attempts to count the stars, not even knowing how to count the knots of the 'quipus'(counting string), ought to be held in derision."

Inca Pachacutec (1438-1471)
Back to Top
Yaomitl View Drop Down
Immortal Guard
Immortal Guard
Avatar

Joined: 05-Jul-2007
Location: United Kingdom
Status: Offline
Points: 85
Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Yaomitl Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 24-Aug-2007 at 07:11
Still can't find the glyph, but for what it's worth, here's the relevant passage from Fr. Duran's Historia de los Indios de Nueva Espagna (Doris Heyden translation 1994, page 39):
 
"A temazcalli, steam bath, was built where everyone bathed. This place was later called Mexicatzinco. The name was given because of a certain lewd happening that I shall refrain from telling in order not to offend the ears of the readers, but because of this [the Aztecs] were driven from the site (9)."
 
Heyden provides the following commentary:
 
"(9) - Duran leaves the reader curious about the lewd happening here, which he refrains from telling. In Codice Aubin of 1576 (1979:46), however, in a drawing depicting the Aztecs' stay at Mexicatzinco, an almost nude man is portrayed with a small century plant protruding from his anus. This may be a place glyph, misinterpreted by Duran when he saw it in a pictorial manuscript. This little man is drawn in the space similar to other glyphs: below the date, the scene with people, and the gloss in Nahuatl. Tzintli in Nahuatl means "anus" and is usually depicted as the lower part of a body, but refers to a diminutive; combined with the locative suffix -co, this forms -tzinco, "place of." So the "lewd" image could simply mean "Little Place of the Mexica" or "of Mecitli," another name for Huitzilopochtli as guide of the group's migration. Today Mexicatzinco is called Mexicalcingo."
 
Only really says what I already said, but there it is from the horse's mouth. Don't have Codex Aubin myself. There's a few odd pages of it online but I've yet to find that one. Sorry to keep derailing the thread, but I'll keep looking.
 
"For as long as the world shall endure, the honour and the glory of Mexico-Tenochtitlan must never be forgotten."
- Chimalpahin Quautlehuanitzin
<a href="http://www.theotherconquest.com
Back to Top
pinguin View Drop Down
Editorial Staff
Editorial Staff
Avatar

Joined: 29-Sep-2006
Location: Chile
Status: Offline
Points: 7508
Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote pinguin Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 25-Aug-2007 at 10:19

Interesting topic. I love Mesoamerican hieroglyphs. Perhaps we should open a thread on writing, and I'll keep waiting LOL

Now, I will going back to the topic of alcohol to present Pisco, the national destilled drink of both Peru and Chile. There is an old dispute between both countries for which own Pisco. Peruvians said is theirs, Chile have proofs that Pisco was produced locally since the 18th century. In any case, Pisco was developed when both countries were a single one, part of the Viceroyalty of Peru.
 
I will describe in here Chilean Pisco only. Why? Because it is from my country, of course, and I know a lot more about it than its competitor the Peruvian pisco. Besides, the formulae are different between both drinks.
 
Pisco is a brandy, a destilled wine. Chilean Pisco is produced using a wine of Moscatel grapes. It is a brandy produced only in the Elqui Valley, and any other brandy in my country is called "Aguardiente" (Hot water), which is the standard name for brandies in Spanish, and not Pisco.
 
Moscatel grapes produce a white white. This is the grape.
 
 
 
The Chilean Pisco is produced by destilation of those grapes. This is an account of a tourist:
 
The narrow (Elqui) valley offers 300 days of sun per year, and big temperature differences between day and night... making the grapes really ripe and full of sugar. This results in strong wine (14.5%), which cannot be commercialized as such. It is in fact distilled, the alcohol then maturated in oak barrels, to end up with the Chilean pisco.

The valleys were full of nets, hanged there to protect the vines from the wind (?) and the birds. These nets were shining under the sun, making some areas look like huge mirrors, or like the surface of a lake that would follow the slope of the mountains.

We decided to go as far as we could up the valley...
 A narrow valley, bathed by the sun, with arid rocks but also fertile grounds, barren mountains and vineyards, all sorts of colors from the red and green of the vegetation to the snow white and the mineral tones. A great place to be and feel Nature as a host for humans.

Well, nevertheless we kept our feet on the ground and headed for... a pisco factory, of course! We visited the Mistral pisco factory in Pisco Elqui. They exhibited the old alambics and explained how pisco was made back in the days... which is pretty much the same as today, except that the equipment has evolved.
Basically they make a sweet rose wine (from moscatel grapes), then distillate it (methanol thrown away, keeping only the ethanol) into an alcohol that keeps the smell of the grape. Then a 1 to 3 years ageing in oak barrels, and finally dilution with pure water to get the desired alcohol content, (around 40%).
The pisco which had been into more smoked barrels tasted similar to whisky in fact, and the real distinct pisco flavour was to be found in younger bottles. The oxygenation and low temperature of the degustation were primordial, as the taste and smell changed completely within 10 minutes.
(A bottle of Pisco and Lemon juice: ready to drink)
 
 
 
Chilean Pisco with the shape of a Moai of Eastern Island (Chilean island)
 
 
 
 
 
 
"He who attempts to count the stars, not even knowing how to count the knots of the 'quipus'(counting string), ought to be held in derision."

Inca Pachacutec (1438-1471)
Back to Top
pinguin View Drop Down
Editorial Staff
Editorial Staff
Avatar

Joined: 29-Sep-2006
Location: Chile
Status: Offline
Points: 7508
Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote pinguin Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 25-Aug-2007 at 10:51

More on Pisco: History of Pisco and his name.

(Translated by myself from Wiki Spanish)
 
The first grapes were introduced into the Kingdom of Chile between
1541 y 1552. According to French scientist Claudio Gay. The first plantations were done in La Serena city in 1548 and the first harvests were done in 1551
The ground, temperature and waters of the elqui river allowed the development of the wine industry. The conditions of the valley produced grapes with lot of suggar, specially suited to produce brandy.
The region become specialized in producing alcohol. In 1678 La Serena had 1.000 people and four large bars were to consume alcohol. In a decrete of 1681 the city council fixed the price of 1/4 of brandy in four Reales.
 
According to Hernán Cortés Olivares, since 1732 the brandy produced in Coquimbo was called Pisco. Since then, in testaments in all the Equi Valley appear the word Pisco, "el o la occisa reparte bienes tales "como seis botijas de pisco llenas",
 
 
Mapa%20de%20la%20antigua%20Provincia%20de%20Coquimbo,%20hacia%201895
Mapa de la antigua Provincia de Coquimbo, hacia 1895
 
The origin of the word Pisco comes from the brandies that at least since 1613 were produced in the Valley of Ica in today's Peru, and that were exported through the port of Pisco. By extension, the name Pisco started to be used at those times in the Elqui valley to call a similar liquor.
 
Ethimology
 
In Quechua of pre-colombian times, pisqu (pisku, phishgo, pichiu) to the birds that abounded in the valley of Pisco.
 
In Pisco existed a human group called Piskos. They produced clay pots to store drinks of all kind, including alcoholic drinks. Since then the large clay pots to store alcoholic drinks have been called PISCO in the region. During the Viceroyalty of Peru the name PISCO for the pots spread to the Elqui Valley
 
In short: Pisco mean pottery container for alcohol.
 
(Pictures of PERUVIAN Piscos)
 
 
 
 
 

(CHILEAN PISCOS)
 
 
Pisco + mango, ready to dink
 
 
 
 
 
 
"He who attempts to count the stars, not even knowing how to count the knots of the 'quipus'(counting string), ought to be held in derision."

Inca Pachacutec (1438-1471)
Back to Top
pinguin View Drop Down
Editorial Staff
Editorial Staff
Avatar

Joined: 29-Sep-2006
Location: Chile
Status: Offline
Points: 7508
Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote pinguin Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 25-Aug-2007 at 14:25

I would continue with the history of Beer and other beverages in the Americas, but somehow it is time to stop. All the above have some meaning to history. We saw:

(1) That tequila is perhaps the most authentically drink of the Americas, with a continuos history from pre-Aztec times, only changed by the introduction of destilation.
 
(2) That Chica of maize, the beer of the Americas, still exist, but that some other varieties have become popular as well, like the Chicha of grapes in Chile.
 
(3) That Bourbon and Maize Whiskies are a product of the fusion of the knowledge comming from Europe with the new products of the Americas. Like in the case of Tequila, Maize Whisky is an authentic product of the Western Hemisphere.
 
(4) That Rum, although made of suggar cane, was an invention of the African slaves in the Caribbean. Today is the most authentic Caribbean drink, and its relative, the Cachaza, is the most authentic Brazilian drink as well.
 
(5) That a tradition of Amerindian wines existed and still exist in the United States.
 
(6) That the wines of South America are deeply rooted in the conquist and in the French tradition of winery, imported to the Americas.
 
(7) That other local drinks, like Pisco, have a long history rooted in colonial times.
 
To end this series, let's think in the opposite sitiation. Think an authentic European drink that could only have existed thanks to an American plant:
The Potato Vodka, made of American potatoes!!
 
An example of excelent Potato Vodka is Poland's Chopin
 
 
The end
 
 
 
 


Edited by pinguin - 25-Aug-2007 at 17:42
"He who attempts to count the stars, not even knowing how to count the knots of the 'quipus'(counting string), ought to be held in derision."

Inca Pachacutec (1438-1471)
Back to Top
pinguin View Drop Down
Editorial Staff
Editorial Staff
Avatar

Joined: 29-Sep-2006
Location: Chile
Status: Offline
Points: 7508
Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote pinguin Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 26-May-2009 at 16:47
An old topic I awoke because some people was wondering about grapes and wines in the Americas.
 
Cheers
"He who attempts to count the stars, not even knowing how to count the knots of the 'quipus'(counting string), ought to be held in derision."

Inca Pachacutec (1438-1471)
Back to Top
 Post Reply Post Reply
  Share Topic   

Forum Jump Forum Permissions View Drop Down

Forum Software by Web Wiz Forums® version 11.10
Copyright ©2001-2017 Web Wiz Ltd.

This page was generated in 0.094 seconds.