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Forum LockedAljamiado: An Iberian Romance Language Wr

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    Posted: 13-Sep-2005 at 21:05
 
Imagine If You Write "estoy cansado" in Arabic Letters? Aljamiado development and Its contribution to how Arabic Words Became Part of Castilian (Spanish today)?
 
 
The cross to Andalucia or the Iberian Peninsula was in 711 AD and the Islamic expansion was put to an end in Western Europe in 714 in the battle of Buatie in the depth of France.
The Muslim Spain or Andalucia has survived as a propsper society of baile moriscosdifferent ethnics and langauges. In fact, the society was bilingual or trilingual. Besides Arabs, Berbers, Jews, and inhabitants of the Iberian Peninsula, Vandals, Celtics, and other European races have mixed with the new comers of Arabs and Berbers. Arab and Berber intermarriages were very common also.
In terms of Languages, the official language was Arabic. Berber, Hebrew, and Iberian Romance langauges existed.  One common Iberian Romance Langauge that existed within Muslim spain was spoken what is known later as Mozarabic. Aljamiado is Mozarabic too. Mozarabs are those Christian who lived within Muslim Spain and spoke an Iberian Romance Latin language close to Catalonese but written in Arabic alphabets and scripts, forming Aljamiado. It does not exist anymore but it contributed in adding Arabic origin words to the later Iberian Langauges such as the Castilian and the Portuguese.
texto aljamiado
For example, at some point of time, Catalon and Aragonese were two languages spoken besides Castilian in Spain. In Northwest Spain and above portugal, a language known as Galician is spoken also till today. However, Galician speakers interacted with the Mozarabs as they advanced down in the Reconquesta forming Portuguese as a seperate language with a lot of Arabic borrowed words and seperate from Galician. Politics also changed languages. The fact that as Castilian became the official language or what is known today as Spanish, was in fact pushed by the Spanish crown and influencing all the languages under the kingdom including Galician itself and widening the differences between Portugese and Galician eventhough they share one origin.
 
 
    Granada felt to the Spanish Crown in 1492, January 2nd. Muslims and Mozarabs were left to live in Spain under the agreement of Granada. bautizoHowever, later crowns pushed for conversion of Muslims in Spain and caused the revolt of 1500-1502. Also later, Arabic was banned and Muslim dress was banned also causing the revolt of 1568-1572 that was barely put down  by the help of John of Austria. Finally, the presecution of Muslims contributed to the cooperation between Spanish Muslim and Turkish Ottoman Empire faciliating an asualt on Southern Spanish shores, leading to final expelling of Muslims in Spain in 1609. Thus, ending the period of direct interaction between Arabic and other Iberian Romance languages.
 
 
 
 

P.S: The above article is a summary of various resources in English, Arabic, and Spanish. Any correction is deeply welcomed and encouraged.




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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote çok geç Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 14-Sep-2005 at 23:04

Sample text in the Morisco alphabet

This is Aljamiado written in Arabic coppied from (http://www.omniglot.com/writing/aljamiado.htm) . Since I speak Arabic but not fluent spanish I will write it down as phonetic sounds and I wonder if any one can translate that or compare it to contemporary Spanish. I took in consideration the instructions provided by  the link of the special pronounciation of some letters in arabic to aljamiado.

The Above Text Says: Del güalurdun De Los Sapios (title)

Text: Des un recontador kiyan de mandar bur camino ekarra rabbar abbarandar sancia y sapedoria edarasul deus adakaltal y un camino de los caminos del berrays y los ansalas asteyandan sus allas allus.

 



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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Maju Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 15-Sep-2005 at 01:29
I can understand only fragments but thanks for transcribing it to latin alphabet anyhow. It's a weird mixture of clear or less clear Spanish words with others that are not understandable at all. 

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote çok geç Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 15-Sep-2005 at 01:32
Well, im sure the translation to Latin alphabet is far from precise, maybe if someone tried to guess the meaning based on sounds i guess. Do you think some of those are pure Latin words?

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Decebal Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 15-Sep-2005 at 16:01

This is a text written in a language that is a thousand years old. Languages evolve a lot during such a time span. To give you an idea of just how much they can change, this is an extract from a poem written in Old English, from 937, describing the battle of Brununburh:

 

Æşelstan cyning,eorla dryhten,
beorna beahgifa,& his broşor eac,
Eadmund æşeling,ealdorlangne tir
geslogon æt sæccesweorda ecgum
ymbe Brunanburh.Bordweal clufan,
heowan heaşolindehamora lafan,
afaran Eadweardes,swa him geæşele wæs
from cneomægum,şæt hi æt campe oft
wiş laşra gehwæneland ealgodon,
hord & hamas.

Hettend crungun,
Sceotta leoda& scipflotan
fæge feollan,feld dænnede
secgas hwate,siğşan sunne up
on morgentid,mære tungol,
glad ofer grundas,godes condel beorht,
eces drihtnes,oğ sio æşele gesceaft
sah to setle.

 

And this is its translation in Modern English:

Then Aethelstan, king, Thane of eorls,
ring-bestower to men, and his brother also,
the atheling Edmund, lifelong honour
struck in battle with sword's edge
at Brunanburh. Broke the shieldwall,
split shields with swords.
Edward's sons, the issue of princes
from kingly kin, oft on campaign
their fatherland from foes defended,
hoard and home. Crushed the hated ones,
Scots-folk and ship-men
fated fell. The field flowed with blood,
I have heard said, from sun-rise
in morningtime, as mighty star
glided up overground, God's bright candle,
- the eternal Lord's - till that noble work
sank to its setting.

 

source: http://www.kami.demon.co.uk/gesithas/readings/readings.html

As you can see, it's a huge difference. We probably need someone who is actually familiar with Almijiado to tell us what some of those words mean. My guess is that the language had words coming from Latin, Arabic, Iberian languages and Germanic languages such as Wisigoth or Suevian.

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Even if you are a minority of one, the truth is the truth.- Mohandas Gandhi

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote çok geç Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 15-Sep-2005 at 16:24

I found those audio clips of Mathew's Lord's Prayer in old English, very fascinating. Just click on the speaker icon and listen.

Source: Georgetown University, Department of English ( http://www.georgetown.edu/faculty/ballc/oe/paternoster-oe.ht ml)

The Lord's Prayer in Old English

Matthew 6:9-13.


Fæder ure şu şe eart on heofonum; LP1.wav [59k] Father our thou that art in heavens
Si şin nama gehalgod LP2.wav [44k] be thy name hallowed
to becume şin rice LP3.wav [37k] come thy kingdom
gewurşe ğin willa LP4.wav [43k] be-done thy will
on eorğan swa swa on heofonum. LP5.wav [53k] on earth as in heavens
urne gedæghwamlican hlaf syle us todæg LP6.wav [68k] our daily bread give us today
and forgyf us ure gyltas LP7.wav [55k] and forgive us our sins
swa swa we forgyfağ urum gyltendum LP8.wav [65k] as we forgive those-who-have-sinned-against-us
and ne gelæd şu us on costnunge LP9.wav [57k] and not lead thou us into temptation
ac alys us of yfele soşlice LP10.wav [69k] but deliver us from evil. truly.

D.J. Kaufman
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