History Community ~ All Empires Homepage


This is the Archive on WORLD Historia, the old original forum.

 You cannot post here - you can only read.

 

Here is the link to the new forum:

  FAQ FAQ  Forum Search   Calendar   Register Register  Login Login


Forum LockedAfrican mathematics (fractals)

 Post Reply Post Reply
Author
dennisnist View Drop Down
Immortal Guard
Immortal Guard
Avatar

Joined: 06-Apr-2007
Location: Sweden
Online Status: Offline
Posts: 0
Post Options Post Options   Quote dennisnist Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Topic: African mathematics (fractals)
    Posted: 09-Feb-2008 at 11:30
Back to Top
pinguin View Drop Down
Editorial Staff
Editorial Staff
Avatar

Joined: 29-Sep-2006
Location: Chile
Online Status: Offline
Posts: 7508
Post Options Post Options   Quote pinguin Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 09-Feb-2008 at 11:38

Quite interesting

"He who attempts to count the stars, not even knowing how to count the knots of the 'quipus'(counting string), ought to be held in derision."

Inca Pachacutec (1438-1471)
Back to Top
pinguin View Drop Down
Editorial Staff
Editorial Staff
Avatar

Joined: 29-Sep-2006
Location: Chile
Online Status: Offline
Posts: 7508
Post Options Post Options   Quote pinguin Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 09-Feb-2008 at 15:58
It saw it fully now. Very intersting. I recommend to visit the site to open our minds a little bit.
"He who attempts to count the stars, not even knowing how to count the knots of the 'quipus'(counting string), ought to be held in derision."

Inca Pachacutec (1438-1471)
Back to Top
pinguin View Drop Down
Editorial Staff
Editorial Staff
Avatar

Joined: 29-Sep-2006
Location: Chile
Online Status: Offline
Posts: 7508
Post Options Post Options   Quote pinguin Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 02-Mar-2008 at 22:58
I found an article related to the binary code mentioned in the video, which is here.
It is very interesting to look at, and shows clues about a possible origin of the binary code system in the west. The author is the same of the conference above.
 
 
 
 

digital hyperstition

5. Ron Eglash - Africa in the Origins of Binary Code

"The relationship between what we do as physicists today and the future that our work engenders is dialogical in the sense that not only do our present actions determine what our future will be, but we must be ever mindful of the impact of our present actions on the future... Through our moral responsibility and awareness of signals and trends, we in effect, 'listen' to what the future has to tell us." (Donnell Walton, Chair, National Conference of Black Physics Students 1995.)

While the temporal traditions of African societies were frequently cited by colonialists as evidence for primitive superstition, they appear today in quite the opposite context: mathematical analyses of traditional African designs, techniques and knowledge systems indicate a wide array of sophisticated indigenous inventions. Like Paul Gilroy's fractal Atlantic, Donnel Walton's invocation of African divination traditions- of listening to the future- is not only useful in its call for greater ethical responsibility, but also as a reminder fo the surprising links between traditional knowledge and modern science.

The modern binary code, essential to every digital circuit from alarm locks to super computers, was first introduced by Leibniz around 1670.

Leibniz has been inspired by the binary-based 'logic machine' of Raymond Lull, which was in turn inspired by the alchemists' divination practice fo geomancy (Skinner 1980). But geomancy is Clearly not of European origin. It was first introduced there by Hugo of Santalla in twelfth century Spain and Islamic scholars had been using it in North Africa since at least the 9th century, where it was first documented in written records by the Jewish writer Aran ben Joseph.

Geomancy is traditionally practiced by drawing patterns in the sand. It begins with four sets of random dashed lines. These are paired off (i.e. summed by addition module two), and the even/odd results recorded with two strokes or one stroke. Four of these binary digits represents one of 16 possible divination archetypes (ruler, travel, desire, etc.) Although the first four are generated by this random process, the following 12 are created by recursively applying the same pairing operation on the binary digits making up the four symbols (a process which can be seen in many other areas of African knowledge systems, c.f. Eglash 1995).

The nearly identical system of divination in West Africa associated with Fa and Ifa was first noted by Trautman (1939), but he assumed that geomancy originated in Arabic society, where it is known as ilm alraml ("the science of sand"). The mathematical basis of geomancy is however, strikingly out of place in non-African systems. Like other linguistic codes, number bases tend to have an extremely long historical persistence. The ancient Greeks held 10 to be the most sacred of all numbers; the Kabbalah's Ayin Sof emanates by 10 Sefirot and the Christian west counts on its "Hindu- Arabic" decimal notation.

In ancient Egypt, on the other hand, base 2 calculation was ubiquitous, even for multiplication and division, and Zaslavsky (1973) notes archeological evidence linking it to the use of doubling in the counting systems of sub-Suharan Africa. Kautzsch (1912) notes that both Diodorus Siculus and Oblian reported that the ancient Egyptian priests "employed an image of truth cut in halves."

Doubling is a frequent theme in African divination and many other African knowledge systems, connecting the sacredness of twins, spirit doubles, and double vision with material objects, like the blacksmith's twin bellows and the double iron hoe given in bridewealth. In a recent interview in Wired, Brian Eno claimed that the problem with computers is that they "don't have enough African in them". Eno was, no doubt, trying to be complimentary, saying that adaptive rhythm and flexibility is a valuable attribute of African culture. But in doing so he obscured the cultural origins of digital computing, and did an injustice to the very concept he was trying to convey. Take, for example, Henry Louis Gates' (1988, pp. 30) use of a recursive doubling description when discussing the relations between divination and sexuality in West African traditions:

The Fon and Yoruba escape the Western cersion of discursive sexism throught he action of doubling the double; the number 4 and its multiples are sacred in Yoruba metaphysics. Esu's two sides "disclose a hidden wholeness," rather than closing off unity, through the opposition, they signify the passage from one to the other as sections of a subsumed whole.

The binary coding of traditional African knowledge systems, like that of their antecedents in modern computing networks, is neither rigid nor arhythmic; its beat is a heritage heard by those who listen to the future.

References

Eglash, R. 'African Influences in Cybernetics." In C.H. Gray (ed) The Cyborg Handbook.
Gates, H.L. The Signifying Monkey.
Gilroy, P. The Black Atlantic.
Kautzsch, T. "Urim", Encylopedia of Religious Knowledge.
Skinner, S. Terrestrial Astrology.
Trautmann, R. "La divination a la Cote des Esclaves et a Madagascar, Le Vodou, le Fa, le Sikidy." Memories de l'institut Francais d'Afrique Noire.
Zaslavsky, Cladia. Africa Counts.

"He who attempts to count the stars, not even knowing how to count the knots of the 'quipus'(counting string), ought to be held in derision."

Inca Pachacutec (1438-1471)
Back to Top
Tk101 View Drop Down
Housecarl
Housecarl
Avatar

Joined: 18-Apr-2007
Location: United States
Online Status: Offline
Posts: 59
Post Options Post Options   Quote Tk101 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 15-Jun-2008 at 19:06
Wow...thats very intriguing Pinguin... i will take a look at what you have.
there is only one truth
- Conan
[IMG]http://www.architecture.org/shop/images/402036lg.jpg[IMG]
Back to Top
Mercury_Dawn View Drop Down
Knight
Knight


Joined: 30-Aug-2008
Location: West Virginia
Online Status: Offline
Posts: 71
Post Options Post Options   Quote Mercury_Dawn Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 30-Aug-2008 at 01:47
I believe the art historian name was Jay Hambridge, he wrote in the early twentieth century about how Virtruvius was wrong about how the greeks during the height of Athenian power designed their, and proved it was via fractals. 
Back to Top
Mayra View Drop Down
Janissary
Janissary
Avatar

Joined: 15-Jan-2007
Location: brasil
Online Status: Offline
Posts: 29
Post Options Post Options   Quote Mayra Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 16-Nov-2008 at 15:50

"The nearly identical system of divination in West Africa associated with Fa and Ifa was first noted by Trautman (1939), but he assumed that geomancy originated in Arabic society, where it is known as ilm alraml ("the science of sand"). The mathematical basis of geomancy is however, strikingly out of place in non-African systems. Like other linguistic codes, number bases tend to have an extremely long historical persistence. The ancient Greeks held 10 to be the most sacred of all numbers; the Kabbalah's Ayin Sof emanates by 10 Sefirot and the Christian west counts on its "Hindu- Arabic" decimal notation. "

 
Well part of it sounds identical but Ifa divination is composed of 16 Odus, which in turn give way to 256 different combinations of the sets of strokes using a two column 4 line system. Using 16 "4-eyed" palm nuts sacred to Ifa (the Ikin), the Babalawo cups them in his left hand and "beats" them with his other hand, passing them back and forth, trying to capture only one or two nuts at most in his left palm. He keeps "beating" them between the raised right hand and arm and the left below, until one or two remains. Then if it is 1, he strokes 2 lines vertically, next to each other starting on the right and the next stroke parallel on the left. This is done on a normally round wooden board called an "opon", a divining board sacred to Ifa, also known as the Orisa Orunmila. He, (Babalawos are always male) strokes the lines in a yellowish powder called "iyerosun", which is a dust derived from trees where termites are eating the wood. If 2 nuts are left in his hand he makes one stroke on the right. He continues until an "odu" a type of sacred womb of knowledge, figure is given using the 4 lines. The following is an example of "Eji Ogbe"  
                                                          l   l
                                                          l   l
                                                          l   l
                                                          l   l
Obviously this is one of the primary 16 Odus and considered the first to open the road. As I mentioned, there are 256 combinations possible, and within each Odu there are innumerous verses called "itans" that comprise the oral "bible" of the Yoruba. Belieivng that all the ills of human life can be thwarted by consulting the Ikin, the proper sacrifices and offerings are recited in each verse, along with clues as to the plants, trees, vines, various kinds of animals needed to make the magic preparations needed to bring about harmony in the consultor´s life.   All of this knowledge is handed down verbally and Babas are expected to know at least 3 or 4 verses within each of the 256 odus, and able to recite them at will, besides the various songs that need to be sung honoring the plant and animal life, carry out all sacrifices properly.  Ifa is the sum of all the divine energy of the Universe, it is not just a word that represents Orunmila, Olodunmare´s "messenger" here on earth, but the sum of all the wisdom and knowledge of all the Orisas, sacred deities in the Yoruba belief. It is the Yesterday Today and Tomorrow.  There is the system of cowry shell throwing called at times Merindilogun or Erindilogun, which uses 16 special cowry shells and used mostly by women Oolorisas or Iyalorisas spelling varying from country to country in the diaspora. These, according to if are throw mouth up or mouth down, give way to 17 combinations only. They also have verses attatched to them along with the appropriate vegetable and animal knowledge. But some practitioners use different system along with the odus, receiving intuitive messages from the Orisas, etc.,.
 I read an interesting article in a U.S. newspaper at the beginning of the Iraq war this decade, that Sadaam Husseins mother threw cowry shells, and that he himself had a stable of magicians and learned people who helped him with "charms" and who knows what else. Also in this article said he even had a Japanese Master of some sorts at his use. I tried to find this paper later to cut out the article and couldn´t. Anyone also saw that??
I´ll look for a book I have about numbers and counting in Africa, maybe someone will find it interesting.


Edited by Mayra - 16-Nov-2008 at 17:16
"Great spirits have always encountered violent opposition from mediocre minds."
" I have no particular talent. I am merely inquisitive". Albert Einstein
Back to Top
Jams View Drop Down
Consul
Consul
Avatar

Joined: 06-Sep-2006
Location: Denmark
Online Status: Offline
Posts: 352
Post Options Post Options   Quote Jams Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 16-Nov-2008 at 17:16
That's quite interesting. So the bit was invented in Africa? And hex too?
Infonor homepage: http://infonor.dk/ RAIPON homepage: http://www.raipon.org/
Back to Top
pinguin View Drop Down
Editorial Staff
Editorial Staff
Avatar

Joined: 29-Sep-2006
Location: Chile
Online Status: Offline
Posts: 7508
Post Options Post Options   Quote pinguin Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 21-May-2009 at 01:59
I awoke this thread to show to somebody new in this forum.
"He who attempts to count the stars, not even knowing how to count the knots of the 'quipus'(counting string), ought to be held in derision."

Inca Pachacutec (1438-1471)
Back to Top
Mayra View Drop Down
Janissary
Janissary
Avatar

Joined: 15-Jan-2007
Location: brasil
Online Status: Offline
Posts: 29
Post Options Post Options   Quote Mayra Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 21-May-2009 at 13:12
Pinguin! I am glad you did! It has brought me back to AllEmpires!
"Great spirits have always encountered violent opposition from mediocre minds."
" I have no particular talent. I am merely inquisitive". Albert Einstein
Back to Top
Carcharodon View Drop Down
Baron
Baron


Joined: 04-May-2007
Location: Sweden
Online Status: Offline
Posts: 479
Post Options Post Options   Quote Carcharodon Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 27-May-2009 at 22:36
Good comment on Ron Eglash book African Fractals: Modern Computing and indigenous Design:
 

"Next time you bump into one of those idiots who starts asking you questions like, 'where is the African Mozart, or where is the African Brunel?' -- implying that Africans do not think -- send them a copy of Ron Eglash’s study of fractals in African architecture and watch their heads explode."

mentalacrobatics.com

http://www.ted.com/speakers/ron_eglash.html

Back to Top
Mayra View Drop Down
Janissary
Janissary
Avatar

Joined: 15-Jan-2007
Location: brasil
Online Status: Offline
Posts: 29
Post Options Post Options   Quote Mayra Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 27-May-2009 at 23:14
hrre is the book i mentioned years ago LOL
Africa Counts
Number and Pattern in African Cultrue
Claudia Zaslavsky
"Great spirits have always encountered violent opposition from mediocre minds."
" I have no particular talent. I am merely inquisitive". Albert Einstein
Back to Top
pinguin View Drop Down
Editorial Staff
Editorial Staff
Avatar

Joined: 29-Sep-2006
Location: Chile
Online Status: Offline
Posts: 7508
Post Options Post Options   Quote pinguin Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 13-Jun-2009 at 03:48
"He who attempts to count the stars, not even knowing how to count the knots of the 'quipus'(counting string), ought to be held in derision."

Inca Pachacutec (1438-1471)
Back to Top
 Post Reply Post Reply

Forum Jump Forum Permissions View Drop Down



This page was generated in 0.094 seconds.