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nainggolan View Drop Down
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote nainggolan Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 27-Dec-2007 at 15:26
@ Sanders
wow,,thanks for the articles.

@HangPC
the petition od the letter pics not so clear, bro. :(
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Tore The Dog Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 14-Feb-2008 at 21:44
Originally posted by Sander Sander wrote:

 
These Acehnese were so though to subdue that there is a monument in the Netherlands for the general ( Van Heutzsch ) who finally could early 1900's.
 
I dont know much about the Aceh conflict of last decades ( or now ) but its older history is intresting though.
 
What is now a large state Indonesia was usually a blanket of many independent of small and larger states, rivalling each other. In the 1700's and 1800's some of these states had been subdued by the Dutch while many resisted untill the 1900's . One of these states was the islamic sultanare of Aceh in north of Sumatra, Indonesia.
 
short history :
 
Aceh ( in older times called Samudra -Pasai ) became an Islamic sultanate in the 1200's because the ruler converted ( acording to the chronicles due contact with Persian traders ). They became strong propagaters themselves and from there islam expanded in the region, mostly by peaceful means. For example , the ruler of citystate Malacca ( in Malay peninsula ) across the straits, became muslim because he married a princess of the sultan of Pasai ( Acheh) in the 1400's . Others in this region followed but inspite bloodrelations, brotherhood ideals etc all these sultanates were often great rivals /enemies.
 
When the portugese came in the 1500's they managed to get some footholds in the Malacca straits region. In 1511 they had conquered the capital of Malacca sultanate ( 1511 ) in Malay peninsula and they also gained a foothold in Acheh. This proved to be short and in 1523 they were defeated and ousted by Achenese Sultan Ali Mughayat Syah.
 
In the 1600's Acheh grew dramitically in power. It became a well organized state and important islamic entre of learning . It had a strong organized army with a large fleet equipped with cannons etc. It also became the most important entrepot for muslim and other foreign traders. It was rather Acheh than the Portugese, that controlled the straits making Portugese Malacca decline in importance.
 
All this time Acheh and the Portugese were having countles battles in wich to protect their commercial interests . The portugese attempted to conquer Aceh several times but without succes.  The Achenese on their turn beseiged and bombed Portugese Malacca several times( see picture below ) but without desired result either.
 
 
Inspite all the wars with the Portugese, Aceh itself became an imperialist power in the region and conquered several sultanates in Sumatra and Malay peninsula up to southern Thailand ..
 
Because of expansionist wars, its rival the Johor sultanate ( extreme south part of Malay peninsula) alliied with the Portuguese . Together they inflicted a defeat on Aceh in a naval battle ( A few years later the same Johor sultanate sided with the Dutch to defeat the Portugese in Malacca by which Malacca fell in Dutch hands in 1641 ). After this battle Aceh had lost its possesions in Malay peninsula but it kept an an independent and significant power.
 
Its interesting to note that Acheh had good contacts with the Ottomans. In fact, due to their common aversion against the Portugese, the Ottomans send weapons (guns and cannons ) to aid them. An intresting fact is that Acheh eventually produced cannons and guns as well and supplied others with it , for exampe the Sultan of the Maledives (Male ) who defeated the Portugese with cannons casted in Acheh.
 
In the 1800's the 2 main colonial powers in the region were the Dutch and The British . They signed a treaty (1824 ) in wich Aceh would fall in the Dutch influence sphere. 
 
Eventually, the first Aceh war war started in 1873 . The Dutch were defeated and several commanders ( like general Kohler ) were killed. Kolonel van Daalen made the Dutch army withdraw. ( see Van 't Veer , the Atjeh oorlog, 1980 )
 
The events were a great shock for the Netherlands, so everything had to be done to conquer it. The next year the Dutch started a new war and invaded the place (1874 ) with 10.000 soldiers. They captured the capital Banda Aceh (Kotaradja ) but this had been abonded the nights before and the war went on in the outer regions without much result for the Dutch. Little more than 50 square kilometer was controlled. ( Van 't veer 1980)
 
Around 1900, after some 30 years of costly wars, the state of Aceh had still not surrendered and Dutch control was limited to a few coastal cities. Now the 4 th Acehwar (1898-1910 ) started. The new Dutch general Heutzsch had a new "strategy" . Part of it was random killing of civillians ( including children and women) by which the local population would be decimated ( Van 't Veer , 1980 ).
 
The "Van Heutsch method " ( maybe not much different from genocide) combined with the capturing of some guerilla leaders finally worked. The reigning Sultan Tuanka Daud Shah gave in. In 1903 he signed the treaty by wich it would be loyal to the Dutch crown.
 
Several guerilla groups did not agree with this treatyand some resistance continued untill World War II making Aceh a region which was only partly pacified.
 
The war endured some 4 decades, costed some 10.000 Dutch lives , more than 100.000 Achinese, biggest part civillians ( ibid ). Ironically, 40 years of war were needed to make it Dutch possesion for about the same duration.
 
references :
 
Paul van 't Veer, De Atjeh-oorlog, De Arbeiderspers, Amsterdam, 1980.
 
Acording some rumors in the last Atjeh war , was a Swedish-American gunslinger whit Atjeh rebbels and teached them in to modern rifle war , have just rumors that he was "challenged" by a dutch nco an won the duell , after this he was warned by rebbel activists that dutch will arrest him for counter espionage , and joined these "rebbels" to the verry end.
 
After war ended, they helped him to escape to Singapore and back to alaskan goldfields.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote HangPC2 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 05-Feb-2009 at 07:27
Sultanate Of Aceh Darussalam Flag




Aceh Flag : Alam Aceh (Atjeh) , Alam Peudeueng , Alam Zulfiqar





(1496 - 1903)















Government flag Aceh, named ALAM ZULFIQAR those made by Sultan Ali Mughayat Shah (First Sultan Aceh) old his leadership is from year 916 - 936 H (1511 - 1530)




Meriam Lada Sicupak (Aceh)




Acehnese Cannons Used During Fight Again Portuguese And Dutch












Malay / Aceh Firearms



# Pemuras (Malay / Aceh Decorated Traditional Gun)

# Bedil Istinggar (Malay Flintlock Musket)

# Tarkul

# Karga (Bullet Case)



Pendekar Aceh (Aceh Warrior)








Sultanate Aceh Guard (Nias Island)




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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote HangPC2 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 05-Feb-2009 at 07:31
Marechaussee (1904)





An Aceh fort after capture by the Dutch in a 1901 photograph (1904)











Gunungan, Kutaraja ''Banda Aceh'' (1874)


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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote HangPC2 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 05-Feb-2009 at 07:36
Marechaussee Klewang (Cutlass)



During the Aceh War the acehnese klewangs proved very effective in close quarters combat with Dutch troops and the Royal Netherlands East Indies Army adopted a heavy cutlass, also called klewang, to counter it. Mobile troops armed with carbine and klewang succeeded in suppressing Aceh resistance where traditional infantry with rifle and bayonet had failed.













Aceh Weapon




Sultan & Acehnese Noble












Peudeueng Peusangan (Hulu Meu Apet)


























Sarung Peudeueng Peusangan






Peudeueng Peusangan (Hulu Tumpang Beunteung)








Peudeueng Panjang (Hulu Tumpang Beunteung) Hulu Buaya








Sarung Peudeung Panjang






Aceh War Flag













Sources:


“Blanke Wapens” by JG Dieles





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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote cahaya Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 05-Feb-2009 at 14:34
interesting... acheh wear different way .. the sampin.. a little bit complicated (how they
compare to us in Malaysia..
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