History Community ~ All Empires Homepage


This is the Archive on WORLD Historia, the old original forum.

 You cannot post here - you can only read.

 

Here is the link to the new forum:

  FAQ FAQ  Forum Search   Events   Register Register  Login Login

Forum LockedA Massive Hinduism Timeline

 Post Reply Post Reply Page  12>
Author
Darkness1089 View Drop Down
Immortal Guard
Immortal Guard
Avatar

Joined: 14-Aug-2005
Location: United States
Status: Offline
Points: 28
Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Darkness1089 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Topic: A Massive Hinduism Timeline
    Posted: 30-Sep-2005 at 22:20
Hindu Timeline Part 1
-2.5m to -1000bce

-2.5 m: Genus Homo originates in Africa, cradle of humanity.

-2 m: Stone artifacts are made and used by hominids in North India, an area rich in
animal species, including the elephant.

-500,000: Stone hand axes and other tools are used in N. India.

-470,000: India's hominids are active in Tamil Nadu and Punjab.

-400,000: Soan culture in India is using primitive chopping tools.

-360,000: Fire is first controlled by homo erectus in China.

-300,000: Homo sapiens roams the earth, from Africa to Asia.

-100,000: Homo sapiens sapiens (humans) with 20th-century man's brain size
(1,450 cc) live in East Africa. Populations separate. Migrations proceed to Asia via
the Isthmus of Suez.

-75,000: Last ice age begins. Human population is 1.7 million.

-45,000: After mastery of marine navigation, migrations from Southeast Asia settle
Australia and the Pacific islands.

-40,000: Groups of hunter-gatherers in Central India are living in painted rock
shelters. Similar groups in Northern Punjab work at open sites protected by
windbreaks.

-35,000: Migrations of separated Asian populations settle Europe.

-30,000: American Indians spread throughout the Americas.

-10,000: Last ice age ends after 65,000 years; earliest signs of agriculture. World
population 4 million; India is 100,000.

-10,000: Taittiriya Brahmana 3.1.2 refers to Purvabhadrapada nakshatra's rising
due east, a phenomenon occurring at this date (Dr. B.G. Siddharth of Birla Science
Institute), indicating the earliest known dating of the sacred Veda.

-10,000: Vedic culture, the essence of humanity's eternal wisdom, Sanatana
Dharma, lives in the Himalayas at end of Ice Age.

-9000: Old Europe, Anatolia and Minoan Crete display a Goddess-centered culture
reflecting a matriarchial order.

-8500: Taittiriya Samhita 6.5.3 places Pleiades asterism at winter solstice,
suggesting the antiquity of this Veda.

-7500: Excavations at Neveli Cori in Turkey reveal advanced civilization with
meticulous architecture and planning. Dr. Sri B.G. Siddharth believes this was a
Vedic culture.

-7000: Proto-Vedic period ends. Early Vedic period begins.

-7000: Time of Manu Vaivasvata, "father of mankind," of Sarasvati-Drishadvati
area (also said to be a South Indian Maharaja who sailed to the Himalayas during a
great flood).

-7000: Early evidence of horses in the Ganga region (Frawley).

-7000: Indus-Sarasvati area residents of Mehrgarh grow barley, raise sheep and
goats. They store grain, entomb their dead and construct buildings of sun-baked
mud bricks.

-6776: Start of Hindu lists of kings according to ancient Greek references that give
Hindus 150 kings and a history of 6,400 years before 300bce; agrees with next
entry.

-6500: Rig Veda verses (e.g., 1.117.22, 1.116.12, 1.84.13.5) say winter solstice
begins in Aries (according to Dr. D. Frawley), indicating the antiquity of this section
of the Vedas.

-6000: Early sites on the Sarasvati River, then India's largest, flowing west of Delhi
into the Rann of Kutch; Rajasthan is a fertile region with much grassland, as
described in the Rig Veda. The culture, based upon barley (yava), copper (ayas)
and cattle, also reflects that of the Rig Veda.

-5500: Mehrgarh villagers are making baked pottery and thousands of small, clay of
female figurines (interpreted to be earliest signs of Shakti worship), and are involved
in long-distance trade in precious stones and sea shells.

-5500: Date of astrological observations associated with ancient events later
mentioned in the Puranas (Alain Danielou).

-5000: World population, 5 million, doubles every 1,000 years.

-5000: Beginnings of Indus-Sarasvati civilizations of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro.
Date derived by considering archeological sites, reached after excavating 45 feet.
Brick fire altars exist in many houses, suggesting Vedic fire rites, yajna. Earliest
signs of worship of Lord Siva. This mature culture will last 3,000 years, ending
around -1700.

-5000: Rice is harvested in China, with grains found in baked bricks. But its
cultivation originated in Eastern India.

-4300: Traditional dating for Lord Rama's time.

-4000: Excavations from this period at Sumerian sites of Kish and Susa reveal
existence of Indian trade products.

-4000: India's population is 1 million.

-4000: Date of world's creation (Christian genealogies).

-3928: July 25th, the earliest eclipse mentioned in the Rig Veda (according to Indian
researcher Dr. Shri P.C. Sengupta).

-3200: Hindu astronomers called nakshatra darshas record in Vedic texts their
observations of full moon and new moon at the winter and summer solstices and
spring and fall equinoxes with reference to 27 fixed stars (nakshatras) spaced nearly
equally on the moon's ecliptic or apparent path across the sky. The precession of
the equinoxes (caused by the wobbling of the Earth's axis of rotation) causes the
nakshatras to appear to drift at a constant rate along a predictable course over a
25,000-year cycle. From these observations historians are able to calculate
backwards and determine the date when the indicated position of moon, sun and
nakshatra occurred.

-3102: Kali Era Hindu calendar starts. Kali Yuga begins.

-3100: Reference to vernal equinox in Rohini (middle of Taurus) from some
Brahmanas, as noted by B.G. Tilak, Indian scholar and patriot. Traditional date of
the Mahabharata war and lifetime of Lord Krishna.

-3100: Early Vedic period ends, late Vedic period begins.

-3100: India includes Afghanistan and parts of Central Asia.

-3100: Aryan people inhabit Iran, Iraq and Western Indus-Sarasvati Valley frontier.
Frawley describes Aryans as "a culture of spiritual knowledge." He and others
believe 1) the Land of Seven Rivers (Sapta Sindhu) mentioned in the Rig Veda
refers to India only, 2) that the people of Indus-Sarasvati Valleys and those of Rig
Veda are the same, and 3) there was no Aryan invasion. This view is now
prevailing over the West's historical concept of the Aryans as a separate ethnic or
linguistic group. Still others claim the Indus-Sarasvati people were Dravidians who
moved out or were displaced by incoming Aryans.

-3000: Weaving in Europe, Near East and Indus-Sarasvati Valley is primarily coiled
basketry, either spiraled or sewn.

-3000: Evidence of horses in South India.

-3000: People of Tehuacan, Mexico, are cultivating corn.

-3000: Saiva Agamas are recorded in the time of the earliest Tamil Sangam. (A
traditional date.)

-2700: Seals of Indus-Sarasvati Valley indicate Siva worship, in depictions of Siva
as Pashupati, Lord of Animals.

-2600: Indus-Sarasvati civilization reaches a height it sustains until 1700 bce.
Spreading from Pakistan to Gujarat, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh, it is the largest of
the world's three oldest civilizations with links to Mesopotamia (possibly Crete),
Afghanisthan, Central Asia and Karnataka. Harappa and Mohenjo-daro have
populations of 100,000.

-2600: Major portions of the Veda hymns are composed during the reign of
Vishvamitra I (Dating by Dr. S.B. Roy).

-2600: Drying up of Drishadvati River of Vedic fame, along with possible shifting of
the Yamuna to flow into the Ganga.

-2600: First Egyptian pyramid is under construction.

-2500: Main period of Indus-Sarasvati cities. Culture relies heavily on rice and
cotton, as mentioned in Atharva Veda, which were first developed in India. Ninety
percent of sites are along the Sarasvati, the region's agricultural bread basket.
Mohenjo-daro is a large peripheral trading center. Rakhigari and Ganweriwala (not
yet excavated in 1994) on the Sarasvati are as big as Mohenjo-daro. So is
Dholarvira in Kutch. Indus-Sarasvati sites have been found as far south as
Karnataka's Godavari River and north into Afghanistan on the Amu Darya River.

-2500: Reference to vernal equinox in Krittika (Pleiades or early Taurus) from
Yajur and Atharva Veda hymns and Brahmanas. This corresponds to Harappan
seals that show seven women (the Krittikas) tending a fire.

-2300: Sargon founds Mesopotamian kingdom of Akkad, trades with
Indus-Sarasvati Valley cities.

-2300: Indo-Europeans in Russia's Ural steppelands develop efficient spoked-wheel
chariot technology, using 1,000-year-old horse husbandry and freight-cart
technology.

-2050: Vedic people are living in Persia and Afghanistan.

-2051: Divodasa reigns to -1961, has contact with Babylon's King Indatu
(Babylonian chronology). Dating by S.B. Roy.

ca -2040: Prince Rama is born at Ayodhya, site of future Rama temple. (This and
next two datings by S.B. Roy.)

-2033: Reign of Dasharatha, father of Lord Rama. King Ravana, villain of the
Ramayana, reigns in Sri Lanka.

-2000: Indo-Europeans (Celts, Slavs, Lithuanians, Ukranians) follow cosmology,
theology, astronomy, ritual, society and marriage that parallel early Vedic patterns.

-2000: Probable date of first written Saiva Agamas.

-2000: World population: 27 million. India: 5 million or 22%. India has roughly G of
human race throughout history.

-1915: All Madurai Tamil Sangam is held at Thiruparankundram (according to
traditional Tamil chronology).

-1900: Late Vedic period ends, post Vedic period begins.

-1900: Drying up of Sarasvati River, end of Indus-Sarasvati culture, end of the
Vedic age. After this, the center of civilization in ancient India relocates from the
Sarasvati to the Ganga, along with possible migration of Vedic peoples out of India
to the Near East (perhaps giving rise to the Mittani and Kassites, who worship
Vedic Gods). The redirection of the Sutlej into the Indus causes the Indus area to
flood. Climate changes make the Sarasvati region too dry for habitation. (Thought
lost, its river bed is finally photographed from satellite in the 1990s.)

-1500: Egyptians bury their royalty in the Valley of the Kings.

-1500: Polynesians migrate throughout Pacific islands.

-1500: Submergence of the stone port city of Dwarka near Gujarat, where early
Brahmi script, India's ancient alphabet, is used. Recent excavation by Dr. S.R. Rao.
Larger than Mohenjo-daro, many identify it with the Dwarka of Krishna. Possible
date of Lord Krishna. Indicates second urbanization phase of India between
Indus-Sarasvati sites like Harappa and later cities on the Ganga.

-1500: Indigenous iron technology in Dwarka and Kashmir.

-1500: Cinnamon is exported from Kerala to Middle East.

-1472: Reign of Dhritarashtra, father of the Kauravas. Reign of Yudhisthira, king of
the Pandavas. Life of Sage Yajnavalkya. Date based on Mahabharata's citation of
winter solstice at Dhanishtha, which occurs around this time.

-1450: End of Rig Veda Samhita narration.

-1450: Early Upanishads are composed during the next few hundred years, also
Vedangas and Sutra literature.

-1424: Bharata battle is fought, as related in the Mahabharata. (Professor Subash
Kak places the battle at -2449. Other authors give lower dates, up to 9th century
bce)

-1424: Birth of Parik****, grandson of Arjuna, and next king.

-1350: At Boghaz Koi in Turkey, stone inscription of the Mitanni treaty lists as
divine witnesses the Vedic Deities Mitra, Varuna, Indra and the Nasatyas (Ashvins).

-1316: Mahabharata epic poem is composed by Sage Vyasa.

-1300: Panini composes Ashtadhyayi, systematizing Sanskrit grammar in 4,000
terse rules. (Date according to Roy.)

-1300: Changes are made in the Mahabharata and Ramayana through 200 bce.
Puranas are edited up until 400 ce. Early smriti literature is composed over next 400
years.

-1255: King Shuchi of Magadha writes Jyotisha Vedanga, including astronomical
observations which date this scripture-that summer solstice occurs in Ashlesha
Nakshatra.

-1250: Moses leads 600,000 Jews out of Egypt.

-1200: Probable time of the legendary Greek Trojan War celebrated in Homer's
epic poems, Iliad and Odyssey (ca -750).

-1124: Elamite Dynasty of Nebuchadnezzar (-1124-1103) moves capital to
Babylon, world's largest city, covering 10,000 hectares, slightly larger than
present-day San Francisco.

-1000: Late Vedic period ends. Post-Vedic period begins.


-------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------



Hindu Timeline Part 2
-1000bce to 1000ce

-1000: World population is 50 million, doubling every 500 years.

-975: King Hiram of Phoenicia, for the sake of King Solomon of Israel, trades with
the port of Ophir (Sanskrit: Supara) near modern Bombay, showing the trade
between Israel and India. Same trade goes back to Harappan era.

-950: Jewish people arrive in India in King Solomon's merchant fleet. Later Jewish
colonies find India a tolerant home.

-950: Gradual breakdown of Sanskrit as a spoken language occurs over the next
200 years.

-925: Jewish King David forms an empire in what is present-day Israel and
Lebanon.

-900: Iron Age in India. Early use dates to at least -1500.

ca -900: Earliest records of the holy city of Varanasi (one of the world's oldest
living cities) on the sacred river Ganga.

-900: Use of iron supplements bronze in Greece.

-850: The Chinese are using the 28-nakshatra zodiac called Shiu, adapted from the
Hindu jyotisha system.

ca -800: Later Upanishads are recorded.

-800: Later smriti, secondary Hindu scripture, is composed, elaborated and
developed during next 1,000 years.

-776: First Olympic Games are held in Greece.

-750: Prakrits, vernacular or "natural" languages, develop among India's common
peoples. Already flourishing in 500 bce , Pali and other Prakrits are chiefly known
from Buddhist and Jain works composed at this time.

-750: Priestly Sanskrit is gradually refined over next 500 years, taking on its
classical form.

-700: Life of Zoroaster of Persia, founder of Zoroastrianism. His holy book, Zend
Avesta, contains many verses from the Rig and Atharva Veda. His strong
distinctions between good and evil set the dualistic tone of God and devil which
distinguishes all later Western religions.

-700: Early Smartism emerges from the syncretic Vedic brahminical (priestly caste)
tradition. It flourishes today as a liberal sect alongside Saiva, Vaishnava and Shakta
sects.

-623-543: Life of Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha, born in Uttar Pradesh in a
princely Shakya Saivite family. (Date by Sri Lankan Buddhists. Indian scholars say
-563-483. Mahayanists of China and Japan prefer -566-486 or later.)

ca -600: Life of Sushruta, of Varanasi, the father of surgery. His ayurvedic treatises
cover pulse diagnosis, hernia, cataract, cosmetic surgery, medical ethics, 121
surgical implements, antiseptics, use of drugs to control bleeding, toxicology,
psychiatry, classification of burns, midwifery, surgical anesthesia and therapeutics
of garlic.

ca -600: The Ajivika sect, an ascetic, atheistic group of naked sadhus reputated for
fierce curses, is at its height, continuing in Mysore until the 14th century.
Adversaries of both Buddha and Mahavira, their philosophy is deterministic, holding
that everything is inevitable.

ca -600: Lifetime of Lao-tzu, founder of Taoism in China, author of Tao-te Ching.
Its esoteric teachings of simplicity and selflessness shape Chinese life for 2,000
years and permeate the religions of Vietnam, Japan and Korea.

-599-527: Lifetime of Mahavira Vardhamana, 24th Tirthankara and revered
renaissance Jain master. His teachings stress strict codes of vegetarianism,
asceticism and nonviolence. (Some date his life 40 years later. )

-560: In Greece, Pythagoras teaches math, music, vegetarianism and yoga-drawing
from India's wisdom ways.

-551-478: Lifetime of Confucius, founder of Confucianist faith. His teachings on
social ethics are the basis of Chinese education, ruling-class ideology and religion.

-518: Darius I of Persia (present Iran) invades Indus Valley. This Zoroastrian king
shows tolerance for local religions.

ca -500: Lifetime of Kapila, founder of Sankhya Darshana, one of six classical
systems of Hindu philosophy.

ca -500: Dams to store water are constructed in India.

-500: World population is 100 million. India population is 25 million (15 million of
whom live in the Ganga basin).

ca -500: Over the next 300 years (according to the later dating of Muller) numerous
secondary Hindu scriptures (smriti) are composed: Shrauta Sutras, Grihya Sutras,
Dharma Sutras, Mahabharata, Ramayana and Puranas, etc.

ca -500: Tamil Sangam age (500 bce-500 ce) begins. Sage Agastya writes
Agattiyam, first known Tamil grammar. Tolkappiyar writes Tolkappiyam
Purananuru, also on grammar, stating that he is recording thoughts on poetry,
rhetoric, etc., of earlier grammarians, pointing to high development of Tamil
language prior to his day. He gives rules for absorbing Sanskrit words into Tamil.
Other famous works from the Sangam age are the poetical collections Paripadal,
Pattuppattu, Ettuthokai Purananuru, Akananuru, Aingurunuru, Padinenkilkanakku.
Some refer to worship of Vishnu, Indra, Murugan and Supreme Siva.

ca -486: Ajatashatru (reign -486-458) ascends Magadha throne.

-480: Ajita, a nastika (atheist) who teaches a purely material explanation of life and
that death is final, dies.

-478: Prince Vijaya, exiled by his father, King Sinhabahu, sails from Gujarat with
700 followers. Founds Singhalese kingdom in Sri Lanka. (Mahavamsa chronicle, ca
500.)

-450: Athenian philosopher Socrates flourishes (ca -470-400).

-428-348: Lifetime of Plato, Athenian disciple of Socrates. This great philosopher
founds Athens Academy in -387.

ca -400: Panini composes his Sanskrit grammar, the Ashtadhyayi. (Date accepted
among most Western scholars.)

ca -400: Lifetime of Hippocrates, Greek physician and "father of medicine,"
formulates Hippocratic oath, code of medical ethics still pledged by present-day
Western doctors.

ca -350: Rainfall is measured by Indian scientists.

-326: Alexander the Great of Greece invades, but fails to conquer, Northern India.
His soldiers mutiny. He leaves India the same year. Greeks who remain in India
intermarry with Indians. Interchanges of philosophy influence both civilizations.
Greek sculpture impacts Hindu styles. Bactria kingdoms later enhance Greek
influence.

305: Chandragupta Maurya, founder of first pan-Indian empire (-324-184), defeats
Greek garrisons of Seleucus, founder of Seleucan Empire in Persia and Syria. At its
height under Emperor Ashoka (reign -273-232), the Mauryan Empire includes all
India except the far South.

ca -302: Kautilya (Chanakya), minister to Chandragupta Maurya, writes
Arthashastra, a compendium of laws, administrative procedures and political advice
for running a kingdom.

-302: In Indica, Megasthenes, envoy to King Seleucus, reveals to Europe in colorful
detail the wonders of Mauryan India: an opulent society with abundant agriculture,
engineered irrigation and 7 castes: philosophers, farmers, soldiers, herdsmen,
artisans, magistrates and counselors.

ca -300: Chinese discover cast iron, known in Europe by 1300 ce.

ca -300: Pancharatra Vaishnava sect is prominent. All later Vaishnava sects are
based on the Pancharatra beliefs (formalized by Shandilya around 100 ce).

ca -300: Pandya kingdom (-300-1700 ce) of S. India is founded, constructs
magnificent Minakshi temple at its capital, Madurai. Builds temples of Shrirangam
and Rameshvaram, with its thousand-pillared hall (ca 1600 ce).

-297: Emperor Chandragupta abdicates to become a Jain monk.

-273: Ashoka (-273-232 reign), greatest Mauryan Emperor, grandson of
Chandragupta, is coronated. Repudiating conquest through violence after his brutal
invasion of Kalinga, 260 bce, he converts to Buddhism. Excels at public works and
sends diplomatic peace missions to Persia, Syria, Egypt, North Africa and Crete,
and Buddhist missions to Sri Lanka, China and other Southeast Asian countries.
Under his influence, Buddhism becomes a world power. His work and teachings are
preserved in Rock and Pillar Edicts (e.g., lion capital of the pillar at Sarnath,
present-day India's national emblem).

-251: Emperor Ashoka sends his son Mahendra (-270-204) to spread Buddhism in
Sri Lanka, where he is to this day revered as the national faith's founding
missionary.

ca -250: Lifetime of Maharishi Nandinatha, first known satguru in the Kailasa
Parampara of the Nandinatha Sampradaya. His eight disciples are Sanatkumar,
Shanakar, Sanadanar, Sananthanar, Sivayogamuni, Patanjali, Vyaghrapada and
Tirumular (Sundaranatha).

ca -221: Great Wall of China is built, ultimately 2,600 miles long, the only
man-made object visible from the moon.

ca -200: Lifetime of Rishi Tirumular, shishya of Maharishi Nandinatha and author
of the 3,047-verse Tirumantiram, a summation of Saiva Agamas and Vedas, and
concise articulation of the Nandinatha Sampradaya teachings, founding South
India's monistic Saiva Siddhanta school.

ca -200: Lifetime of Patanjali, shishya of Nandinatha and gurubhai (brother monk)
of Rishi Tirumular. He writes the Yoga Sutras at Chidambaram, in South India.

ca -200: Lifetime of Bhogar Rishi, one of eighteen Tamil siddhas. This mystic
shapes from nine poisons the Palaniswami murti enshrined in present-day Palani
Hills temple in South India. Bhogar is either from China or visits there.

ca -200: Lifetime of Saint Tiruvalluvar, poet-weaver who lived near present-day
Madras, author of Tirukural, "Holy Couplets," the classic Tamil work on ethics and
statecraft (sworn on in today's South Indian law courts).

ca -200: Jaimini writes the Mimamsa Sutras.

ca -150: Ajanta Buddhist Caves are begun near present-day Hyderabad.
Construction of the 29 monasteries and galleries continues until approximately 650
ce. The famous murals are painted between 600 bce and 650 ce.

-145: Chola Empire (-145-1300 ce) of Tamil Nadu is founded, rising from modest
beginnings to a height of government organization and artistic accomplishment,
including the development of enormous irrigation works.

-140: Emperor Wu begins three-year reign of China; worship of the Mother
Goddess, Earth, attains importance.

-130: Reign ends of Menander (Milinda), Indo-Greek king who converts to
Buddhism.

-58: Vikrama Samvat Era Hindu calendar begins.

-50: Kushana Empire begins (-50-220 ce). This Mongolian Buddhist dynasty rules
most of the Indian subcontinent, Afghanistan and parts of Central Asia.

ca -10: Ilangovadikal, son of King Cheralathan of the Tamil Sangam age, writes the
outstanding epic Silappathikaram, classical Tamil treatise on music and dance.

Western Calendar Begins. C.E. - Common Era

-4: Jesus of Nazareth (-4-30 ce), founder of Christianity, is born in Bethlehem
(current Biblical scholarship).

10: World population is 170 million. India population is 35 million: 20.5% of world.

ca 50: South Indians occupy Funan, Indochina. Kaundinya, an Indian brahmin, is
first king. Shaivism is the state religion.

53: Legend records Saint Thomas' death in Madras, one of the twelve Apostles of
Christ and founder of the Church of the Syrian Malabar Christians (Syrian Rite) in
Goa.

ca 60: Buddhism is introduced in China by Emperor Ming Di (reign: 58-76) after he
converts to the faith. Brings two monks from India who erect temple at modern
Honan.

ca 75: A Gujarat prince named Ajishaka invades Java.

78: Shaka Hindu calendar begins.

ca 80: Jains divide, on points of rules for monks, into the Shvetambara,
"white-clad," and the Digambara, "sky-clad."

ca 80-180: Lifetime of Charaka. Court physician of the Kushan king, he formulates
a code of conduct for doctors of ayurveda and writes Charaka Samhita, a manual
of medicine.

ca 100: Lifetime of Shandilya, first systematic promulgator of the ancient
Pancharatra doctrines, whose Bhakti Sutras, devotional aphorisms on Vishnu,
inspire a Vaishnava renaissance. The Samhita of Shandilya and his followers, the
Pancharatra Agama, embody the chief doctrines of present-day Vaishnavas. By the
10th century the popular sect leaves permanent mark on many Hindu schools.

100: Zhang Qian of China establishes trade routes to India and as far west as Rome,
later known as the "Silk Roads."

105: Paper is invented in China.

117: The Roman Empire reaches its greatest extent.

125: Shatakarni (ca 106-130 reign) of Andhra's Satavahana

(-70-225) dynasty destroys Shaka kingdom of Gujarat.

ca 175: Greek astronomer Ptolemy, known as Asura Maya in India, explains solar
astronomy, Surya Siddhanta, to Indian students of the science of the stars.

180: Mexican city of Teotihuacan has 100,000 population and covers 11 square
miles. Grows to 250,000 by 500 ce.

ca 200: Lifetime of Lakulisha, famed guru who leads a reformist movement within
Pashupata Saivism.

ca 200: Hindu kingdoms established in Cambodia and Malaysia.

205-270: Lifetime of Plotinus, Egyptian-born monistic Greek philosopher and
religious genius who transforms a revival of Platonism in the Roman Empire into
what present-day scholars call Neoplatonism, which greatly influences Islamic and
European thought. He teaches ahimsa, vegetarianism, karma, reincarnation and
belief in a Supreme Being, both immanent and transcendent.

ca 250: Pallava dynasty (ca 250-885) is established in Tamil Nadu, responsible for
building Kailasa Kamakshi Temple complex at their capital of Kanchi and the great
7th-century stone monuments at Mahabalipuram.

ca 275: Buddhist monastery Mahavihara is founded in Anuradhapura, capital of Sri
Lanka.

350: Imperial Gupta dynasty (320-540) flourishes. During this "Classical Age"
norms of literature, art, architecture and philosophy are established. This North
Indian empire promotes Vaishnavism and Saivism and, at its height, rules or
receives tribute from nearly all India. Buddhism also thrives under tolerant Gupta
rule.

ca 350: Lifetime of Kalidasa, the great Sanskrit poet and dramatist, author of
Shakuntala and Meghaduta. (The traditional date, offered by Prof. Subash Kak, is
50 bce.)

ca 350: Licchavi dynasty (ca 350-900) establishes Hindu rule in Nepal. Small
kingdom becomes the major intellectual and commercial center between South and
Central Asia.

358: Huns, excellent archers and horsemen possibly of Turkish origin, invade
Europe from the East.

375: Maharaja Chandragupta II Vikramaditya, greatest Hindu monarch, reigns to
413, expanding the prosperous Gupta empire northward beyond the Indus River.

391: Roman Emperor Theodosius destroys Greek Hellenistic temples in favor of
Christianity.

ca 400: Laws of Manu (Manu Dharma Shastras) written. Its 2,685 verses codify
cosmogony, four ashramas, government, domestic affairs, caste and morality
(others date at -600).

ca 400: Polynesians sailing in open outrigger canoes reach as far as Hawaii and
Easter Island.

ca 400: Shaturanga, Indian forerunner of chess, has evolved from Ashtapada, a
board-based race game, into a four-handed war game played with a die. Later, in
deference to the Laws of Manu, which forbid gambling, players discard the die and
create Shatranj, a two-sided strategy game.

ca 400: Vatsyayana writes Kamasutra, famous text on erotics.

419: Moche people of Peru build a Sun temple 150 feet high using 50 million
bricks.

438-45: Council of Ferrara-Florence, Italy, strengthens Roman Catholic stance
against doctrine of reincarnation.

ca 440: Ajanta cave frescoes (long before Islam) depict Buddha as Prince
Siddhartha, wearing "chudidara pyjama" and a prototype of the present-day "Nehru
shirt."

450-535: Life of Bodhidharma of South India, 28th patriarch of India's Dhyana
Buddhist sect, founder of Ch'an Buddhism in China (520), known as Zen in Japan.

ca 450: Hephtalite invasions (ca 450-565) take a great toll in North India. These
"white Huns" (or Hunas) from China are probably not related to Europe's Hun
invaders.

ca 450: As the Gupta Empire declines, Indian sculptural style evolves and continues
until the 16th century. The trend is away from the swelling modeled forms of the
Gupta period toward increasing flatness and linearity.

453: Attila the Hun dies after lifetime of plundering Europe.

499: Aryabhata I (476-ca 550), Indian astronomer and mathematician, using Hindu
(aka Arabic) numerals accurately calculates pi () to 3.1416, and the solar year to
365.3586805 days. A thousand years before Copernicus, Aryabhata propounds a
heliocentric universe with elliptically orbiting planets and a spherical Earth spinning
on its axis, explaining the apparent rotation of the heavens. Writes Aryabhatiya,
history's first exposition on plane and spherical trigonometry, algebra and arithmetic.

ca 500: Mahavamsa, chronicling Sri Lankan history from -500 is written in Pali,
probably by Buddhist monk Mahanama. A sequel, Chulavamsha, continues the
history to 1500.

ca 500: Sectarian folk traditions are revised, elaborated and reduced to writing as
the Puranas, Hinduism's encyclopedic compendium of culture and mythology.

500: World population is 190 million. India population is 50 million: 26.3% of
world.

510: Hephtalite Mihirakula from beyond Oxus River crushes imperial Gupta power.
Soon controls much of N.C. India.

ca 533: Yashovarman of Malva and Ishanavarman of Kanauj defeat and expel the
Hephtalites from North India.

ca 543: Pulakeshin I founds Chalukya Dynasty (ca 543-757; 975-1189) in Gujarat
and later in larger areas of West India.

548: Emperor Kimmei officially recognizes Buddhism in Japan by accepting a gift
image of Buddha from Korea.

553: Council of Constantinople II denies doctrine of soul's existence before
conception, implying reincarnation is incompatible with Christian belief.

565: The Turks and Persians defeat the Hephtalites.

570-632: Lifetime of Mohammed, preacher of the Quraysh Bedoin tribe, founder of
Islam. Begins to preach in Mecca, calling for an end to the "demons and idols" of
Arab religion and conversion to the ways of the one God, Allah.

ca 590-671: Lifetime of Saiva saint Nayanar Tirunavukkarasu, born into a farmer
family at Amur, now in South Arcot, Tamil Nadu. He writes 312 songs, totalling
3,066 Tirumurai verses. Cleaning the grounds of every temple he visits, he
exemplifies truly humble service to Lord Siva. His contemporary, the child-saint
Nayanar Sambandar, addresses him affectionately as Appar, "father."

ca 598-665: Lifetime of Brahmagupta, preeminent Indian astronomer, who writes
on gravity and sets forth the Hindu astronomical system in his Brahma Sphuta
Siddhanta. Two of 25 chapters are on sophisticated mathematics.

ca 600: Religiously tolerant Pallava King Narasinhavarman builds China Pagoda, a
Buddhist temple, at the Nagapatam port for Chinese merchants and visiting monks.

ca 610: Muhammed begins prophecies, flees to Mecca in 622.

ca 600-900: Twelve Vaishnava Alvar saints of Tamil Nadu flourish, writing 4,000
songs and poems (assembled in their cannon Nalayira Divya Prabandham) praising
Narayana, Rama and narrating the love of Krishna and the gopis.

ca 600: Life of Banabhatta, Shakta master of Sanskrit prose, author of
Harshacharita (story of Harsha) and Kadambari.

606: Buddhist Harshavardhana, reigning 606-644, establishes first great kingdom
after the Hephtalite invasions, eventually ruling all India to the Narmada River in the
South.

ca 630: Vagbhata writes Ashtanga Sangraha on ayurveda.

630-34: Chalukya Pulakeshin II becomes Lord of South India by defeating
Harshavardhana, Lord of the North.

630-44: Chinese pilgrim Hiuen-Tsang (Huan Zang) travels in India, recording
voluminous observations. Population of Varanasi is 10,000, mostly Saiva. Nalanda
Buddhist university (his biographer writes) has 10,000 residents, including 1,510
teachers, and thousands of manuscripts.

641-45: Arab Muslims conquer Mesopotamia, Egypt and Persia.

ca 650: Lifetime of Nayanar Saiva saint Tirujnana Sambandar. Born a brahmin in
Tanjavur, he writes 384 songs totalling 4,158 verses that make up the first three
books of Tirumurai. At 16, he disappears into the sanctum of Nallur temple, near
Tiruchi, Tamil Nadu.

ca 650: More than 60 Chinese monks have traveled to India and her colonies. Four
hundred Sanskrit works have been translated into Chinese, 380 survive to the
present day.

686-705: Reign of Pallava King Rajasinha. He inherits the stone-carving legacy of
Emperor Mahendra and his son, Narasinha, who began the extensive sculptural art
in the thriving sea-port of Mahabalipuram.

ca 700: Over the next 100 years the Indonesian island of Bali receives Hinduism
from its neighbor, Java.

712: Muslims conquer Sind region (Pakistan), providing base for pillaging
expeditions that drain North India's wealth.

732: French prevent Muslim conquest of Europe, stopping Arabs at Poitiers,
France, the NW limit of Arab penetration.

739: Chalukya armies beat back Arab Muslim invasions at Navasari in modern
Maharashtra.

ca750-1159: Pala dynasty arises in Bihar and Bengal, last royal patrons of
Buddhism, which they help establish in Tibet.

ca 750: Kailasa temple is carved out of a hill of rock at Ellora.

ca 750: Hindu astronomer and mathematician travels to Baghdad, with
Brahmagupta's Brahma Siddhanta (treatise on astronomy) which he translates into
Arabic, bestowing decimal notation and use of zero on Arab world.

ca 750: Lifetime of Bhavabhuti, Sanskrit dramatist, second only to Kalidasa. Writes
Malati Madhava, a Shakta work.

ca 750: Valmiki writes 29,000-verse Yoga Vasishtha.

ca 750: A necklace timepiece, kadikaram in Tamil, is worn by an Emperor
(according to scholar M. Arunachalam).

788: Adi Shankara (788-820) is born in Malabar, famous monk philosopher of
Smarta tradition who writes mystic poems and scriptural commentaries including
Viveka Chudamani, and regularizes ten monastic orders called Dashanami.
Preaches Mayavada Advaita, emphasizing the world as illusion and God as the sole
Reality.

ca 800: Bhakti revival curtails Buddhism in South India. In the North, Buddha is
revered as Vishnu's 9th incarnation.

ca 800: Life of Nammalvar, greatest of Alvar saints. His poems shape the beliefs of
Southern Vaishnavas to the present day.

ca 800: Lifetime of Vasugupta, modern founder of Kashmir Saivism, a monistic,
meditative school.

ca 800: Lifetime of Auvaiyar, woman saint of Tamil Nadu, great devotee of Lord
Ganesha and author of Auvai Kural. She is associated with the Lambika kundalini
school. (A second date for Auvaiyar of 200 bce is from a story about Auvaiyar and
Saint Tiruvalluvar as siblings. A third Auvaiyar reference is dated at approximately
1000. (Auvaiyar is a Tamil word meaning "old, learned woman;" some believe it
may refer to three different persons.)

ca 800: Lifetime of Karaikkal Ammaiyar, one of the 63 Saiva saints of Tamil Nadu.
Her mystical and yogic hymns, preserved in the Tirumurai, remain popular to the
present day.

ca 825: Nayanar Tamil saint Sundarar is born into a family of Adishaiva temple
priests in Tirunavalur in present-day South Arcot. His 100 songs in praise of Siva
(the only ones surviving of his 38,000 songs) make up Tirumurai book 7. His Tiru
Tondattohai poem, naming the Saiva saints, is the basis for Saint Sekkilar's
Periyapuranam.

ca 800: Lifetime of Andal, woman saint of Tamil Nadu. Writes devotional poetry to
Lord Krishna, disappears at age 16.

ca 825: Vasugupta discovers the rock-carved Siva Sutras.

846: Vijayalaya reestablishes his Chola dynasty, which over the next 100 years
grows and strengthens into one of the greatest South Indian Empires ever known.

ca 850: Shri Vaishnava sect established in Tamil Nadu by Acharya Nathamuni,
forerunner of great theologian Ramanuja.

ca 850: Life of Manikkavasagar, Saiva Samayacharya saint, born in Tiruvadavur,
near Madurai, into a Tamil brahmin family. Writes famed Tiruvasagam, 51 poems
of 656 verses in 3,394 lines, chronicling the soul's evolution to God Siva.
Tirupalli-eluchi and Tiruvembavai are classic examples of his innovative style of
devotional songs.

875: Muslim conquests extend from Spain to Indus Valley.

885: Cholas kill Aparajita, king of the Pallavas, in battle.

ca 900: Lifetime of Matsyendranatha, exponent of the Natha sect emphasizing
kundalini yoga practices.

ca 900: Under the Hindu Malla dynasty (ca 900-1700) of Nepal, legal and social
codes influenced by Hinduism are introduced. Nepal is broken into several
principalities.

ca 900-1001: Lifetime of Sembiyan Ma Devi, queen of Maharaja Gandaraditta
Chola from 950-957 and loyal patron of Saivism, builds ten temples and inspires
and molds her grand-nephew prince, son of Sundara Chola, into the great
temple-builder, Emperor Rajaraja I.

900: Mataramas dynasty in Indonesia reverts to Saivism after a century of
Buddhism, building 150 Saiva temples.

ca 950: Lifetime of Gorakshanatha, Natha yogi who founds the order of Kanphatha
Yogis and Gorakshanatha Saivism, the philosophical school called Siddha
Siddhanta.

ca 950-1015: Lifetime of Kashmir Saiva guru Abhinavagupta.

960: Chola King Vira, after having a vision of Siva Nataraja dancing, commences
enlargement of the Siva temple at Chidambaram, including the construction of the
gold-roofed shrine. The enlargement is completed in 1250 ce.

985: Rajaraja I (reign 985-1014) ascends the South Indian Chola throne and ushers
in a new age of temple architecture exemplified at Tanjavur, Darasuram,
Tirubhuvanam and Chidambaram. Pallava architectural influences (dominant
vimanas, inconspicuous gopuras) fade.

ca 1000: Gorakshanatha writes Siddha Siddhanta Paddhati, "Tracks on the
Doctrines of the Adepts." The nature of God and universe, structure of chakras,
kundalini force and methods for realization are explained in 353 verses.


-------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------



Hindu Timeline Part 3
1000ce to 1500ce

1000: World population is 265 million. India population is 79 million, 29.8% of
world.

ca 1000: A few Hindu communities from Rajasthan, Sindh and other areas, the
ancestors of present-day Romani, or Gypsies, gradually move to Persia and on to
Europe.

ca 1000: Vikings reach North America, landing in Nova Scotia.

ca 1000: Polynesians arrive in New Zealand, last stage in the greatest migration and
navigational feat in history, making them the most widely-spread race on Earth.

1001: Turkish Muslims sweep through the Northwest under Mahmud of Ghazni,
defeating Jayapala of Hindu Shahi Dynasty of S. Afghanisthan and Punjab at
Peshawar. This is the first major Muslim conquest in India.

ca 1010: Tirumurai, Tamil devotional hymns of Saiva saints, is collected as an
anthology by Nambiandar Nambi.

1017: Mahmud of Ghazni sacks Mathura, birthplace of Lord Krishna, and
establishes a mosque on the site during one of his 17 Indian invasions for holy war
and plunder.

1017-1137: Life of Ramanuja of Kanchipuram, Tamil philosopher-saint of Shri
Vaishnava sect that continues bhakti tradition of S. Indian Alvar saints. His strongly
theistic nondual Vishishtadvaita Vedanta philosophy restates Pancharatra tradition.
Foremost opponent of Shankara's system, he dies at age 120 while head of
Shrirangam monastery.

1018-1060: Lifetime of Bhojadeva Paramara, Gujarati king, poet, artist and
monistic Saiva Siddhanta theologian.

1024: Mahmud of Ghazni plunders Somanath Siva temple, destroying the Linga and
killing 50,000 Hindu defenders. He later builds a mosque on the remaining walls.

1025: Chola ruler Maharaja Rajendra I sends victorious naval expeditions to Burma,
Malaysia and Indonesia, initiating decline of Mahayana Buddhist empire of
Shrivijaya.

ca 1040: Chinese invent the compass and moveable type and perfect the use of
gunpowder, first invented and used in India as an explosive mixture of saltpetre,
sulfur and charcoal to power guns, cannons and artillery.

ca 1050: Lifetime of Shrikantha, promulgator of Siva Advaita, a major philosophical
school of Saivism.

ca 1130-1200: Lifetime of Nimbarka, Telegu founder of the Vaishnava Nimandi
sect holding the philosophy of dvaitadvaita, dual-nondualism. He introduces the
worship of Krishna together with consort Radha. (Present-day Nimavats revere
Vishnu Himself, in the form of the Hamsa Avatara, as the originator of their sect.)

ca 1130: Lifetime of Sekkilar, Tamil chief minister under Chola Emperor
Kulottunga II (reign 1133-1150) and author of Periyapuranam, 4,286-verse epic
biography (hagiography) of the 63 Saiva saints and 12th book of Tirumurai.

ca 1150: Life of Basavanna, renaissance guru of the Vira Saiva sect, stressing free
will, equality, service to humanity and worship of the Sivalinga worn around the
neck.

ca 1150: Khmer ruler Suryavarman II completes Angkor Wat temple (in
present-day Cambodia), where his body is later entombed and worshiped as an
embodiment of Vishnu. This largest Hindu temple in Asia is 12 miles in
circumference, with a 200-foot high central tower.

ca 1162: Mahadevi is born, female Saiva ascetic saint of Karnataka, writes 350
majestic and mystical poems.

1175: Toltec Empire of Mexico crumbles.

1185: Mohammed of Ghur conquers Punjab and Lahore.

1191: Eisai founds Rinzai Zen sect in Japan after study in China.

1193: Qutb ud-Din Aybak founds first Muslim Sultanate of Delhi, establishing the
Mamluk Dynasty (1193-1290).

1197: Great Buddhist university of Nalanda is destroyed by Muslim Ikhtiyar ud-din.

1200: All of North India is under Muslim domination.

1200: India population reaches 80 million.

ca 1200: An unknown author writes Yoga Yajnavalkya.

1215: King John is forced to sign the Magna Carta, giving greater rights to citizens
in England.

1227: Mongolian Emperor Genghis Khan, conqueror of a vast area from Beijing,
China, to Iran and north of Tibet, the largest empire the world has yet seen, dies.

1230-60: Surya temple at Konarak, Orissa, India, is constructed.

1238-1317: Lifetime of Ananda Tirtha, Madhva, venerable Vaishnava dualist and
opponent of Shankara's mayavadin advaita philosophy. He composes 37 works and
founds Dvaita Vedanta school, the Brahma Vaishnava Sampradaya and its eight
monasteries, ashtamatha, in Udupi.

ca 1250: Lifetime of Meykandar, Saiva saint who founds the Meykandar school of
pluralistic Saiva Siddhanta, of which his 12-sutra Sivajnanabodham becomes its
core scripture.

1260: Meister Eckhart, the German mystic, is born.

1268-1369: Lifetime of Vedanta Deshikar, gifted Tamil scholar and poet who
founds sect of Vaishnavism called Vadakalai, headquartered at Kanchipuram.

1270-1350: Lifetime of Namadeva, foremost poet saint of Maharashtra's Varkari
("pilgrim") Vaishnava school, disciple of Jnanadeva. He and his family compose a
million verses in praise of Lord Vithoba (Vishnu).

1272: Marco Polo visits India en route to China.

1274: Council of Lyons II declares that souls go immediately to heaven, purgatory
or hell; interpreted by Catholic fathers as condemning the doctrine of reincarnation.

1275-96: Lifetime of Jnanadeva, Natha-trained Vaishnava saint, founder of the
Varkari school, who writes Jnaneshvari, a Marathi verse commentary on Bhagavad
Gita, which becomes Maharashtra's most popular book.

1279: Muktabai is born, Maharashtrian Varkari saint and Natha yogini, writes 100
sacred verses.

1280: Mongol (Yuen) dynasty (1280-1368) begins in China, under which occurs the
last of much translation work into Chinese from Sanskrit.

1296: Ala-ud-din, second king of Khalji dynasty, rules most of India after his
General Kafur conquers the South, extending Muslim dominion to Rameshwaram.

ca 1300: Lifetime of Janabai, Maharashtrian Varkari Vaishnava woman saint who
writes a portion of Namadeva's million verses to Vithoba (Vishnu).

ca 1300: The Ananda Samucchaya is written, 277 stanzas on hatha yoga, with
discussion of the chakras and the nadis.

1300: Muslim conquerors reach Cape Comorin at the southernmost tip of India and
build a mosque there.

1317-72: Life of Lalla of Kashmir. Saiva renunciate, mystic poetess contributes
significantly to the Kashmiri language.

1336: Vijayanagara Empire (1336-1565-1646) of South India is founded. European
visitors are overwhelmed by the wealth and advancement of its 17-square-mile
capital.

1345: Aztecs establish great civilization in Mexico.

1346-90: Life of Krittivasa, translator of Ramayana into Bengali.

1347: Plague called the Black Death spreads rapidly, killing 75 million worldwide
before it recedes in 1351.

ca 1350: Svatmarama writes Hatha Yoga Pradipika.

ca 1350: Lifetime of Appaya Dik****a, South Indian philosoper saint whose writings
reconcile Vaishnavism and Saivism. He advances Siva Advaita and other Saiva
schools and compiles a temple priests' manual still used today.

1398: Tamerlane (Timur) invades India with 90,000 cavalry and sacks Delhi
because its Muslim Sultanate is too tolerant of Hindu idolatry. A Mongolian
follower of Sufism, he is one of the most ruthless of all conquerors.

1399: Hardwar, Ganga pilgrimage town, is sacked by Timur.

ca 1400: Goraksha Upanishad is written.

1414: Hindu prince Parameshvara of Malaysia converts to Islam.

1414-80: Life of Gujarati Vaishnava poet-saint Narasinha Mehta.

1415: Bengali poet-singer Baru Chandidas writes Shrikrishnakirtana, a collection of
exquisite songs praising Krishna.

1429: Joan of Arc, age 17, leads the French to victory over the English.

ca 1433: China cloisters itself from outside world by banning further voyages to the
West. (First bamboo curtain.)

1440-1518: Lifetime of Kabir, Vaishnava reformer with who has both Muslim and
Hindu followers. (His Hindi songs remain immensely popular to the present day.)

ca 1440: Johannes Gutenberg (ca 1400-1468) invents the West's first
moveable-type printing press in Germany.

1450?-1547: Lifetime of Mirabai, Vaishnava Rajput princess saint who, married at
an early age to the Rana of Udaipur, devotes herself to Krishna and later renounces
worldly life to wander India singing to Him beautiful mystic compositions that are
sung to the present day.

1469-1538: Lifetime of Guru Nanak, founder of Sikhism, originally a reformist
Hindu sect stressing devotion, faith in the guru, repetition of God's name and
rejection of renunciation and caste. (Most Sikhs in the present day consider
themselves members of a separate religion.)

1478: Spanish Inquisition begins. Over the next 20 years, Christians burn several
thousand persons at the stake.

1479-1531: Lifetime of Vallabhacharya, a married Telegu brahmin saint who
teaches pushtimarga, "path of love," and a lofty nondual philosophy, Shuddhadvaita
Vedanta, in which souls are eternally one with Brahman. Vallabhacharya's
Vaishnavism worships Krishna in the form of Shri Nathji.

1483-1563: Lifetime of Surdas, sightless Hindi bard of Agra, whose hymns to
Krishna are compiled in the Sursagar.

1486-1543: Life of Chaitanya, Bengali founder of popular Vaishnava sect which
proclaims Krishna Supreme God and emphasizes sankirtan, group chanting and
dancing.

1492: Looking for India, Christopher Columbus lands on San Salvador island in the
Caribbean, thus "discovering" the Americas and proving that the earth is round, not
flat.

1498: Portugal's Vasco da Gama sails around Cape of Good Hope to Calicut,
Kerala, first European to find sea route to India.

ca 1500: Life of Arunagirinathar, Tamil saint, author of Tiruppugal hymns;
emphasizes feeding the hungry during a time of Muslim oppression and disrupted
family life.

ca 1500: Buddhist and Saiva Hindu princes are forced off Java by invading
Muslims. They resettle on neighboring Bali, with their overlapping priesthoods and
vast royal courts: poets, dancers, musicians and artisans. Within 100 years they
construct what many call a fairytale kingdom.


-------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------



Hindu Timeline Part 4
1500ce to 1800ce

1500: World population 425 million; 105 million live in India.

1503-1566: Lifetime of Nostradamus, French physician and astrologer who wrote
Centuries (1555), a book of prophecies.

1509-1529: Reign of Maharaja Krishnadevaraya of the Vijayanagara Empire in
Andhra Pradesh.

1510: Portuguese Catholics conquer Goa to serve as capital of their Asian maritime
empire, beginning conquest and exploitation of India by Europeans.

1517: Luther begins Protestant reformation in Europe.

ca 1520: Poet-saint Purandardas (1480-1564) of the Vijayanagara court
systematizes Karnatak music.

1526: Mughal conqueror Babur (1483-1530) defeats the Sultan of Delhi and
captures the Koh-i-noor diamond. Occupying Delhi, by 1529 he founds the Indian
Mughal Empire (1526-1761), consolidated by his grandson Akbar.

1528: Emperor Babur destroys temple at Lord Rama's birthplace in Ayodhya,
erects Muslim masjid, or monument.

1532-1623: Life of Monk-poet Tulasidasa. Writes Ramacharitamanasa (1574-77),
greatest medieval Hindi literature (based on Ramayana). It advances Rama worship
in the North.

1542: Portuguese Jesuit priest Francis Xavier (1506-1552), most successful
Catholic missionary, lands in Goa. First to train and employ native clergy in
conversion efforts, he brings Christianity to India, Malay Archipelago and Japan.

1544-1603: Life of Dadu, ascetic saint of Gujarat, founder of Dadupantha, which is
guided by his Bani poems in Hindi.

1556: Akbar (1542-1605), grandson of Babur, becomes third Mughal Emperor at
age 13. Disestablishes Islam as state religion and declares himself impartial ruler of
Hindus and Muslims; encourages art, culture, religious tolerance.

1565: Muslim forces defeat and completely destroy the city of Vijayanagara.
Empire's final collapse comes in 1646.

1565: Polish astronomer Copernicus' (1473-1543) Heliocentric system, in which the
Earth orbits the sun, gains popularity in Europe among astronomers and
mathematicians.

1569: Akbar captures fortress of Ranthambor, ending Rajput independence. Soon
controls nearly all of Rajasthan.

ca 1570: Ekanatha (1533-99), Varkari Vaishnava saint and mystic composer, edits
Jnanadeva's Jnaneshvari and translates Bhagavata Purana, advancing Marathi
language.

1588: British ships defeat the Spanish Armada off the coast of Calais, France, to
become rulers of the high seas.

1589: Akbar rules half of India, shows tolerance for all faiths.

1595: Construction is begun on Chidambaram Temple's Hall of a Thousand Pillars
in South India, completed in 1685.

ca 1600: "Persian wheel" to lift water by oxen is adopted, one of few farming
innovations since Indus Valley civilization.

1600: Royal Charter forms the East India Company, setting in motion a process that
ultimately results in the subjugation of India under British rule.

1603-4: Guru Arjun compiles Adi Granth, Sikh scripture.

1605: Akbar the Great dies at age 63. His son Jahangir succeeds him as fourth
Mughal Emperor.

1605: Sikh Golden Temple (Harimandir) at Amritsar, Punjab, is finished,
completely covered with gold leaf.

1608-49: Lifetime of Tukaram, beloved Varkari sant famed for his abhangas,
"unbroken hymns," to Krishna. Considered greatest Marathi spiritual composer.

1608-81: Lifetime of Ramdas, mystic poet, Sivaji's guru, Marathi saint, who gives
Hindus the dhvaja, saffron flag.

1610: Galileo of Italy (1564-1642) perfects the telescope, with which he confirms
the Copernican theory. Condemned a heretic by the Catholic Inquisition for his
discoveries.

1613-14: British East India Company sets up trading post at Surat.

1615-18: Mughals grant Britain right to trade and establish factories in exchange for
English navy's protection of the Mughal Empire, which faces Portuguese sea
power.

1619: Jaffna kingdom is annexed and Sri Lanka's ruling dynasty deposed by
Portuguese Catholics who, between 1505 and 1658, destroy most of the island's
Hindu temples.

1619: First black slaves from Africa are sold in the USA.

1620: European pilgrims land and settle at Plymouth Rock, US.

1627-80: Life of Sivaji, valiant general and tolerant founder of Hindu Maratha
Empire (1674-1818). Emancipates large areas confiscated by Muslims, returning
them to Hindu control. First Indian ruler to build a major naval force.

ca 1628-88: Lifetime of Kumaraguruparar, prolific poet-saint of Tamil Nadu who
founds monastery in Varanasi to propound Saiva Siddhanta philosophy.

1630: Over the next two years, millions starve to death as Shah Jahan (1592-1666),
fifth Mughal Emperor, empties the royal treasury to buy jewels for his "Peacock
Throne."

1647: Shah Jahan completes Taj Mahal in Agra beside Yamuna River. Its
construction has taken 20,000 laborers 15 years, at a total cost equivalence of
US$25 million.

1649: Red Fort is completed in Delhi by Shah Jahan.

ca 1650: Dharmapuram Aadheenam, Saiva monastery, founded near Mayuram,
South India, by Guru Jnanasambandar.

ca 1650: Robert de Nobili (1577-1656), Portuguese Jesuit missionary noted for
fervor and intolerance, arrives in Madurai, declares himself a brahmin, dresses like
a Hindu monk and composes Veda-like scripture extolling Jesus.

ca 1650: Two yoga classics, Siva Samhita and Gheranda Samhita, are written.

1654: A Tamil karttanam is written and sung to celebrate recovery installation of
Tiruchendur's Murugan murti.

1658: Zealous Muslim Aurangzeb (1618-1707) becomes Mughal Emperor. His
discriminatory policies toward Hindus, Marathas and the Deccan kingdoms
contribute to the dissolution of the Mughal Empire by 1750.

1660: Frenchman Francois Bernier reports India's peasantry is living in misery
under Mughal rule.

1664: Great Plague of London kills 70,000, 15% of the population.

1675: Aurangzeb executes Sikh Guru Tegh Bahadur, beginning the Sikh-Muslim
feud that continues to this day.

1679: Aurangzeb levies Jizya tax on non-believers, Hindus.

1688: Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb demolishes all temples in Mathura, said to
number 1,000. (During their reign, Muslim rulers destroy roughly 60,000 Hindu
temples throughout India, constructing mosques on 3,000 sites.)

1700: World population is 610 million. India population is 165 million: 27% of
world.

1705-42: Lifetime of Tayumanavar, Tamil Saiva poet saint and devotional yogic
philosopher of Tiruchirappalli.

1708: Govind Singh, tenth and last Sikh guru, is assassinated.

1708-37: Jai Singh II builds astronomical observatories in Delhi, Jaipur, Ujjain,
Benares and Mathura.

1718-75: Lifetime of Ramprasad, Bengali Shakta poet-saint.

1722: Peter the Great rules in Russia.

ca 1725: Jesuit Father Hanxleden compiles first Sanskrit grammar in a European
language.

ca 1750: Shakta songs of Bengali poets Ramprasad Sen and Kamalakanta
Bhattacharya glorify Her as loving Mother and Daughter and stimulate a rise in
devotional Shaktism.

1751: Robert Clive, age 26, seizes Arcot in modern Tamil Nadu as French and
British fight for control of South India.

1760: Saiva sannyasis fight Vaishnava vairagis in tragic battle at Hardwar Kumbha
Mela; 18,000 monks are killed.

1760: Eliezer (Besht), liberal founder of Hasidic Judaism, dies.

1761: Afghan army of Ahmad Shah Durrani routs Hindu Maratha forces at Panipat,
ending Maratha hegemony in North India. As many as 200,000 Hindus are said to
have died in the strategic eight-hour battle.

1764: British defeat the weak Mughal Emperor to become rulers of Bengal, richest
province of India.

1769: Prithivi Narayan Shah, ruler of Gorkha principality, conquers Nepal Valley;
moves capital to Kathmandu, establishing present-day Hindu nation of Nepal.

ca 1770-1840: Life of Rishi from the Himalayas, guru of Kadaitswami and first
historically known satguru of the Nandinatha Sampradaya's Kailasa Parampara
since Tirumular.

1773: British East India Company obtains monopoly on the production and sale of
opium in Bengal.

ca 1780-1830: Golden era of Karnatik music. Composers include Tyagaraja,
Dik****ar and Shastri.

1781: George Washington defeats British at Yorktown, US.

1781-1830: Lifetime of Sahajanandaswami, Gujarati founder of the Swaminarayan
sect (with 1.5 million followers today).

1784: Judge and linguist Sir William Jones founds Calcutta's Royal Asiatic Society.
First such scholastic institution.

1786: Sir William Jones uses the Rig Veda term Aryan ("noble") to name the parent
language (now termed Indo-European) of Sanskrit, Greek, Latin and Germanic
tongues.

1787-95: British Parliament impeaches Warren Hastings, Governor General of
Bengal (1774-85) for misconduct.

1787: British Committee for the Abolition of the Slave Trade is formed, marking
the beginning of the end of slavery.

1789: French revolution begins with storming of the Bastille.

1792: Britain's Cornwallis defeats Tipu Sahib, Sultan of Mysore and most powerful
ruler in South India, main bulwark of resistance to British expansion in India.

1793: Eli Whitney invents the cotton gin i
Back to Top
Maju View Drop Down
Sultan
Sultan
Avatar

Joined: 14-Jul-2005
Status: Offline
Points: 6571
Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Maju Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 30-Sep-2005 at 23:31
Quote -3102: Kali Era Hindu calendar starts. Kali Yuga begins.


How do you know? I've read that the Kali Yuga lasts much more. Is this oficial? It seems a good date to me, maybe a little tardy. When does it end?

Note: it is a truly massive timeline. I couldn't read but a little bit.

NO GOD, NO MASTER!
Back to Top
Cywr View Drop Down
King
King
Avatar
Retired AE Moderator

Joined: 03-Aug-2004
Status: Offline
Points: 5952
Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Cywr Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 01-Oct-2005 at 01:04
The Dutch took Bali in the 1840s, not 1906.
Arrrgh!!"
Back to Top
Zagros View Drop Down
Emperor
Emperor
Avatar
retired AE Moderator

Joined: 11-Aug-2004
Location: London
Status: Offline
Points: 8795
Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Zagros Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 01-Oct-2005 at 07:41
hindutva zendebad.
Back to Top
Anujkhamar View Drop Down
Samurai
Samurai
Avatar
Retired AE Moderator

Joined: 03-Aug-2004
Status: Offline
Points: 1031
Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Anujkhamar Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 01-Oct-2005 at 09:57
Originally posted by Zagros Zagros wrote:

hindutva zendebad.
Back to Top
Maju View Drop Down
Sultan
Sultan
Avatar

Joined: 14-Jul-2005
Status: Offline
Points: 6571
Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Maju Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 01-Oct-2005 at 14:15
Originally posted by Zagros Zagros wrote:

hindutva zendebad.


In English?

NO GOD, NO MASTER!
Back to Top
Zagros View Drop Down
Emperor
Emperor
Avatar
retired AE Moderator

Joined: 11-Aug-2004
Location: London
Status: Offline
Points: 8795
Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Zagros Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 01-Oct-2005 at 15:09
Longlive Hindutva (Hindu ultra nationalists); I said it ironically because the timeline states that Iran, Afghanistan and Anatolia were "Vedic" which more correctly put should say worshiopped the common Aryan and Indo-European deities. Vedism is Indian in origin and to apply it in the way above would imply that there was some sort of greater hindu nation. a fallacy.
Back to Top
Maju View Drop Down
Sultan
Sultan
Avatar

Joined: 14-Jul-2005
Status: Offline
Points: 6571
Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Maju Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 01-Oct-2005 at 16:19
Originally posted by Zagros Zagros wrote:

Longlive Hindutva (Hindu ultra nationalists); I said it ironically because the timeline states that Iran, Afghanistan and Anatolia were "Vedic" which more correctly put should say worshiopped the common Aryan and Indo-European deities. Vedism is Indian in origin and to apply it in the way above would imply that there was some sort of greater hindu nation. a fallacy.


Ok. I've read some of that stuff here and there. Mostly the people posting it seem a little confused about what they are talking, they are too focused on Indian data and the Vedas. En fin...

NO GOD, NO MASTER!
Back to Top
Magavan spirit View Drop Down
Immortal Guard
Immortal Guard


Joined: 30-Sep-2005
Location: Iran
Status: Offline
Points: 0
Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Magavan spirit Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 01-Oct-2005 at 19:56
Edited just in case

Edited by Jalisco Lancer
Back to Top
Decebal View Drop Down
Arch Duke
Arch Duke
Avatar
Digital Prometheus

Joined: 20-May-2005
Location: Canada
Status: Offline
Points: 1793
Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Decebal Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 03-Oct-2005 at 16:58

This timeline seems quite nationalistic and some of the claims seem exaggerated or simply inaccurate. It makes it seem like many civilizations which developed independetly from India owe much of their culture to Indians. Like the Chinese adopting an Indian zodiac in 850BC? I didn't think that there was enough contact for that to occur back then.  

I'd also like to point out that some of the events occuring outside of India on the timeline are not accurate. The ones that I've noticed:

1. Vikings landed in Newfoundland and not Nova Scotia

2. Moses lead 600,000 Jews out of Egypt in 1250BC? That figure seems highly inflated, and the date at which the Hebrew Exodus took place hasn't been fixed yet.

3. Supposedly around 1600, the "Persian wheel" to lift water by oxen is adopted, one of few farming innovations since Indus Valley civilization. This claim makes it seem like the Indus valley civilization developed most farming techniques. Howvere, it completely ignores 4000 years of developments, for example metal plowheads  unknown to the Indus Valley.

I'm sure other people can find more inaccuracies in this list. It is interesting though.

What is history but a fable agreed upon?
Napoleon Bonaparte

Even if you are a minority of one, the truth is the truth.- Mohandas Gandhi

Back to Top
Darkness1089 View Drop Down
Immortal Guard
Immortal Guard
Avatar

Joined: 14-Aug-2005
Location: United States
Status: Offline
Points: 28
Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Darkness1089 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 08-Oct-2005 at 16:28
About the Kali Era, its a calculation from the Vedic Calendar to the Georgian Calendar. 3102 BCE is the epoch of our calendar, so the year according to the Hindu calendar right now is 5107. I think the Kali era lasts 400,000 years and after it the universe is destroyed and recreated. 
Back to Top
Itihaas View Drop Down
Immortal Guard
Immortal Guard
Avatar

Joined: 27-Jul-2005
Location: India
Status: Offline
Points: 0
Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Itihaas Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 24-Oct-2005 at 00:29
Originally posted by Decebal Decebal wrote:

This timeline seems quite nationalistic and some of the claims seem exaggerated or simply inaccurate. It makes it seem like many civilizations which developed independetly from India owe much of their culture to Indians. Like the Chinese adopting an Indian zodiac in 850BC? I didn't think that there was enough contact for that to occur back then.  

I'd also like to point out that some of the events occuring outside of India on the timeline are not accurate. The ones that I've noticed:

1. Vikings landed in Newfoundland and not Nova Scotia

2. Moses lead 600,000 Jews out of Egypt in 1250BC? That figure seems highly inflated, and the date at which the Hebrew Exodus took place hasn't been fixed yet.

3. Supposedly around 1600, the "Persian wheel" to lift water by oxen is adopted, one of few farming innovations since Indus Valley civilization. This claim makes it seem like the Indus valley civilization developed most farming techniques. Howvere, it completely ignores 4000 years of developments, for example metal plowheads  unknown to the Indus Valley.

I'm sure other people can find more inaccuracies in this list. It is interesting though.

 

The Indians and Chinese have had decent communication for quite a while. China is mentioned evern in the Mahabharata. They are described asbeing the land in the east. The Mahabharata calls it Jinnistan or something like that.

Quote hindutva zendebad.  

 

Yeah go Hindutva!!!

 



Edited by Itihaas
Back to Top
Rakhsh View Drop Down
Suspended
Suspended
Avatar

Joined: 23-Oct-2005
Status: Offline
Points: 331
Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Rakhsh Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 24-Oct-2005 at 15:59

Unfortunately you left no references, how do we validate such claims?

Also inaccurancy to date lines, and domestication, this occured in Near east/mesopotamia and occured over several centuries and a few thousand years. The Anatolia bit was not very accurate, as any archaeologists will tell you, no cities/towns of early civilisations in the near east had city plannings as the Harappan culture did, they grew over time from close family units, into a socialy stratified society.....

Please can you give references to these claims, thank you

Never under estimate the predictablity of stupidity! - Bullet Tooth Tony
Back to Top
Rakhsh View Drop Down
Suspended
Suspended
Avatar

Joined: 23-Oct-2005
Status: Offline
Points: 331
Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Rakhsh Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 24-Oct-2005 at 16:02
The exact time fire is controlled is not know, but it is earlier then what is given, homo-sapiens are now dated at 195,000 BP (before present) pushed back a further 35,000 years due to findings in north africa, I will get you the article on that if you wish.....
Never under estimate the predictablity of stupidity! - Bullet Tooth Tony
Back to Top
K. V. Ramakrishna Rao View Drop Down
Immortal Guard
Immortal Guard
Avatar

Joined: 06-Apr-2006
Location: India
Status: Offline
Points: 287
Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote K. V. Ramakrishna Rao Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 01-Jun-2006 at 02:37
1. The Darkness 1089 should give the basis of arriving at dates.
 
2. For the date of Mahabharat war and connected details see -
 
 
 
 


Edited by K. V. Ramakrishna Rao - 01-Jun-2006 at 02:41
History is not what was written or is written, but it is actually what had happened in the past.
Back to Top
romani View Drop Down
Immortal Guard
Immortal Guard


Joined: 27-Jun-2006
Location: Romania
Status: Offline
Points: 0
Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote romani Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 27-Jun-2006 at 09:55
sorry do disapoint you rao but read this
ou say that indians are the most advance society ,the mother of all civilisations?
 thats quite wrong .
 the truth is diferent .the balkanic peninsula in europe was far more advance then india .in 4000 bc exist towns whit 20000 people ,while in india was none;the first writing in the world 2000 years older then sumerian one
 they made in 2bc the most pure iron in the world 99,97 much pure then ur iron delhi pillarfrom 4AD,and having 3 layers of protections not one like delhi pillar
 -iron oxide
-magnetite
- aluminosilicates
 plus you this that yoga superstiton was born in india ;in romania was descovered statues in yoga positions much older then any indian conunter part
Back to Top
SpartaN117 View Drop Down
Samurai
Samurai
Avatar

Joined: 10-Dec-2006
Status: Offline
Points: 120
Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote SpartaN117 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 04-May-2007 at 12:26
Sorry to disappoint you.

But Indus Valley and Mehragh culture were not Hindu. They arent even in India, they are both in Pakistan.


PakHub.Info
Reclaiming Pakistans Identity
Join Us
Back to Top
kshtriya-Mer View Drop Down
Immortal Guard
Immortal Guard


Joined: 17-Apr-2007
Location: United Kingdom
Status: Offline
Points: 52
Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote kshtriya-Mer Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 04-May-2007 at 16:58
Originally posted by romani romani wrote:

sorry do disapoint you rao but read this
ou say that indians are the most advance society ,the mother of all civilisations?
 thats quite wrong .
 the truth is diferent .the balkanic peninsula in europe was far more advance then india .in 4000 bc exist towns whit 20000 people ,while in india was none;the first writing in the world 2000 years older then sumerian one
 they made in 2bc the most pure iron in the world 99,97 much pure then ur iron delhi pillarfrom 4AD,and having 3 layers of protections not one like delhi pillar
 -iron oxide
-magnetite
- aluminosilicates
 plus you this that yoga superstiton was born in india ;in romania was descovered statues in yoga positions much older then any indian conunter part
 

Sorry to disappoint u romani

 

The Indus vally culture was around when the Europeans were living in caves, and throwing stones at each other ;)

Back to Top
kshtriya-Mer View Drop Down
Immortal Guard
Immortal Guard


Joined: 17-Apr-2007
Location: United Kingdom
Status: Offline
Points: 52
Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote kshtriya-Mer Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 04-May-2007 at 17:08
Originally posted by SpartaN117 SpartaN117 wrote:

Sorry to disappoint you.

But Indus Valley and Mehragh culture were not Hindu. They arent even in India, they are both in Pakistan.

 

Sorry to disappoint you Spartan. But Pakistan has only been around for the last 50 years. And what is Hinduism itís a mixture of ideas and philosophies which a few books that are central to the religion. The Indus vally people were Hindu they did after all practise Shivism  

 

 

Back to Top
Paul View Drop Down
Editorial Staff
Editorial Staff
Avatar
AE Immoderator

Joined: 21-Aug-2004
Location: Hyperborea
Status: Offline
Points: 966
Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Paul Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 04-May-2007 at 18:04
Originally posted by Decebal Decebal wrote:

2. Moses lead 600,000 Jews out of Egypt in 1250BC? That figure seems highly inflated, and the date at which the Hebrew Exodus took place hasn't been fixed yet.

 
I believe the correct figure is supposed to be 2 million.
Light blue touch paper and stand well back

http://www.maquahuitl.co.uk

http://www.toltecitztli.co.uk
Back to Top
 Post Reply Post Reply Page  12>
  Share Topic   

Forum Jump Forum Permissions View Drop Down

Forum Software by Web Wiz Forums® version 11.10
Copyright ©2001-2017 Web Wiz Ltd.

This page was generated in 0.063 seconds.